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THE THIRD OLYMPIC ODE.
The Muse-imparted tribute claim,
Due, Theron, to thy glorious name; This ode is likewise inscribed to Theron king of And bid me temper in their master's praise Agrigentum, upon the occasion of another vic
The flute, the warbling lyre, and melting laysi tory obtained by him in the chariot-race at Lo! Pisa too the song requires; Olympia; the date of which is unknown.
Elean Pisa, that inspires
His heaven-directed present to prepare: The scholiast acquaints us, that as Theron was celebrating the Theoxenia (a festival instituted
EPODE 1. by Castor and Pollux in honour of all the gods) The present offer'd to his virtuous fame, he received the news of a victory obtained by
On whose ennobled brows his chariot in the Olympic games: from this The righteous umpire of the sacred game, circumstance the poet takes occasion to address Th’ Ætolian judge, bestows this ode to those two deities and their sister The darksome olive, studious to fulfil Helena, in whose temple, the same scholiast The mighty founder's will, informs us, some people with greatest probability
Who this fair ensign of Olympic toil conjectured, it was sung, at a solemn sacrifice From distant Scythia's fruitful soil, there offered by Theron to those deities, and to
And Hyperborean Ister's woody shore, Hercules, also, as may be inferred from a passage with fair entreaties gain'd, to Grecian Élis bore. in the third strophe of the translation. But there is another, and a more poetical propriety The blameless servants of the Delphic god in Pindar's invoking these divinities, that is
With joy the valued gifts bestow'd; suggested in the ode itself: for, after mentioning the occasion of his composing it, namely, the
Mov'd by the friendly chief to grant,
On terms of peace, the sacred plant, Olympic victory of Theron, and saying that a
Destin'd at once to shade Jove's honour'd shrine, triumphal song was a tribute due to that person And crown heroic worth with wreaths divine. upon whom the hellenodic, or judge of the games,
For now full-orb'd the wandering Moon bestowed the sacred olive, according to the institution of their first founder Hercules, he pro
In plenitude of brightness shone, ceeds to relate the fabulous, but legendary story, Pour'd all the radiance of her golden light :
And on the spacious eye of night of that hero's having brought that plant originally from Scythia, the country of the Hyperboreans, to Olympia; having planted it there Now on Jove's altars blaz'd the hallow'd flames, near the temple of Jupiter, and ordered that the And now were fix'd the mighty games, victors in those games should, for the future, be Again, when e'er the circling Sun, crowned with the branches of this sacred tree. Four times bis annual course had run, To this he adds, that Hercules, upon his being their period to renew, and shine again reinoved to Heaven, appointed the twin-brothers, On Alpheus' craggy shores and Pisa's plain : Castor and Pollux, to celebrate the Olympic But subject all the region lay games, and execute the office of beslowing the To the fierce Sun's insulting ray, olive-crown upon those who obtained the victory; While upon Pelops' burning vale and now, continues Pindar, he comes a propiti- No shade arose his fury to repell. ous guest, to this sacrifice of Theron, in company with the two sons of Leda, who, to reward the piety and zeal of Theron and his family,
Then traversing the hills, whose jutting basah have given them success and glory; to the
Indents Arcadia's meads, utmost limits of which he insinuates that Theron
To where the virgin goddess of the chase is arrived, and so concludes with affirming, that
Impells her foaming steeds, it would be in vain for any man, wise or unwise,
To Scythian Ister he directs his way, to attempt to surpass him.
Doom'd by bis father to obey
And thence the rapid hind to bring,
With horns of branching gold, Täygeta array'd. THERON KING OF AGRIGENTUM.
While to the fame of Agragas I sing,
For Theron wake th' Olympic string,
His steeds unwearied in the race;
For this the Muse bestow'd her'aid,
To harmonize the tuneful words,
Olympia's verdant wreath bespreads,
There as the longsome chase the chief pursued,
The spacious Scythian plains he view'd;
And northern caves of Boreas cast:
Thence by the wondering hero borne
And now to Theron's sacred feast
He sought, and mingled with the gods)
He gave th’ illustrious games to hold,
as from the prayer which the poet snbjoins imAnd crown the swift, the strong, and bold, mediately to luis account of the first, viz, that Then, Muse, to Theron and his house proclaim Heaven would in like manner be favourable to The joyous tidings of success and fame,
the rest of the victor's wishes; which prayer, By Leda's twins bestow'd to grace,
though it be in general words, and one freEmmenides, thy pious race,
quently used by Pindar in other of his odes, yet Who, mindful of Heaven's high behests, has a peculiar beauty and propriety, if taken to With strictest zeal observe their holy feasts, relate to the other two exercises, in which EPODE INI.
Psaumis was still to contend; and in which he As water's vital streams all things surpass,
afterwards came off victorious. That it was the As gold's all-worship'd ore
custom for a conqueror, at the time of bis being Holds amid Fortune's stores the bighest class ;
proclaimed, to be attended by a chorus, who So to that distant shore,
sung a song of triumph in honour of his victory, To where the pillars of Alcides rise,
I bave observed in the dissertation prefixed to Fame's utmost boundaries,
these odes'. In the second, there are so many Theron, pursuing his successful way,
marks of its having been made to be sung at the Hath deck'd with glory's brightest ray
triumphal entry of Psaumis into his own counHis lineal virtues.-Further to attain,
try, and those so evident, that, after this hint Wise, and unwise, with me despair: th' attempt
given, the reader cannot help observing them as were vain.
he goes through the ode. I shall therefore say nothing more of them in this place; but that they tend, by showing for what occasion this
ode was calculated, to confirm what I said reTHE FIFTH OLYMPIC ODE.
lating to the other; and jointly with that to
prove, that there is no reason to conclude from This ode is inscribed to Psaumis of Camarina (a there being two odez inscribed to the same
town in Sicily), who, in the eighty-second Olym- person, and dated in the same Olympiad, that piad, obtained three victories; one in the race the latter is not Pindar's, especially as it apof chariots drawn by four horses; a second in pears, both in the style and spirit, altogether the race of the apené, or chariot drawn by
worthy of him. mules, and a third in the race of single horses. Some people (it seems) bave doubted, whether this
ARGUMENT. ode be Pindar's, for certain reasons, which, to- The poet begins with addressing himself to Camagether with the arguments on the other side, the rina, a sea nymph, from whom the city and learned reader may find in the Oxford edition lake were both named, to bespeak a favourable and others of this author; where it is clearly reception of his ode, a present which he tells proved to be genuine. But, besides the reasons her was made to her by Psaumis, who rendered there given for doubting if this ode be Pindar’s, her city illustrious at the Olympic games; there is another (though not mentioned, as I where having obtained three victories, he conknow of, by any one) which may have helped to secrated his fame to Camarina, by ordering the bias people in their judgment upon this question. herald, when he proclaimed him conqueror,' to I shall therefore beg leave to consider it a little, style him of that city. This he did at Olympia ; because what I shall say upon that head will but now, continues Pindar, upon his coming tend to illustrate both the meaning and the home, he is more particular, and inserts in his method of Pindar in this ode. In the Greek triumphal song the names of the principal places editions of this author there are two odes (of and rivers belonging to Camariva; from whence which this is the second) inscribed to the same the poet takes occasion to speak of the rebuildPsaumis, and dated both in the same Olympiad. ing of that city, which was done about this time, But they differ from each other in several parti- and of the state of glory, to which, out of culars, as well in the matter as the manner. her low and miserable condition, she was now In the second ode, notice is taken of three brought by the means of Psaumis, and by the vietories obtained by Psaumis; in the first, of lustre cast on her by his victories; victories only one, viz. that obtained by him in the race (says he) not to be obtained without much of chariots drawn by four horses: in the second, labour and expense, the usual attendants of not only the city of Camarina, but the lake of great and glorious actions, but the man who the same name, many rivers adjoining to it, and succeeded in such-like undertakings was sure some circumstances relating to the present state, to be rewarded with the love and approbation of and the rebuilding of that city (which had been his country. The poet then addresses himself destroyed by the Syracusians some years before) to Jupiter in a prayer, beseeching him to adorn are mentioned; whereas in the first, Camarina the city and state of Camarina with virtue and is barely named, as the country of the con- glory; and tw grant to the victor Psaumis a joyqueror, and as it were out of förin: from all ful and contented old age, and the happiness of which I conclude, that these two odes were dying before his children: after which he concomposed to be sung at different times, and cludes with an exhortation to Psaumis, to be in different places; the first at Olympia, im- contented with his condition, which he inmediately upon Psaamis's being proclaimed sinuates was as happy as that of a mortal could conqueror in the chariot-race, and before he ob- be, and it was to no purpose for him to wish to tained his other two victories. This may with be a god. great probability be inferred, as well from no mention being there made of those two victories,
See Mr. West's Preface, p. 142.
Calm may'st thou sink to endless night, Farr Camarina, daughter of the main,
Thy children, Psaumis, weeping round.
And since the gods have given thee fame and With gracious smiles this choral song receive,
wealth, Sweet fruit of virtuous toils; whose noble strain
| Join'd with that prime of earthly treasures, health, Shall to th’ Olympic wreath new lustre give :
Enjoy the blessings they to man assign,
Nor fondly sigh for happiness divine.
This gift to thee decreed ;
THE SEVENTH OLYMPIC ODE.
This ode is inscribed to Diagoras, the son of Da. When to the twelve Olympian powers
magetus of Rhodes, who in the seventy-ninth He fed with victims the triumphal flame.
Olympiad obtained the victory in the exercise When, the double altars round,
of the cæstus. Slaughter'd bulls bestrew'd the ground; This ode was in such esteem among the ancients, When, on five selected days, :
that it was deposited in a temple of Minerva, Jove survey'd the list of praise ;
written in letters of gold.
| The poet begins this noble song of triumph with a Or around th’ Elean goal
simile, by which he endeavours to show his great
esteem for those who obtain the victory in the Taught his mule-drawn car to roll. Then did the victor dedicate his fame
Olympic and other gaines; as also the value of To thee, and bade the herald's voice proclaim
the present that he makes them upon that ocThy new-establish'd walls, and Acron's honour'd
casion ; a present always acceptable, because
fame and praise is that which delights all morname.
tals; wherefore the Muse, says he, is perANTISTROPHE.
petually looking about for proper objects to beBut now return'd from where the pleasant seat
stow it upon; and seeing the great actions of Once of Oenomaus and Pelops stood,
Diagoras, takes up a resolution of celebrating Thee, Civic Pallas, and thy chaste retreat, him, the Isle of Rhodes his country, and his He bids me sing, and fair Oanus' flood,
father Damagetus (according to the form obAnd Camarina's sleeping wave,
served by the herald in proclaiming the conAnd those sequester'd shores,
querors); Damagetus, and consequently DiaThrough which, the thirsty town to lave,
goras, being descended from Tlepolemus, who Smooth Aow the watery stores
led over a colony of Grecians from Argos to Of fishy Hipparis, profoundest stream,
Rhodes, where he settled, and obtained the Adown whose wood-envelop'd tide
dominion of that island. From Tlepolemus, The solid pile and lofty beam,
therefore, Pindar declares he will deduce his Materials for the future palace, glide.
song; which he addresses to all the Rhodians in Thus, by war's rude tempests torn,
common with Diagoras, who were descended Plung'd in misery and scorn,
from Tlepolemus, or from those Grecians that Once again, with power array'd,
came over with him; that is, almost all the Camarina lifts her head,
people of Rhodes, who indeed are as much (if Gayly brightening in the blaze,
not more) interested in the greatest part of this Psaumis, of thy hard-earn'd praise.
ode, as Diagoras the conqueror. Pindar acTrouble, care, expense, attend
cordingly relates the occasion of Tlepolemus's Him who labours to ascend
coming to Rhodes, which he tells was in obediWhere, approaching to the skies,
ence to an oracle, that commanded him to seek Virtue holds the sacred prize,
out that island; which, instead of telling us its That tempts him to achieve the dangerous deed :
name, Pindar, in a more poetical manner, chaBut, if his well-concerted toils succeed, [ineed.
racterizes by relating of it some legendary stories His country's just applause shall be his glorious
(if I may so speak) that were peculiar to the Isle EPODE.
of Rhodes ; such as the Golden Shower, and the O Jove! protector of mankind !
occasion of Apollo's choosing that island for him() cloud-enthroned king of gods !
self; both which stories he relates at large with Who, on the Chronian mount reclin'd,
such a flame of poetry as shows his imagination With honour crown'st the wide-stream'd to have been extremely heated and elevated floods
with his subjects. Neither does he seem to cool Of Alpheus, and the solemn gloom
in the short account that he gives, in the next Of Ida's cave! to thee I come
place, of the passion of Apollo for the nymph Thy suppliant, to soft Lydian reeds,
Rhodos, from whom the island received its Sweet breathing forth my tuneful prayer,
name, and from whom were descended its oriThat, grac'd with noble, valiant deeds,
ginal inhabitants (whom just before the poet This state may prove thy guardian care;
therefore called the sons of Apollo): and partiAnd thou, on whose victorious bruw
cularly the three brothers, Camirus, Lindus, Olympia bound the sacred bough,
and Jalysus; who divided that country into Thou whom Neptunian steeds delight,
three kingdoms, and built the three principal With age, content, and quiet crown'd,
cities which retained their names. In this island
Tlepolemus (says the poet, returning to the story Fair nymph, whose charms subdued the Delphic of that hero) found rest, and a period to all his
god, misfortunes, and at length grew into such esteem Fair blooming daughter of the Cyprian dame: with the Rhodians, that they worshipped him as To sing thy triumphs in th’ Olympic sand, a god, appointing sacrifices to him, and insti.
Where Alpheus saw thy giant-temples crown'd; tuting games in his honour. The mention of Fam’d Pythia too proclaim'd thy conquering hand, those games naturally brings back the poet to
Where sweet Castalia's mystic currents sound. Diagoras; and gives him occasion, from the two victories obtained by Diagoras in those games, Nor Damagetus will I pass unsung, to enumerate all the prizes won by that famous
Thy sire, the friend of Justice and of Truth; conqueror in all the games of Greece: after From noble ancestors whose lineage sprung, which enumeration, he begs of Jupiter, in a
The chiefs who led to Rhodes the Argive youth. solemn prayer, to grant Diagoras the love of his There, near to Asia's wide-extended strand, country, and the admiration of all the world, as Where jutting Embolus the waves divides, a reward for the many virtues for which he and In three divisions they possess'd the land, his family had always been distinguished, and Enthron'd amid the hoarse-resounding tides. for which their country had so often triumphed: To their descendants will I tune my lyre, and then, as if he had been a witness of the
The offspring of Alcides bold and strong; extravagant transports of the Rhodians, (to which, And from Tlepolemus, their common sire, not the festival only occasioned by the triumphal Deduce the national historic song. entry of their countryman, and the glory reflected upon them by his victories, but much Tiepolemus of great Alcides came, more the flattering and extraordinary eulogiums
The fruits of fair Astydameïa's love, bestowed upon the whole nation in this ode, Jove-born Amyntor got the Argive dame : might have given birth) the poet on a sudden
So either lineage is deriv'd from Jove. changes bis hand, and checks their pride by a But wrapt in errour is the human mind, a moral reflection on the vicissitude of Fortune, And human bliss is ever insecure : with which he exhorts them to moderation, and Know we what fortune yet remains behind 80 concludes.
Know we how long the present shall endure?
Who from Saturnian Jove his being drew,
While his fell bosom swellid with vengeful hate,
The bastard-brother of Alcmena slew.
With his rude mace, in fair Tiryntha's walls, Bent his lov'd daughter's nuptial torch to grace
Tlepolemus inflicts the horrid wound: The vineyard's purple dews profusely pours;
E'en at his mother's door Licymnius falls,
Yet warm from her embrace, and bites the "Then to his lips the foaming chalice rears,
ground. With blessings hallow'd, and auspicious vows, And, mingling with the draught transporting tears,
Passion may oft the wisest heart surprise : On the young bridegroom the rich gift bestows; T. Delphi's oracle the hero flies,
Conscious and trembling for the murderous deed, The precious earnest of esteem sincere,
Solicitous to learn what Heaven decreed.
Him bright-hair'd Phæbus, from his odorous fane, And round the youth in sprightly measures move.
Bade set his flying sails from Lerna's shore,
And, in the bosom of the eastern main,
That sea-girt region hasten to explore ;
That blissful island, where a wondrous cloud Wonder shall seize the gratulating guests.
Once rain'd, at Jove's command, a golden shower;
What time, assisted by the Lemnian god, Thus on the valiant, on the swift, and strong, The king of Heaven brought forth the virgin Castalia's genuine nectar I bestow;
power. And, pouring forth the Muse-descended song,
By Vulcan's art the father's teeming head Bid to their praises the rich numbers flow.
Was open'd wide, and forth impetuous sprung, Grateful to them resounds th’ harmonic Ode, And shouted fierce and loud, the warrior maid:
The gift of Friendship and the pledge of Fame. Old Mother Earth and Heaven affrighted rung. Happy the mortal, whom th’ Aonian God
Then Hyperion's son, pure fount of day, Cheers with the music of a glorious name!
Did to his children the strange tale reveal : The Muse her piercing glances throws around, He warn'd them straight the sacrifice to slay, And quick discovers every worthy deed :
And worship the young power with earliest zeal. And now she wakes the lyre's enchanting sound,
So would they sooth the mighty father's mind, Now fills with various strains the vocal reed:
Pleas'd with the honours to his daughter paid ; But here each instrument of song divine,
And so propitious ever would they find
On staid precaution, vigilant and wise,
True virtue and true happiness depend;
But oft Oblivion's darkening clouds arise, His priests and blazing altars he surveys,
And from the destin'd scope our purpose bend. And hecatombs, that feed the odorous flame; The Rhodians, mindful of their sire's behest,
With games, memorial of his deathless praise; Straight in the citadel an altar reard;
Where twice, Diagoras, unmatch'd in fame, But with imperfect rites the power address'd,
Twice on thy head the livid poplar shone, And without fire their sacrifice prepar'd.
Mix'd with the darksome pine, that binds the brows
Of Isthmian victors, and the Nemean crown, Yet Jove, approving, o'er th' assembly spread
And every palm that Attica bestows.
Diagoras th’ Arcadian vase obtain'd;
Argos to him adjudg’d her brazen shield ;
His mighty hands the Theban tripod gain'd, Thence in all arts the sons of Rhodes excel,
And bore the prize from each Bæotian field. Though best their forming hands the chissel guide; Six times in rough Ægina he prevail'd ; This in each street the breathing marbles tell,
As oft Pellene's robe of honour won; The stranger's wonder, and the city's pride.
And still at Megara in vain assail'd, Great praise the works of Rbodian artists find, He with his name hath fill'd the victor's stone, Yet to their heavenly mistress much they owe;
O thou, who, high on Atabyrius thron'd, Since art and learning cultivate the mind,
Seest from his summits all this happy isle, And make the seeds of genius quicker grow.
By thy protection be my labours crown'd; Some say, that when by lot th' immortal gods Vouchsafe, Saturnius, on my verse to smile!
With Jove these earthly regions did divide, And grant to bim, whose virtue is my theme, All undiscover'd lay Phæbean Rhodes,
Whose raliant heart th’ Olympic wreaths proWhelm'd deep beneath the salt Carpathian tide;
claim, That, absent on his course, the god of day
At home his country's favour and esteem, By all the hcavenly synod was forgot,
Abroad, eternal, universal fame. Who, bis incessant labours to repay,
For well to thee Diagoras is known; Nor land nor sea to Phæbus did allot;
Ne'er to injustice have his paths declin'd: That Joye reminded would again renew
Nor from his sires degenerates the son, Th’ unjust partition, but the god denied;
Whose precepts and examples fire his mind, And said, “ Beneath yon boary surge 1 view
Then from obscurity preserve a race, An isle emerging through the briny tide:
Who to their country joy and glory give;
Their country, that in them views every grace, “ A region pregnant with the fertile seed Of plants, and herbs, and fruits, and foodful grain; Yet as the gales of Fortune various blow,
Which from their great forefathers they receive, Each verdant hill unnumber'd fiocks shall feed, Unnumber'd men possess each flowery plain.”
To day tempestuous, and to morrow fair,
Due bounds, ye Rhodians, let your transports know; Then straight to Lachesis he gave command,
Perhaps to morrow comes a storm of care,
THE ELEVENTH OLYMPIC ODE.
This ode is inscribed to Agesidamus of Locris, When from the ouzy bottom of the sea
who, in the seventy-fourth Olympiad, obtained Her head she rear'd above the Lycian wave.
the victory in the exercise of the cæstus, and in
the class of boys. The fatal sister swore, nor swore in vain; The preceding ode in the original is inscribed to
Nor did the tongue of Delphi's prophet err; the same person; and in that we learn, that Up-sprung the blooming island through the main; Pindar had for a long time promised Agesidamus And Jove on Phoebus did the boon confer.
an ode upon his victory, which he at length paid In this fam'd isle, the radiant sire of light,
him, acknowledging himself to blame for having The god whose reins the fiery steeds obey,
been so long in his debt. To make him some Fair Rhodos saw, and, kindling at the sight,
amends for having delayed payment so long, he Seiz'd, and by force enjoy'd the beauteous prey:
sent him by way of interest together with the
preceding ode, which is of some length, the From whose divine embraces sprung a race
short one that is here translated, and which in Of mortals, wisest of all human-kind;
the Greek title is for that reason styled Táncs or Seven sons, endow'd with every noble grace; interest. The noble graces of a sapient mind.
The poet, by two comparisons, with which he be
gins his ode, insinuates how acceptable to sucApart they reign'd, and, sacred to his name,
cessful merit those songs of triumph are, which Apart each brother's royal city stands.
give stability and duration to their fame: then Here a secure retreat from all his woes
declaring that these songs are due to the Olympic Astydameia's hapless offspring found;
conquerors, he proceeds to celebrate the victory Here, like a god in undisturb'd repose,
of Agesidamus, and the praises of the Locrians, And like a god with heavenly honours crown'd, his countrymen, whom he commends for their