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Fuvénal, élevé dans les cris de l'école, poussa jusqu'à l'excès sa mordante hyperbole. ses ouvrages, tout pleins d'affreuses vérités, étincellent pourtant de sublimes beautés : soit que sur un écrit arrivé de Caprée il brise de Séjan la statue adorée ; soit qu'il fasse au conseil courir les sénateurs, d'un tyran soupçonneux pâles adulateurs; ou que, poussant à bout la luxure latine, aux portefaix de Rome il vende Messaline. ses écrits pleins de feu partout brillent aux yeux.

BOILEAU l'art poëtique II 155—165.



This satire, as several others (VI 21. 'VIII I. XI 5. XIII 5. 33. XIV 1. XV I) is in the form of an epistle. In it, as in XI, we see luv. at home. His love of nature and of simplicity appears in 1-14, 83-92, as in III 18—20, 226—231. iX 60—1. XIV 166 -171 cet. Haenicke (Kritische Untersuchung über die Echtheit der 12. Satire von Juvenal. Putbus 1877 4to. Progr. no. 104) conjectures that the passage 24—82 is a parody, introduced by the warning POETICA SURGIT TEMPESTAS, of the extravagant descriptions of storms in which contemporary poetasters piled horror on horror. Certainly the inventory of Catullus' wares 37–47 is as exaggerated as anything in Lucan; yet Iuv. everywhere betrays a want of proportion and sacrifices the whole to the parts : individual excellences must atone for the failure of the general effect.

To-day, Corvinus, I keep holy to the gods, who have delivered Catullus; nor, were my means equal to my affection, would I withhold the costliest offerings (1–16). For, after encountering all the perils of a storm, and cheerfully sacrificing his treasures to lighten the ship, he has reached in safety our new harbour (17—92). Wonder not then at my rejoicing, nor question its sincerity: he, for whom I raise so many altars, is no orbus, that a fortune-hunter should pay him court: even those who would offer their own children on the altar to propitiate the childless rich, would think any the smallest attention thrown away upon the father of three sons (93—130). With ICatull. 9. Hor. c. 1 36. 117. III 14. Stat. s. II 7. Mart. x 87; with 93—130 Hor. s. II 5. Luc. dial. mort. 5—9. Obbar on Hor. ep. I 1 78.

1—16 To-day, Corvinus, is sweeter to me than a birthday. To-day I perform the promised vow to the three gods of the Capitol, snow-white lambs to Iuno and Minerva, to Iuppiter a calf just weaned ; if my fortune were as my love, a fat bull from the Clitumnus should prove my gratitude for my friend's deliverance.

1 NATALI XI 84 n. Hor. C. IV II 17 18 iure sollemnis mihi sanctiorque | paene natali proprio.

I-92 cf.

2 PROMISSA 115. XIII 233.

CESPES 85. Ov. tr. v 5 9 araque gramineo viridis de caespite fiat.

3 NIVEAM Aen. IV 61 (cited 8 n.). White victims were offered to the gods of heaven. Liv. XXVII 37 B.C. 207 the temple of Iuno Regina on the Aventine was struck by lightning; boves feminae albae duae porta Carmentali in urbem ductae.

REGINAE a title under which Iuno was worshipt among the Etruscans at Ardea, Lanuvium, Pisaurum etc. At Rome the Capitoline Iuno is generally called Regina in inscriptions and documents. Temples were built in honour of Iuno Regina by Camillus.on the Aventine and by M. Aemilius Lepidus B.C. 179 (Liv. V 22 88 4. 7. 23 $ 7. XXXIX 2 $ 11). Ov. f. vi 37 cur igitur regina vocor?

DUCIMUS II2. x 65.

4 GORGONE abl. instr. As Pallas bore the Gorgon's head on her shield, Gorgo is used for the shield. Aen. II 616 of Pallas limbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva [“ . effulgent with the border and terrible with the Gorgon': i.e. wearing the aegis, with its golden fringes and border, and the Γοργεί η κεφαλή δεινοίο πελώpov in the centre". H. A. J. M.]. Prop. V=IV 9 58 fortia dum posita Gorgone membra lavat. Ov. m. V 230 of Perseus in partem Phorcynida transtulit illam. cf. sat. vii 130 rhinocerote.

5 Serv. Aen. II 134. Iuv. acknowledged the claims of his religion III 320 n.

6 TARPEIO VI 47 48. to Iuppiter, Iuno and Minerva belonged separate cellae in the Capitoline temple (Liv. VI 29 $ 9. Burn Rome and Campagna 189 190): hence they are frequently invoked together. Liv. III 17 § 3 Iuppiter optimus maximus Iunoque regina et Minerva aliique di deaeque obsidentur.

FRONTEMQUE CORUSCAT Heins. and Burman on Ov. m. IV 493 cite exx. of corusco mucronem, hastam, telum, ferrum.

7 VITULUS Hor. c. I 36 2.
TEMPLIS MATURUS VIII 169 maturus bello.

8 MERO Aen. IV 59-61 Iunoni...ipsa tenens dextra pateram pulcherrima Dido | candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit.

UBERA MATRIS Hor. C. IV 2 54–56 me tener solvet vitulus, relicta | matre qui largis iuvenescit herbis , in mea vota.

9 veXAT NASCENTI ROBORA CORNU Verg. g. III 232 233 irasci in cornua discit | arboris obnixus trunco.

