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having been always reputed a brave, wise, and and the same number in each of the other hospitable nation; from whence he insinuates, three sacred games, the Pythian, Isthmian, that their virtues being hereditary and innate, and Neinean. From these remarkable vicissitudes there was no more likelihood of their departing of fortune in the life of Ergoteles, Pindar takes from them, than there was of the fox and lion's occasion to address himself to that powerful changing their natures.
directress of all human affairs, imploring her protection for Himera, the adopted country of Ergoteles. Then, after describing in general
terins the universal influence of that deity upon To wind-bound mariners most welcome blow all the actions of mankind, the uncertainty of The breezy zephyrs through the whistling events, and the vanity of hope, ever fluctuating shrouds :
in ignorance and errour, he assigns a reason for Most welcome to the thirsty mountains flow that vanity, viz. That the gods have not given to Soft showers, the pearly daughters of the mortal men any certain evidence of their future clouds;
fortunes, which often happen to be the very reAnd when on virtuous toils the gods bestow
'verse both of their hopes and fears. Thus, says Success, most welcome sound mellifluous odes, he, it happened to Ergoteles, whose very misWhose numbers ratify the voice of Fame,
fortunes were to him the occasion of happiness And to illustrious Worth insure a lasting name. and glory; since, had he not been banished from
his country, he had probably passed his life in ANTISTROPHE. Such Fame, superior to the hostile dart
obscurity, and wasted in domestic broils and Of canker'd Envy, Pisa's chiefs attends.
quarrels that strength and activity, which his Fain would my Muse th' immortal boon impart,
more peaceful situation at Himera enabled him Th' immortal boon which from high Heaven
to improve, and employ for the obtaining the descends
Olympic crown. And now, inspir'd by Heaven, thy valiant heart, This ode, one of the shortest, is, at the same time, Agesidamus, she to Fame commends :
in its order and connection, the clearest and most Now adds the ornament of tuneful praise, (lays.
compact of any to be met with in Pindar. And decks thy olive-crown with sweetly-sounding
STROPHE. But while thy bold achievements I rehearse, Daughter of Eleutherian Jove, Thy youthful victory in Pisa's sand,
To thee my supplications I prefer ! With thee partaking in the friendly verse
For potent Himera my suit I move; Not unregarded shall thy Locris stand,
Protectress Fortune, hear! Then haste, ye Muses, join the choral band
Thy deity along the pathless main Of festive youths upon the Locrian plain ;
In her wild course the rapid vessel guides; To an unciviliz'd and savage land
Rules the fierce conflict on th’embattled plain, Think not I now invite your virgin train,
And in deliberating siates presides, Where barbarous ignorance and foul disdain
Toss'd by thy uncertain gale Of social Virtue's hospitable lore
On the seas of errour sail Prompts the unmanner'd and inhuman swain
Human hopes, now mounting high To drive the stranger from his churlish door.
On the swelling surge of joy;
Now with unexpecter! woe
Sinking to the depths below.
ANTISTROPHE. Spring in each age. So Nature's laws require :
For sure presage of things to come And the great laws of Nature ne'er expire.
None yet on mortals have the gods bestow'd; Unchang'd the lion's valiant race remains,
Nor of futurity's impervious gloom
Can wisdom pierce the cloud.
Oft, when with woe the mournful busom heaves,
Pass some fleeting moments by, This ode is inscribed to Ergoteles the son of Phi- All at once the tempests fly:
lanor of Himera, who, in the seventy-seventh Instant shifts the clouded scene;
And on joy's untroubled tides
Ergoteles was originally of Crete, but being driven Son of Philanor ?! in the secret shade
from thence by the fury of a prevailing faction, Thus had thy speed unknown to Fame decay'd; he retired to Himera, a town of Sicily, where he | Thus, like the crested bird of Mars?, at hume was hononrably received, and admitted to the Engag'd in foul domestics jars, freedom of the city; after which he had the
And wasted with intestine wars, happiness to obtain, what the Greeks esteemed Inglorious hadst thou spent thy vigorous bloom ; the highest pitch of glory, the Olympic crown. Pausanias says he gained two Olympic crowns;
1 Ergoteles. 2 The cock,
Had not Sedition's civil broils
Ordering through the blest abodes
All the splendid works of gods,
Sit the sisters in a ring,
Round the golden-shafted king : With olive now, with Pythian laurels grac'd,
And with reverential love And the dark chaplets of the Isthmian pine,
Worshipping th’ Olympiau throne, In Himera's adopted city plac'd,
The majestic brow of Jove To all, Ergoteles, thy honours shine,
With unfading honours crown. And raise her lustre by imparting thine.
Aglaia, graceful virgin, hear!
And thou, Euphrosyne, whose ear
Delighted listens to the warbled strain!
Bright daughters of Olympian Jove,
The best, the greatest power above;
With your illustrious presence deign
To grace our choral song!
Whose notes to victory's glad sound
Thalia, come along !
Come, tuneful maid ! for, lo! my string
With meditated skill prepares of the victor Asophicus, being under the pro
In softly soothing Lydian airs tection of the Graces, her tutelary deities, to Asophicus to sing; them Pindar addresses this ode; which was pro-Asophicus, whose speed, by thee sustain'd, bably sung in the
very temple of those goddesses, | The wreath for his Orchomenus obtain'd. at a sacrifice offered by Asophicus on occasion
Go then, sportive Echo, go, of his victory. The poet begins this invocation To the sable dome below, with styling the Graces queens of Orchomenus,
Proserpine's black dome, repair, and guardians of the children of Minyas, the
There to Cleodemus bear first king of that city; whose fertile terrritories, Tidings of immortal fame: he says, were by lot assigned to their protection.
Tell, how in the rapid game Then, after describing in general the properties O'er Pisa's vale bis son victorious fled; and operations of these deities, both in Earth
Tell, for thou saw'st him bear away and Heaven, he proceeds to call upon each of
The winged honours of the day; them by name to assist at the singing of this And deck'd with wreaths of fame his youthful head. ode; which was made, he tells them, to celebrate the victory of Asophicus, in the glory of which Orchomenus had her share. Then ad
THE FIRST PYTHIAN ODE. dressing himself to Echo, a nymph that forinerly This ode is inscribed to Hiero of Ætna, King of resided on the banks of Cephisus, a river of that
Syracuse, who, in the twenty-ninth Pythiad, country, he charges her to repair to the mansion
(which answers to the seventy-eighth Olympiad) of Proserpine, and impart to Cleodemus, the
gained the victory in the chariot-race. father of Asophicus, (who from hence appears to have been dead at that time) the happy news of his son's victory; and so concludes.
The poet, addressing himself in the first place to
his harp, lanches out immediately into a deMONOSTROPHAIC.
scription of the wonderful effects produced in Heaven by the enchanting harmony of that divine
instrument, when played upon by Apollo, and YE E powers, o'er all the flowery meeds,
accompanied by the Muses; these effects, says Where deep Cephisus rolls his lucid tide, he, are to celestial minds delight and rapture; Allotted to preside,
but the contrary to the wicked, who cannot hear, And haunt the plains renown'd for beauteous steeds, withont horrour, this heavenly music. Having Queens of Orcbomenus the fair,
mentioned the wicked, he falls into an account And sacred guardians of the ancient line
of the punishment of Typheus, an impious giant; Of N;inyas divine,
who, having presumed to defy Jupiter, was by Hear, () ye Graces, and regard my prayer !
him cast into Tartarus, and then chained under All that's sweet and pleasing here
Mount Etna, whose tiery eruptions he ascribes to Mortals from your hands receive:
this giant, whom he therefore styles Vulcanian Splendour ye and fame confer,
Monster. The description of these eruptions of Genius, wit, and beauty give,
Mount Ætna, he closes with a short prayer to Nor, withc at your shining train,
Jupiter, who had a temple upon that mountain, Ever on th'ethereal plain
and froin thence passes to, what indeed is more In harinonious measures move
properly the subject of this ode, the Pythian The celestial choirs above;
victory of Hiero. This part of the poem is conWhen the figurd dance they lead,
nected with what went before by the means of Or the nectar'd banquet spread.
Ætna, a city built by Hiero, and named after But with thrones immortal grac'd,
the mountain in whose neighbourbood it stood. And by Pythian Phæbus plac'd,
Hiero had ordered himself to be styled of Ætna
by the herald who proclaimed his victory in the enjoy both these at the same time, is arrived at Pythian games; from which glorious beginning, the highest point of earthly felicity. says Pindar, the happy city presages to herself all kinds of glory and felicity for the future. Then addressing himself to Apollo, the patron of the Pythian games, he beseeches him to make Ilall., golden lyre! who:e heaven-invented string the citizens of Lina great and happy; all human To Phoebus and the black-hair'd Nine belongs; excelleacies being the gifts of Heaven. To Hier, Wbo in sweet chorus round their tuneful king in like manner, he wishes felicity and prosperity Mix with thy sounding chords their sacred songs. for the future, not to be disturbed by the return The Dance, gay queen of pleasure, thee attends; or remembrance of any past allictions. The Thy jocund strains her listening feet inspire : toils indeed and troubles alich Hiero had under- And each melodious tongue its voice suspends gone, before he and his brother Gelo obtained Till thou, great leader of the heavenly quire, the sovereignty of Syracuse, having been crowned With wanton art preluding giv'st the signwith success, will doubtless, says Pindar, recurswells the full concert then with harmony divine. often to his memory with great delight: and then taking notice of the condition of Hiero, who, it seems, being at that tiine troubled with the
Then, of their streaming lightnings all disarm'd,
The smouldering thunderbolts of Jove expire : stone, was carried about in the arıny in a litter, or chariot, he compares him to Philoctetes: this
Then, by the music of thy numbers charm’d, [ire.
The birds' fierce monarch' drops his vengeful hero, having been wounded in the foot by one of
Perch'd on the sceptre of th’ Olympian king, Hercules's arrows, stuid in Leinnus to get cured of his wound; but it being decreed by the Fates,
The thrilling darts of harmony he feels;
And indolently hangs bis rapid wing, that Troy should not be taken without those ar
While gentle sleep his closing eyelids seals; rows, of which Philoctetes hail the possession, the
And o'er his hearing limbs in loose array Greeks fetched him from Lemnos, lame and to every baliny gile the ruling feathers play. wounded as he was, and carried bim to the siege. As Hiero risernbled Philoctetes in one point, may he also, adds the port, re&emble bin in another,
E'en Mars, stern god of violence and war, and recover his health by the assistance of a di- Sooths with thy lulling strains his furious breast, vinity! Then addressing himself to Dinomenes, And, driving from his heart each bloody care, the son of Hiero, whom that prince interuled to His pointed lance cinsigns to peaceful rest. make king of Etna, he enters into an account of Nor less enraptur'd each immortal mind the colony, which fliero had settled in that city:
Owns the soft enfluence of enchanting song, the people of this colony being originally de
When, in melodious symphony combin’d, scended from Sparta, were, at their own request,
Tiry son, Latona, and the tuneful throng governed by the laws of Nat famous common
Of Muses, skill'd in wisdoin's deepest lore, wealth. To this account Pindar subjoins a The subtle powers of verse and harmony explore. praver to Jupiter, imploring him to grant that
DECADE IV. both the king and people of Etna may, by an- But they, on carth, or the devouring main, swerable deeds, maintain the glory and splen- Whom righteous Jove with detestation views, dour of their race; and that Hiern, and his son With envious horrour hear the heavenly strain, Dinoinenes, taught to govern by the precepts of Exild from praise, from virtue, and the Muse, his father, may be able to dispose their minds
Such is Typhaus, jinpious foe of gods, to peace and uni For this purpose, continues Whose hundred-headed form Cilicia's cave he, do thou, O Jupiter, prevent the Carthagini- Once fosterd in her infamons abodes; ans and the Tuscans from invading Sicily any Till, daring with presumptuous arms to brave more, by recalling to their minds the great
The might of thundering Jove, subdu'd he fell, losses they had lately sustained from the valour Plung'd in the horrid dungeons of profoundest Hell, of Hiero and his brothers; into a more particular detail of whose courage and virtue, Pindar insinuates he would gladly enter, was he not
Now under sulphurous Cuma's sea-bound coast
And vast Sicilia lics his shaggy breast; afraid of being too prolix and tedious; a fault which is apt to breed in the reader satiety and
By snowy Etna, murse of endless frost, disgust; and though, continues he, excessive
The pillar'd prop of Heaven, for ever prest : fame produces often the same effects in envious
Forth from whose nitrous caverns issuing rise minds, yet do not thou, O Hiero! upon that
Pure liquid fountains of tempestuous fire, consideration, omit doing any great or goo
And veil in ruddy mists the noon-day skies, tion; it being far better to be envied than to be
While wrapt in sinoke the eddying flames pitied. With this, and some precepts useful to
aspire, all kings in general, and others more peculiarly
Or gleaming through the night with hideous roar adapted to the temple of Hiero, whom, as he Far o'er the reddening main huge rocky fragments was somewhat inclined to avarice, he encourages
pour. to acts of generosity and munificence, from the consideration of the fame accruing to the princes But he, Vulcanian monster, to the clouds of that character, and the infamy redounding to The fiercest, hottest inundations throws, tyrants, he concludes; winding up all with ob- While, with the burthen of incumbent woods serving, that the first of all human blessings And Etna's gloomy chiffs o'erwhelm'd he glows. consists in being virtuous; the second in being praised; and that he who has the happiness to
1 The eagle. YOL XJU,
There on his Ainty bed out-stretch'd he lies,
May Hiero too, like Pa'an's son, receive
Recover'd vigour froin celestial bands ! Or frights the distant ear with horrid sounds.
And may the healing god proceed to give () save us from thy wrath, Sicilian Jove!
The power to gain whate'er his wish demands. Thou, that here reign'st, ador'd in Etna's sacred
But now, O Muse, address thy sounding lays grove!
To young Dinomenes, his virtuous heir.
Sing to Dinomenes, his father's praise; Ftna, fair forehead of this fruitful land !
His father's praise shall glad his filial ear, Whose borrow'd name adorns the royal town For him hereafter shalt thou touch the string, Rais'd by illustrious Hiero's generous hand, And chant in friendly strains fair Etna's future king.
And render'd glorious with his high renown.
When Hiero triumpb'd in the dusty course, Hiero for him th’illustrious city rear'd,
And fill'd with sons of Greece her stately towers,
Still must the restive Dorian youth be led;
Who, dwelling once on cold Eurotas' wave, The port forsaking, spread the swelling sails;
Where proud Taygetus exalts his head, The fair departure cheers their jocund minds
From the great stock of Hercules divine With pleasing hopes of favourable gales,
And warlike Pamphilus deriv'd their noble line While o'cr the dangerous deserts of the main,
To their lov'd country they pursue their way. These, from Thessalian Pindus rushing down, E'en so, Apollo, thou, whoin Lycia's plain,
The walls of fam'd Amyelæ once possessid, Whoin Delus, and Castalia's springs obey,
And, rich in Fortune's gifts and high renown, These hopes regard, and Etna's glory raise
Dwelt near the twixs of Leda, while they press'd With valiant sons, triumphant steeds, and heavenly
Their milky coursers, and the pastures o’er
Of neighbouring Argos rang’d, in arms supremne.
To king and people on the flowery shore
Of lucid Amena, Sicilian stream, They the wise mind bestow'd, and smooth'd
Grant the like fortune, Jove, with like desert the tongue
The splendour of their race and glory to assert. With elocution, and for mighty deeds
The nervous arm with manly vigour strung.
And do thou aid Sicilia's hoary lord
Nor fear thy efforts shall his worth exceed; And mutnal peace the friendly people bind;
Then grant, () son of Saturn, grant my prayer! Thy dart shall still surpass cach vain attempting foe. The bold Phænician on his shore detain;
And may the hardy Tuscan never dare So may succeeding ages, as they roll,
To sex with clamorous war Sicilia's main; Great Hiero still in wealth and bliss maintain, Remembering Hiero, how on Cuna's coast And joyous health recalling, on his soul
Wreck'd by his stormy arins their groaning feets
were lost. Oblivion pour of life-consuming pain. Yet may thy memory with sucei delight
The various dangers and the toils recount, What terrours! what destruction them assail'd! Which in intestine wars and bloody fight
Ilurl'à froin their riven decks what numbers Thy patient virtue, Hiero, did surmount;
died ! What time, by Heaven above all Grecians crowu’d, When o'er their might Sicilia's chief prevail'd, The prize of sovereign sway with thee thy brother 2
Their youth o'erwhelining in the foamy tide; found.
Greece frum impending servitude to save.
Thy favour, glorious Athens! to acquire, Then like the son of Paan didst thou war,
Would I record the Salaminian wave Smit with the arrows of a sore disease;
Fam'd in thy triumphs: and my tuneful lyre While, as along slow rolls ty sickly car,
To Sparta's sons with sweetest praise should tell, Love and amaze the hauy htiest bosoms seize. Beneath Citharon's shade what Medish archers fell. In Lemnus, pining with th' envenom'd wound,
But on fair Himera's wide-water'd shores
Thy sous, Dinomenes, my lyre demand,
To grace their virtues with the various stores And the long harass'd Greeks their wish'd repose
Of sacred verse, and sing th? illustrious band
Of valiant brothers, who from Carthage won obtain'd.
Tli: glorious meed of conquest, deathless praise.
A pleasing theme! but Censure's dreaded frown
Compels me to contract my spreading lays,
In verse conciseness pleases erery guest,
meant chiefly, though not solely, the gaining While each impatient blames and luaths a tedious more prizes in the great or sacred games (par. feast.
ticularly the Olympic), where the Muses conDECADE XVIII.
stantly attend to celebrate and record the conNor less distasteful is excessive fame
querors. From thence, after a short tigression To the sour palate of the envious mind; to the general praise of Sicily, he comes to Who hears with grief his neighbour's goodly name, an enumeration of the particular virtues of Chro
And hates the fortune that he ne'er shall find. mius, viz. bis hospitality, liberality, prudence in Yet in thy virtue, Hiero, persevere !
council, and courage in war. Then, returning Since to be envied is a nobler fate
to the Nemean victory, he takes occasion from Than to be pitied: let strict Justice steer
so auspicious a beginning, to promise Chromius a With equitable hand the helm of state,
large increase of glory, in like manner as Tiresias, And arm thy tongue with truth: 0 king, beware the famous poet and prophet of Thebes (the Of every step! a prince can never lightly err. country of Pindar), upon viewing the first xploit
of Hercules, which was killing in his cradle the O'er many nations art thou set, to deal
two serpents sent by Juno to devour him, foreThe goods of Fortune with impartial hand;
told the subsequent achievements of that hero, And, ever watchful of the public weal,
and the great reward he should receive for all Uonumber'd witnesses around thee stand.
his labours, by being admitted into the number Then, would thy virtuous ear for ever feast
of the gods, and married to Hebe; with which On the sweet melody of well-earu'd fame,
story he concludes the ode. In generous purposes confirm thy breast,
Nor dread expenses that will grace thy name;
Sister of Delos! pure abode
Of Virgin Cynthia, goddess of the chase
In whose recesses rests th' emerging floud When in the mouldering urn the monarch lies,
Of Alpheus, breathing from his amorous raca! His fame in lively characters remains,
Divine Ortygia! to thy name Or grav'd in monumental histories,
The Muse preluding tunes her strings, Or deck'd and painted in Aonian strains.
Pleas'd with the sweet preamble of thy fam
To usher in the verse, that sings
Thy triumphs, Chromius; while Siciliar nie
Hears with delight through Etna's soundina gre While Fate to infatny and hatred dooms
The gratulations of the hymning choir,
Whom thy victorious car and Nemea's pala, ir pire. When in his brazen bull the broiling wretches died.
The basis of his future praise Him therefore nor in sweet society
Assisted by the gods hath Chromius laic; The generous youth conversing ever name
And to its height the towering pile may Nor with the harp's delightful melody
If Fortune lends her favourable aid : Mingle his odious inharmonious faine;
Assur'd that all th' Aonian train The first, the greatest bliss on man conferr'd
Their wonted friendship will afford, Is, in the acts of virtue to excel;
Who with delight frequent the listed plis in The second, to obtain their high reward,
The toils of Virtue to record. The soul-exalting praise of doing well.
Meantime around this isle, harmonious Who both these lots attains, is blest inleed,
The brightest beams of shining verse dilte. Since Fortune here below can give no richer meed.
This fruitful island, with whose flowery ride Heaven's awful king endow'd great Plut's beau.
THE FIRST NEMEAN ODE.
Sicilia with transcendant plenty crown'd This ode is inscribed to Chromius of Etna (a city Jove to Proserpina consign'd;
of Sicily) who gained the victory in the chariot- Then with a nod his solemn promise bom race, in the Nemean games.
Still further to enrich her fertile shores
With peopled cities, stately towers,
Skill'd to the dreadful works of war:
Or mounted on the whirling car joined by a bridge) Pindar passes to the subject | Olympia's all-priz’d olive to obtain. or occasion of this ode, viz. the victory obtained
Abundant is my theme; nor need I wro's by Chromius in the Nemean games; which, as The fair occasion with a flattering song. it was the first of that kind gained by him, the poet styles the basis of his future fame, laid by
the co-operation of the gods, who assisted and To Chromius no unwelcome guest • seconded his divine virtues; and, adds he, if I come, high sounding my Dircaan chord;
Fortune continues to be favourable, he may ar- Who for his poet hath prepar'd the fcat, rive at the highest summit of glory: by which is And spread with luxury his friendly board: