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having been always reputed a brave, wise, and and the same number in each of the other hospitable nation; from whence he insinuates, three sacred games, the Pythian, Isthmian, that their virtues being hereditary and innate, and Nemean. From these remarkable vicissitudes there was no more likelihood of their departing of fortune in the life of Ergoteles, Pindar takes from them, than there was of the fox and lion's occasion to address himself to that powerful changing their natures.
directress of all human affairs, imploring her protection for Himera, the adopted country of
Ergoteles. Then, after describing in general STROPHE.
terms the universal influence of that deity upon To wind-bound mariners most welcome blow all the actions of mankind, the uncertainty of The breezy zephyrs through the whistling events, and the vanity of hope, ever fluctuating shrouds :
in ignorance and errour, he assigns a reason for Most welcome to the thirsty mountains flow that vanity, viz. That the gods have not given to Soft showers, the pearly daughters of the mortal men any certain evidence of their future clouds;
fortunes, which often happen to be the very reAnd when on virtuous toils the gods bestow
'verse both of their hopes and fears. Thus, says Success, most welcome sound mellifluous odes, be, it happened to Ergoteles, whose very misWhose numbers ratify the voice of Fame,
fortunes were to him the occasion of happiness And to illustrious Worth insure a lasting name. and glory; since, had he not been banished from ANTISTROPHE.
his country, he had probably passed his life in Such Fame, superior to the hostile dart
obscurity, and wasted in domestic broils and Of canker'd Envy, Pisa's chiefs attends.
quarrels that strength and activity, which his Fain would my Muse th' immortal boon impart,
more peaceful situation at Himera enabled him Th' immortal boon which from high Heaven
to improve, and employ for the obtaining the descends
Olympic crown. And now, inspir'd by Heaven, thy valiant heart, This ode, one of the shortest, is, at the same time, Agesidamus, she to Fame commends :
in its order and connection, the clearest and most Now adds the ornament of tuneful praise, [lays.
compact of any to be met with in Pindar. And decks thy olive-crown with sweetly-sounding
Daughter of Eleutherian Jove,
To thee my supplications I prefer ! With thee partaking in the friendly verse
For potent Himera my suit I move; Not unregarded shall thy Locris stand,
Protectress Fortune, hear! Then haste, ye Muses, join the choral band
Thy deity along the pathless main Of festive youths upon the Loerian plain ;
In her wild course the rapid vessel guides; To an unciviliz'd and savage land Thiuk not I now invite your virgin train,
Rules the fierce conflict on thembattled plain,
And in deliberating states presides. Where barbarous ignorance and foul disdain
Toss'd by thy uncertain gale Of social Virtue's hospitable lore
On the seas of errour sail Prompts the unmanner'd and inhuman swain
Human hopes, now mounting high To drive the stranger from his churlish door.
On the swelling surge of joy; A nation shall ye find, renown'd of yore
Now with unexpected woe
Sinking to the depths below,
Nor of futurity's impervious gloom
Oft our most sanguine views th' event deceives,
Oft, when with woe the mournful bosom heaves,
Pass some fleeting moments by, This ode is inscribed to Ergoteles the son of Phi- All at once the tempests fly:
lanor of Himera, who, in the seventy-seventh Instant shifts the clouded scene; Olympiad, gained the prize in the foot-race Heaven renews its smiles serene; called Dolichos or the long course.
And on joy's untroubled tides
Smooth to port the vessel glides,
from thence by the fury of a prevailing faction, Thus had thy speed unknown to Fame decay'd; he retired to Himera, a town of Sicily, where he | Thus, like the created bird of Mars?, at home was hononrably received, and admitted to the Engag'd in foul domestics jars, freedom of the city; after which he had the
And wasted with intestine wars, happiness to obtain, what the Greeks esteemed Inglorious hadst thou spent thy vigorous bloom; the highest pitch of glory, the Olympic crown. Pausanias says he gained two Olympic crowns;
3 The cock,
Had not Sedition's civil broils
Ordering through the blest aboder Expelld thee from thy native Crete,
All the splendid works of gods, And driven thee with more glorious toils
Sit the sisters in a ring,
Round the golden-shafted king :
Worshipping th’ Olympiau throne,
The majestic brow of Jove To all, Ergoteles, thy honours shine,
With unfading honours crown. And raise her lustre by imparting thine.
Aglaia, graceful virgin, hear!
And thou, Euphrosyne, whose ear
Delighted listens to the warbled strain! THE FOURTEENTH OLYMPIC ODE.