10 Hor. c. II 17"30–32. III 23 9-20.

ADFECTIBUS a silver age use Plin. ep. II I § 8 of Verginius Rufus ille mihi tutor relictus adfectum parentis exhibuit. 19 § 1 nec tantum amitae ei adfectum verum etiam patris


repraesentes. VIII 11 $ ; adfectum tuym erga fratris filiam... etiam materna indulgentia molliorem.

11 HISPULLA V1 74. cf. II 59 Hispo. so Caro Catullús, Maro Marullus, homo homullus.

13 CLITUMNI the Clitumnus (Clitunno) falls near Mevania in Umbria (Bevagna) into the Tinia (Timia), a tributary of the Tiber Verg. g. II 146—8 Servius hinc albi, Clitumne,' greges et maxima taurus | victima saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro | Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos. Childe Harold iy 66-68.


SANGUIS the blood and neck would go to the altar, i.e. the ox chosen for his fulness of blood (cf. Verg. g. III 492) and thick neck. Cf. infra 112 ebur. XIV 10 gula. X 238 239 halitus oris, l quod steterat multis in carcere fornicis annis.

14 A GRANDI FERIENDA MINISTRO gerundives (in Gr. perf. pass.) usually take dat. of agent; they take abl. with ab (ÚTÒ with gen.) however sometimes for perspicuity Cic. leg. agr. 2 § 95 venerandos a nobis. p. Caecina § 33 Jordan. Roby II pref. lxxv.


FERIENDA the technical term. Ov. f. IV 415 apta iugo cervix non est ferienda securi.

MINISTRO popa Suet. Cal. 32 admota altaribus victima succinctus poparum habitu elato alte malleo cultrarium mactavit.

16 Amici Catullus 29. 93.

17—61 Catullus has escaped not only the risks of the waves but thunderbolts; darkness overcast the heaven with one cloud and a sudden flash caught the yard-arms; every man thought himself struck, and stunned with the shock counted blazing shroud's worse than any shipwreck. No terror by which poets add awe to a storm was wanting there. Hear another form of danger, and pity once more; though it is true what remains, if terrible, is but part and parcel of the same mischance, known to many, to which numerous temples by their votive tablets bear witness. Who knows not that painters look to Isis for their bread ? The hold now half filled, as the billows rocked the ship, and the hoary master's skill found no help for the tottering tree, he compounded with the wind by lightening the vessel ; as the beaver ransoms his life by biting off the drug for which he is hunted. Over with all that's mine' cried Catullus, readily offering purple robes fit for sops like Maecenas, Spanish woollens of native dye, chargers engraved by Parthenius, a bowl that holds a draught for Pholus or for Fuscus' wife, baskets, a thousand plates, embossed goblets in which Philip of Macedon had caroused. Who else the wide world over would, to save lise,

Tac. II 23.

cast away his all? Most of the cargo is thrown out without relief ; as a last resort the master fells the mast to ease the vessel by crippling her to a hulk. Go now, commit your life to the winds, trust a drest plank, and live four, or at most seven, fingers' breadth from death : and with bread-sack and wineflagons, be sure to pack up axes against storms.

17—19 ANTEMNAS dig. XIV 2 6 navis adversa tempestate depressa ictu fulminis deustis armamentis et arbore [luv. 32] et antemna.

23 TALIA TAM inverted comparison as in Thuc. IV 64 § 1. VI 78 $ 3.

SI QUANDO [' all things are such and as bad in a poet's storm (but nowhere else out of poetry).' H. A. J. M.].

23 24 POETICA TEMPESTAS Lucian quom. hist. conscr. 45 ποιητικού τινος ανέμου επουριάσοντος τα ακάτια. Ηom. Οd. V IX XII. Aen. I. Ov. m. XI 478—565. tr. 1 2. Luc. V. Stat. Th. v. VF1. I.

24-29 K. F. Hermann and Lupus (24) cite exx. of like verbosity in detail, which injures the general effect e.g. I 40–44. 137 138. II 102–9. 143–8. III 12—20. 172-9. IV 4856. 95—103. V 19-23. VII 189—202. VIII 54 55. 100—124. IX 79 80. X 95–98. XII 48 49. 57–61. 76—79. 106-110. XIII 2—4. 42–-52. 130—4.. 187–192. 199—208. XV 110-2.

25 Poeta, tanquam nimis graviter miserere iterum dixerit, haec, quae additurus est, de bonorum iactura, dira illa quidem ait esse, sed tamen partem et quasi appendicem eiusdem sortis, naufragii et periculi maritimi, multis notam. MADVIG.


Hor. c. 1 5 13-16 me tabula sacer | votiva paries indicat uvida | suspendisse potenti | vestimenta maris deo. id. s. II. ? 33 34 votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella | vita senis. Cic. n. d. I § 89 Diagoras the atheist, when asked tu qui deos putas humana neglegere, nonne animadvertis ex tot tabulis pictis, quam multi votis vim tempesta tis effugerint in portumque salvi pervene. rint? replied illi enim nusquam picti sunt, qui naufragia fecerunt in marique perierunt.

28 PICTORES Sen. contr. 34 $ I nemo ut naufragium pingeret, mersit hominem.

ISIDE (with the form cf. vi 270 and xv 163 tigride). VI 489. 526-534. IX 22. XIII 93. When Tibullus went on a voyage Delia made a vow to Isis 1 3 23. 27 28 Broukh. quid tua nunc Isis mihi, Delia ?... | nunc, dea, nunc succurre mihi : nam posse mederi | picta docet templis multa tabella tuis. See in. scriptions to Isis (sometimes salutaris) ex voto Orelli 1871 seq. 2494

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