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might attain Nestor's years. Stat. s. I 3 110 finem Neštoreae precor egrediare senectae.

129 QUANTUM RAPUIT NERO VIII 100—123 n. On Nero's wholesale robberies in Greece and elsewhere cf. Tac. XV 45 interea conferendis pecuniis pervastata Italia, provinciae eversae sociique populi et quae civitatum liberae vocantur. inque eam praedam etiam di cessere, spoliatis in urbe templis egestoque auro, quod triumphis, quod votis omnis populi Romani aetas prospere aut in metu sacraverat. enim vero per Asiam atque Achaiam non dona tantum sed simulacra numinum abripiebantur, missis in eas provincias Acrato ac Secundo Carrinate. Plin. XXXIV § 84 works of art restored by Vesp. to the temple of Pax (Nero had collected them for his golden house). DChrys. or. 31 1 644 R. to the Rhodians the Romans who often plundered temples and palaces, have never stirred any of yours; Nero himself, who did not spare even the statues of Olympia and Delphi, and removed most of those of the Athenian acropolis and many from Pergamum, left yours alone undisturbed.'

129 130 MONTIBUS AURUM EXAEQUET Ter. Ph. 68 modo non montes auri pollicens. Pers. III 65 Jahn et quid opus Cratero magnos promittere montes?

130 Ov. Ibis 117-122 e.g. sisque miser semper, nec sis miserabilis ulli. Hor. s. 1 1 80–91. e.g. 86 87 miraris, cum tu argento post omnia ponas, , si nemo praestet, quem non merearis, amorem?

NEC NEC=neu 93. III 302. VI 450. VIII 188. IX 99. XI 186. XIV 201.

neu only once XIV 203 (Lupus). QUEMQUAM ULLO VIII 177 178 lectus | non alius cuiquam nec mensa remotior ulli.

XVI 9.

XIII

A 'CONSOLATIO' (tapauvontikós cf. Sen. cons. ad Polyb. ad Helv. ad Marc. Plut. cons. ad Apollon. ad uxor.) addressed to Calvinus, who had been cheated of ten sestertia.

Guilt meets its due punishment, if not from corrupt judges, yet from the conscience of the sinner and the reprobation of honest men (1-6). But there are other considerations, Calvinus, which should mollify your wrath. True, the friend whom you trusted has defrauded you; but your fortune can well support so trifling a loss. Look about you, and see how rife such crimes are. In the golden days of Saturn's rule falsehood was unknown, but now it is honesty that is the prodigy (7—85). Never was perjury so universal : for, while many believe in no God, others hope for a long reprieve, not a final pardon (86—119). To raise an outcry then, as though your case were hard and strange, is as unreasonable as to wonder at blue eyes in a German, the goître among the Alps, dwarfs in the land of pygmies (120—173). Are you then to look for no redress? Philosophy will teach you that none but little minds delight in revenge: but, in any case, you may be well content to leave the delinquent to his own remorse and to that law by which crime breeds crime. If such be your desire, you may yet see him condemned to exile or to death (174—249).

cf. Quintil, decl. 314.

This satire was written in the year 127 A.D. 17 n. Its lofty Stoicism has made it a favorite with moralists; many of the lines are as vigorous as any in Iuv., but the effect is marred by verbosity. The aged poet forgets the caution : manum de tabula. Recitations had spoilt taste; the sense of proportion was lost; the whole was sacrificed to the parts. It is true, not only of Seneca, but of all silver age writers, that they look best in quotations. The epigrams of Martial are the most perfect works of silver age art, because in them point is in place, and there is no "temptation to digress. 39-52, 64–70, 78–85, extracts from a common-place book on mythology and portents, remind one of Lucan's misplaced encyclopaedic learning.

1–22 Sin stands condemned by the sinner : he may bribe

the praetor's court, but he cannot silence the judge within. What says the world, Calvinus, to this breach of trust? Your estate can bear it; it will not sink you; 'tis a hackneyed, every day mishap, a stale trick of chance.' Play the man then, and stifle your sobs. Scorn to wince at a trifling wound. What, born under Fonteius, with sixty years behind your back, and yet startled and fuming at perjury and fraud ? 'Wisdom, by her heavenly maxims, enables men to master fortune. Even experience, that mistress of fools, might have enured your shoulders to the yoke.

1 EXEMPLO MALO Petr. 104 illi qui sunt, qui nocte ad lunam radebantur pessimo medius fidius exemplo.

2 DISPLICET AUCTORI 192 n. IV 8. Sen. ep. 42 § 2 nec ulla maior poena nequitiae est, quam quod sibi ac suis displicet.

ULTIO Aus. VII sap. sent. "Thales' turpe quid ausurus te sine teste time.

2 3 SE IUDICE NEMO NOCENS ABSOLVITUR Ov. amor. II I2 13 me duce ad hunc voti finem, me milite veni. Quintil. VIII 2 § 2 ille, qui in actione hibericas herbas,' se solo nequiquam intellegente, dicebat. Aus. id. 2 14 ipse mihi numquam iudice me placui. se iudice='at the bar of his own conscience,' and the abl. is necessary. 3 IV 8. ,.192—239, Publil

. Syr. 259 Sp illo nocens se damnat quo peccat die. Sen. de ira III 26 § 2 'quid ergo' inquis impune illi erit?' puta te velle, tamen non erit. maxima est enim factae iniuriae poena fecisse, nec quisquam gravius adficitur quam qui ad supplicium paenitentiae traditur.

4 FALLACI PRAETORIS VICERIT URNA Cic. fin. II § 54 of L. Tubulus: qui, cum praetor quaestionem inter sicarios exercuisset, ita aperte cepit pecunias ob rem iudicandam. The iudices in criminal causes were generally appointed by sortitio : that is, the president of the quaestio drew out of an urn containing the names of all his iudices (selecti) the number necessary for the trial: the parties were allowed to challenge a certain proportion, in whose place other names were drawn (subsortitio). In this ballot the praetor had opportunities for foul play. The praetor's urna here may be that used for this purpose or rather that in which the tablets A (absolvo), C (condemno), or N L (non liquet) were thrown. If the first, the praetor has packed the jury. cf. Aen. VI 431–3 (where Servius quotes Iuv.) nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine iudice sedes: 1 quaesitor Minos urnam movet, ille silentum conciliumque vocat vitasque et crimina discit. If the latter, he has in the course of the proceedings won their votes. cf. Cic. Att. I 16.

7 TENUIS III 163 n. Cic. inv. I § 35 pecuniosus an tenuis.

8 MERGAT X 57 n.

NEC RARA VIDEMUS 16. 126–173. Hamlet i 2 72-106 'thou know'st 'tis common.'

9 COGNITUS XII 26.
10 71 seq.

MEDIO i.e. drawn at random. Plin. ep. IX 13 § 13 omnes Certum nondum a me nominatum ut nominatum | defendunt cri. menque quasi in medio relictum defensione suscipiunt.

11 PONAMUS XI 191 192.
13 QUAMVIS however light.

MINIMAM EXIGUAMQUE MALORUM PARTICULAM 189 190. Cic. fin. v § 78 ea nos mala dicimus, sed exigua et paene minima.

14 SPUMANTIBUS Sen. Oed. 362 Peiper felle nigro tabidum spumat iecur.

15 SACRUM 72 sacrilega.

16 DEPOSITUM 60. cf. 71 seq. Hor. s. I 3 94 95 quid faciam, si [amicus) furtum fecerit aut si s prodiderit commissa? The Christians in Bithynia, a few years before the date of this satire (Plin. ep. X 96=97 $ 7) took a mutual oath ne furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent, ne fidem fallerent, ne deposi. tum appellati abnegarent.

STUPET HAEC IV 119 n. Plin. pan. 31 fin. stupebant agricolae plena horrea, quae non ipsi refersissent.

17 FONTEIO CONSULE NATUS 28 n. 157 n. Borghesi (oeuvres V 74–76) understands the Fonteius Capito of A. D. 67, who is named before his colleague Iunius Rufus. This is the legatus of lower Germany, who was put to death B.C. 68 with the connivance of Galba (Tac. h. 17. 37. 52. 58. III 62. IV 13). Thus the date of this satire, like that of the 15th (XV 27 n.) is 127 A.D. and Calvinus (not, as Friedländer infers, Iuv.) was born A. D. 67.

18—25 126—173. XV 106—9.

18 IN MELIUS Plin. ep. IV 28 S 3 longe difficillima est imitationis imitatio.

a qua rogo ut artificem...ne in melius quidem sinas aberrare. Tac. IV 20 in melius flexit.

PROFICIT USUS ['experience helps on 'to something better.' H. A. J. M.]

19 ('MAGNA QUIDEM (sunt) praecepta agrees more closely with vita didicere magistra of 22 than magna (est) sapientia.' H. A. J. M.]

SACRIS Sen. ep. 14 § 11 numquam in tantum convalescet nequitia, numquam sic contra virtutes coniurabitur, ut non philosophiae nomen venerabile et sacrum maneat.

20 VICTRIX FORTUNAE SAPIENTIA X 52. 363-6 n. Sen. ep: 71 $ 30 sapiens quidem vincit virtute fortunam.

23 seq.

22 IACTARE IUGUM to fret under )( VI 207 208 of the patient husband summitte caput cervice parata | ferre iugum.

VITA MAGISTRA in the school of life [' with reference to the special use of magister as a trainer.' J. C.] cf. experientia stultorum magistra. Cic. Tusc. v § 5 of philosophy magistra morum et disciplinae.

23—37 No day too sacred to discover thieves, treachery, embezzlement, gain gotten by the dagger or the bowl. Good men are scarce, scarce as gates of Thebes or mouths of Nile. 'Tis Rome's ninth century, sunk below the iron age; Nature's self, baffled, has no metal to express the baseness of the times. We cry to men and gods for mercy, with a din deafening as the applause sold to Faesidius for a dole. Dotard, know you not the charms of a neighbour's gold ? know you not, how the world flouts your innocence, who bid any man eschew perjury, for fear of some avenger watching in temples and blood-stained altars?

I II2 seq. QUAE TAM FESTA DIES, UT CESSET PRODERE FUREM Suet. Tib. 61 nullus a poena hominum cessavit dies; ne religiosus quidem ac sacer.

24 25 OMNI EX CRIMINE LUCRUM QUAESITUM Nägelsbach $ 30 2 (Weidner).

25 PYXIDE I 70 n. 158 n. II 41 pyxide medicine-box. VIII 17 n. Cic. p. Cael. 65 veneni pyxidem. Sen. ben. V 13 $ 3 quaedam, etiamsi vera non sunt, propter similitudinem eodem vocabulo comprensa sunt. sic pyxidem (properly of box] et argenteam et auream dicimus. id. ap. Lact. III 15 $13 of some philosophers, who need to apply their own rebukes of vice to themselves quos non aliter intueri decet quam medicos, quorum tituli remedia habent, pyxides venena.

26 rhythm as 35. 225.

RARI BONI Porphyr. vit. Pythag. 42 maxim of Pythagoras, • avoid the beaten path,' Tàs lewpopovs un Badigel (Matt. 7 13 14 the broad way). Bias in DL. I § 87 Menage pineîv ús uiondova tas tous y à pari elotovs Elval kakoús. DL. VI SS 27. 32.40 41 Menage the lantern of Diogenes, and his frequent complaints that he could not find 'men. Sen. vit. beat. 2 § 1 argumen. tum pessimi turba est. id. ben. I 10 § 3 idem semper de nobis pronuntiare debebimus, malos esse nos, malos fuisse, invitus adiciam et futuros esse. id. ep. 42 § 1 the vir bonus is a phoenix, born once in 500 years. Aus. id. 16 i 2 vir bonus ac sapiens, qualem vix repperit unum | milibus e multis hominum consultus Apollo.

27 THEBARUM PORTAE Thebes in Boeotia, called entários by Hom. II. IV 406. Od. XI 263. The seven heroes each assailed

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