Bright daughters of Olympian Jove, This ode is inscribed to Asophicus, the son of
The best, the greatest power above; Cleodemus of Orchomenus; who, in the seventy
With your illustrious presence deign sixth Olympiad, gained the victory in the simple
To grace our choral song! foot-race, and in the class of boys.
Whose notes to victory's glad sound
Thalia, come along !
Come, tuneful maid! for, lo! my string Orchomenus, a city of Bæotia, and the country
With meditated skill prepares of the victor Asophicus, being under the pro
In softly soothing Lydian airs tection of the Graces, her tutelary deities, to
Asophicus to sing; them Pindar addresses this ode; which was pro- Asophicus, whose speed, by thee sustain'd, bably sung in the very temple of those goddesses, The wreath for his Orchomemus obtain’d. at a sacrifice offered by Asophicus on occasion
Go then, sportive Echo, go, of his victory. The poet begins this invocation To the sable dome below, with styling the Graces queens of Orchomenus,
Proserpine's black dome, repair, and guardians of the children of Minyas, the
There to Cleodemus bear first king of that city; whose fertile terrritories,
Tidings of immortal fame : he says, were by lot assigned to their protection.
Tell, how in the rapid game Then, after describing in general the properties O'er Pisa's vale his son victorious fled ; and operations of these deities, both in Earth Tell, for thou saw'st him bear away and Heaven, he proceeds to call upon each of
The winged honours of the day; them by name to assist at the singing of this and deck'd with wreaths of fame his youthful head. ode; which was made, he tells them, to celebrate the victory of Asophicus, in the glory of which Orchomenus had her share. Then ad
THE FIRST PYTHIAN ODE. dressing himself to Ecbo, a nymph that forinerly This ode is inscribed to Hiero of Ætna, King of resided on the banks of Cephisus, a river of that
Syracuse, who, in the twenty-ninth Pythiad, country, he charges her to repair to the mansion
(which answers to the seventy-eighth Olympiad) of Proserpine, and impart to Cleodemus, the
gained the victory in the chariot-race. father of Asophicus, (who from hence appears to have been dead at that time) the happy news of
ARGUMENT. his son's victory; and so concludes.
The poet, addressing himself in the first place to
his harp, lanches out immediately into a deMONOSTROPHAIC.
scription of the wonderful effects produced in Heaven by the enchanting harmony of that divine
instrument, when played upon by Apollo, and Ye powers, o'er all the flowery mceds, accompanied by the Muses; these effects, says
Where deep Cephisus rolls his lucid tide, he, are to celestial minds delight and rapture; Allotted to preside,
but the contrary to the wicked, who cannot hear, And haunt the plains renown'd for beauteous steeds, withont horrour, this heavenly music. Having Queens of Orcbomenus the fair,
mentioned the wicked, he falls into an account And sacred guardians of the ancient line
of the punishment of Typheus, an impious giant; Of Minyas divine,
who, having presumed to defy Jupiter, was by Hear, Oye Graces, and regard my prayer!
him cast into Tartarus, and then chained under All that's sweet and pleasing here
Mount Ætna, whose fiery eruptions he ascribes to Mortals from your hands receive :
this giant, whom he therefore styles Vulcanian Splendour ye and fame confer,
Monster. The description of these eruptions of Genius, wit, and beauty give,
Mount Ælna, he closes with a short prayer to Nor, with at your shining train,
Jupiter, who had a temple upon that mountain, Ever on th'ethereal plain
and from thence passes to, what indeed is more In harinonious measures move
properly the subject of this ode, the Pythian The celestial choirs above;
victory of Hiero. This part of the poem is conWhen the figurd dance they lead,
nected with what went before by the means of Or the nectar'd banquet spread.
Ætna, a city built by Hiero, and named after But with thrones immortal grac'd,
the mountain in whose neighbourhood it stood. And by Pythian Phobus plac'd,
Hiero had ordered himself to be styled of Ætna
by the herald who proclaimed his victory in the enjoy both these at the same time, is arrived at Pythian games; from which glorious beginning, the highest point of earthly felicity. says Pindar, the happy city presages to herself all kinds of glory and felicity for the future. Then addressing himself to Apollo, ihe patron of
DECADE 1. the Pythian games, he beseeches him to make Hail, golden lyre! whose heaven-invented string the citizens of Etna great and happy; all human To Phrebus and the black-hair'd Nine belongs; excellencies being the gifts of Heaven, To Hiero, Who in sweet chorns round their tuneful king in like manner, he wishes felicity and prosperity Mix with thy sounding chords their sacred songs. for the future, not to be disturbed by the return The Dance, gay queen of pleasure, thee attends; or remembrance of any past alllictions. The Thy jocund strains her listening feet inspire : toils indeed and troubles which Hiero had under And each melodious tongue its voice suspends gone, before he and his brother Gelo obtained Till thou, great leader of the heavenly quire, the sovereignty of Syracuse, having been crowned With wanton art preluding giv'st the signwith success, will doubtless, says Pindar, recur Swells the full concert then with harmony divine, often to his memory with great delight: and
DECADE 11. then taking notice of the condition of Hiero, who,
Then, of their streaming lightnings all disarın'd, it seems, being at that time troubled with the
The smouklering thunderbolts of Jove expire : stone, was carried about in the arıny in a litter,
Then, by the music of thy numbers charm’d, [ire, or chariot, he compares him to Philoctetes: this
The birds' fierce monarch' drops his vengeful hero, having been wounded in the foot by one of
Perch'd on the sceptre of th' Olympian king, Hercules's arrows, staid in Lemnos to get cured
The thrilling darts of harmony he feels ; of his wound; but it being decreed by the Fates,
And indolently hangs bis rapid wing, that Troy should not be taken without those ar
While gentle sleep bis closing eyelids seals; rows, of which Philoctetes hard the possession, the
And o'er his hearing limbs in loose array Greeks fetched him from Lemnos, lame and wounded as he was, and carried him to the siege.
To every baliny gule the ruilling feathers play. As Hiero resembled Philoctetes in one point, may
vecade III. he also, adds the poet, rex emble hiin in another,
E'en Mars, stern god of violence and war, and recover bis health by the assistance of a di Sooths with thy lulling strains his furious breast, vinity! Then addressing himself to Dinomencs,
And, driving from his heart each bloody care, the son of Hiero, whom that prince intended to His pointed lance cinsigns to peaceful rest. Inake king of Etna, he enters into an account of Nor less enraptur'd each immortal mind the colony, which liero had settled in that city:
Owns the soft enfluence of enchanting song, the people of this colony being originally de When, in melodious symphony combin'd, scended from Sparta, were, at their own request,
Try son, Latona, and the tuneful throng governed by the laws of that famous common
Of Moses, skill'd in wisdom's deepest lore, wealth. To this account Pindar subjoins a
The subtle powers of verse and harmony explore. prayer to Jupiter, imploring him to grant that
DECADE IV. both the king and people of Etna may, by an
But they, on earth, or the devouring main, swerable deeds, maintain the glory and splen Whom righteous Jove with detestation views, dour of their race; and that Hiero, and bis son With envious horrour hear the heavenly strain, Dinomenes, taught to govern by the precepts of Exil'd from praise, from virtue, and the Muse, his father, may be able to dispose their minds Such is Typhaus, impious foe of gods, to peace and unity. For this purpose, continues Whose hundred-headed form Cilicia's cave he, do thou, O Jupiter, prevent the Carthagini Once foster'd in her infamous abodes; ans and the Tuscans from invading Sicily any Till, daring with presumptuous arms to brave more, by recalling to their minds the great The might of thundering Jove, subdu'd he fell, losses they had lately sustained from the valour | Plung'd in the horrid dungeons of profoundest Hell. of Hiero and his brothers; into a more particu
DECADE v. lar detail of whose courage and virtue, Pindar insinuates he would gladly enter, was he not
Now under sulphurous Cuma's sea-bound coast
. And vast Sicilia lies his shaggy breast; afraid of being too prolix and tedious; a fault which is apt to breed in the reader satiety and
By snowy Etna, nurse of endless frost, disgust; and though, continues he, excessive
The pillar'd prop of Heaven, for ever prest : fame produces often the same effects in envipus
Forth from whose nitrous caverns issuing rise
Pure liquid fountains of tempestuous fire, minds, yet do not thou, O Hiero! upon that consideration, omit doing any great or good ac
And veil in ruddy mists the noon-day skies,
While wrapt in smoke the eddying flames tion; it being far better to be envied than to be pitied. With this, and some precepts useful to
aspire, all kings in general, and others more peculiarly
Or gleaming through the night with hideous roar adapted to the temple of Hiero, whom, as he
Far o'er the reddening main huge rocky fragments was somewhat inclined to avarice, he encourages
pour. to acts of generosity and munificence, from the
DECADE VI. consideration of the fame accruing to the princes But he, Vulcanian monster, to the clouds of that character, and the infamy redounding to The fiercest, hottest inundations throws, tyrants, he concludes; winding up all with ob Wbile, with the burthen of incumbent woods serving, that the first of all human blessings And Etna's gloomy chiff's o'erwhelm'd he glows. consists in being virtuous; the second in being praised; and that he who has the happiness to !
· The eagle. YOL. XI.
There on his finty bed out-stretch'd be lies,
Recover'd vigour froin celestial hands!
And may the healing god proceed to give (save us from thy wrath, Sicilian Jove!
The power to gain whate'er his wish demands. Thou, that here reign'st, ador'd in Etna's sacred
But now, O Muse, address thy sounding lays grove!
To young Dinomenes, his virtuous heir.
Sing to Dinomenes, his father's praise;
His father's praise shall glad his filial ear, Whose borrow'd name adorns the royal town
For him hereafter shalt thou touch the string, Rais'd by illustrious Hiero's generous hand,
| And chant in friendly strains fair Etna's future king. And render'd glorious with his high renown. By Pythian heralds were her praises sung,
And fill'd with sons of Greece her stately towers,
Still must the restive Dorian youth be led; Thus when the mariners to prosperous winds,
Who, dwelling once on cold Eurotas' wave, The port forsaking, spread the swelling sails;
Where proud Täygetus exalts his head, The fair departure cheers their jocund minds
From the great stock of Hercules divine With pleasing hopes of favourable gales,
And warlike Pamphilus deriv'd their noble line. While o'er the dangerous deserts of the main,
DECADE XIV. To their lor'd country they pursue their way.
These, from Thessalian Pindus rushing down, E'en so, Apollo, thou, whom Lycia's plain,
The walls of fam'd Amyelæ once possessid, Whom Delus, and Castalia's springs obey,
And, rich in Fortune's gifts and high renown, These hopes regard, and Etna's glory raise
Dwelt near the twigs of Leda, while they press'd With valiant sons, triumphant steeds, and heavenly
Their milky coursers, and the pastures oer lays !
Of neighbouring Argos rang’d, in arms supremne. DECADE IX.
To king and people on the flowery shore For human virtue from the gods proceeds;
Of lucid Amena, Sicilian stream, They the wise mind bestow'd, and smooth'd Grant the like fortune, Jove, with like desert the tongue
The splendour of their race and glory to assert. With elocution, and for mighty deeds The nervous arm with manly vigour strung.
DECADE XV. All these are Hiero's: these to rival lays
And do thou aid Sicilia's hoary lord Call forth the bard: arise then, Muse, and speed To form and rule his son's obedient mind; To this contention ; strive in Hiero's praise, I And still in golden chains of sweet accord
Nor fear thy efforts shall his worth excced; el And mutual peace the friendly people bind; Within the lines of truth secure to throw,
Then grant, () son of Saturn, grant my prayer! Thy dart shall still surpass cach vain attempting foe. The bold Phænician on his shore detain; DECADE X.
And may the hardy Tuscan never dare So may succeeding ages, as they roll,
To sex with clamorous war Sicilia's main ; Great Hiero still in wealth and bliss maintain,
Remembering Hiero, how on Cuma's coast And joyous health recalling, on his soul
" Wreck'd by his stormy arms their groaning fleets Oblivion pour of life-consuming pain.
were lost. Yet may thy memory with sweei delight
DECADE XVI. The various dangers and the toils recount,
What terrours ! what destruction them assail'd! Which in intestine wars and bloody fight.
Hurl'd from their riven decks what numbers Thy patient virtue, Hiero, did surmount;
died ! What time, by Heaven above all Grecians crowu'd,
When o'er their might Sicilia's chief prevail'd, The prize of sovereign sway with thee thy brother 2 |
Their youth o'erwhelming in the foamy tide; found.
Greece frum impending servitude to save.
Thy favour, glorious Athens! to acquire,
Would I record the Salaminian wave Smit with the arrows of a sore disease;
Fam'd in thy triumphs: and my tuneful lyre While, as along slow rolls thy sickly car,
To Sparta's sons with sweetest praise should tell, Love and amaze the haughtiest bosoms seize. Beneath Cithæron's shade what Medish archers fell. In Lemnos, pining with th' envenom'd wound,
DECADE XVII. The son of Pæan, Philoctetes, lay :
But on fair Himera's wide-water'd shores There, after tedious quest, the heroes found,
Thy sous, Dinomenes, my lyre demand, And bore the limping archer thence away;
To grace their virtues with the various stores By whom fell Priam's towers (so Pate ordain'd) And the long larass'd Greeks their wish'd repose!
Of sacred verse, and sing th? illustrious band
Of valiant brothers, who from Carthage won obtain'd.
Tb: glorious meed of conquest, deathless praise,
A pleasing theme! but Censure's dreaded frown Gelo.
Compcls me to contract my spreading lays,
In verse conciseness pleases every guest,
meant chiefly, though not solely, the gaining While each impatient blames and loaths a tedious more prizes in the great or sacred games (parfeast.
ticularly the Olympic), where the Muses conDECADE xvi.
stantly attend to celebrate and record the conNor less distasteful is excessive fame
querors. From thence, after a short digression To the sour palate of the envious mind; to the general praise of Sicily, he comes to Who hears with grief his neighbour's goodly name, an enumeration of the particular virtues of Chro
And hates the fortune that he ne'er shall find. mius, viz. bis hospitality, liberality, prudence in Yet in thy virtue, Hiero, persevere!
council, and courage in war. Then, returning Since to be envied is a nobler fate
to the Nemean victory, he takes occasion from Than to be pitied: let strict Justice steer
so auspicious a beginning, to promise Chromius a With equitable hand the helm of state,
large increase of glory, in like manner as Tiresias, And arm thy tongue with truth: 0 king, beware the famous poet and prophet of Thebes (the Of every step! a prince can never lightly err. country of Pindar), upon viewing the first exploit DECADE xix.
of Hercules, which was killing in his cradle the O'er many nations art thou set, to deal
two serpents sent by Juno to devour him, foreThe goods of Fortune with impartial hand;
told the subsequent achievements of that hero, And, ever watchful of the public weal,
and the great reward he should receive for all Unnumber'd witnesses around thee stand.
his labours, by being admitted into the number Then, would thy virtuous ear for ever feast
of the gods, and married to Hebe; with which On the sweet melody of well-earu'd fame,
story he concludes the ode. In generous purposes confirm thy breast,
Nor dread expenses that will grace thy name; But scorning sordid and unprincely gain,
SISTER of Delos! pure abode
Of Virgin Cynthia, goddess of the chase
In whose recesses rests thị emerging flood
Of Alpheus, breathing from his amorous rar! His fame in lively characters remains,
Divine Ortygia ! to thy name Or grav'd in monumental histories,
The Muşe preluding tunes her strings, Or deck'd and painted in Aonian strains.
Pleas'd with the sweet preamble of thy fam. Thus fresh, and fragrant, and immortal, blooms
To usher in the verse, that sings The virtue, Crorsus, of thy gentle mind:
Thy triumphs, Chromius; while Siciliar ore While Fate to infamy and hatred dooms
Hears with delight through Etna's soundin, gure Sicilia's tyrant, scorn of human kind;
The gratulations of the hymning choir, Whose ruthless bosom swell'd with cruel pride,
Whom thy victorious car and Nemea's palnı, ir pire. When in his brazen bull the broiling wretches died.
The basis of his future praise Him therefore nor in sweet society
Assisted by the gods hath Chromius laic?; The generous youth conversing ever name
And to its height the towering pile may Nor with the harp's delightful melody
If Fortune lends her favourable aid : Mingle his odious inharmonious faine;
Assur'd that all th’ Aonian trajn The first, the greatest bliss on man conferr'd
Their wonted friendship will afford, Is, in the acts of virtue to excel;
Who with delight frequent the listed pls. The second, to obtain their high reward,
The toils of Virtue to record. The soul-exalting praise of doing well.
Meantime around this isle, harmonious' Who both these lots attains, is blest indeed,
The brightest beams of shining verse dite e. Since Fortune here below can give no richer meed.
This fruitful island, with whose flowery ride Heaven's awful king endow'd great Pluto 's beau.
THE FIRST NEMEAN ODE.
Sicilia with transcendant plenty crown'd This ode is inscribed to Chromius of Etna (a city Jove to Proserpina consign'd;
of Sicily) who gained the victory in the chariot- Then with a nod his solemn promise bom ?, race, in the Nemean games.
Still further to enrich her fertile shores
With peopled cities, stately towers,
And sons in arts and arms refin'd;
Skill'd to the dreadful works of war:
and part of the city of Syracuse, to which it was Or mounted on the whirling car joined by a bridge) Pindar passes to the subject Olympia's all-priz'd olive to obtain.or occasion of this ode, viz. the victory obtained
Abundant is my theme; nor need I wrong by Chromius in the Nemean games; which, as The fair occasion with a flattering song. it was the first of that kind gained by him, the poet styles the basis of his future fame, laid by
the co-operation of the gods, who assisted and To Chromius no unwelcome guest • seconded his divine virtues; and, adds he, if I come, high sounding my Dircæan chord ;
Fortune continues to be favourable, he may ar- Who for his poet bath prepar'd the fca-t, rive at the highest summit of glory: by which is And spread with luxury his friendly board: