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Church, but being obliged to leave, or having been ejected, he retired to Cambridge, where he continued his studies and took a degree. Afterwards becoming tutor in the family of Sir John Welch, in Gloucestershire, he was reprimanded by the Chancellor of the diocese, and dismissed with severe threats against heresy. Tyndale's next place of residence was London, where his thoughts were bent on translating the New Testament, but being sensible this could not be safely performed in England, and receiving aid from several friends, he went to Saxony, and finally settled at Antwerp, where many English merchants, some of them zealous adherents of Luther's doctrines, resided. Here the work of translation was commenced, and the New Testament printed in 1526. When the printed volumes were imported into England, Tunstall, Bishop of London, caused as many copies as possible to be purchased and burnt; but as this step supplied Tyndale with the necessary funds for a new edition, the cause of truth was greatly advanced. The great Sir Thomas More entered the lists against the new translation, but was answered by Tyndale, who next rendered the Pentateuch into the English language, but going to Hamburg, that it might be printed, the vessel was wrecked, and the whole of the books, papers, and money Tyndale possessed being lost, he was necessitated to recommence his labours. At Hamburg, with the assistance of Coverdale, the Pentateuch was again translated, and was printed in 1530, and to this the indefatigable scholar afterwards added an English version of the prophecy of Jonah. From Hamburg Tyndale returned to Antwerp, where he was betrayed into the hands of his enemies, and notwithstanding the English merchants procured letters from Secretary Cromwell to the Court at Brussels for his release, all the efforts made on his behalf were fruitless, and he was strangled and burnt in the year 1536. Thus perished in the prime of his manhood this true-hearted servant of God,

who by his unwearied zeal in the cause of his Master was honoured to become the instrument of scattering the good seed of the kingdom which was destined to bring forth fruit a hundred-fold. In addition to his translations Tyndale was the author of various theological and controversial tracts, which many years after his death were collected in a folio volume. Extracts are given at pages 19, (Rich and Precious Jewel) 44, (Prayer,) and 250, (Faith.)

HENRY VAUGHAN.

This writer, called the Silurist from being a native of that part of Wales whose ancient inhabitants were termed Silures, was born in Breconshire in 1621. After being educated at home, he was entered of Jesus College, Oxford, but after two years' residence quitted the University, his father being desirous that he should study the law in the metropolis. On the breaking out of the civil war he returned home, and followed, says Wood, “The pleasant paths of poetry and philology," but subsequently studied and practised physic with reputation. He died in 1695. Specimens of his muse will be found at pages 90 (Morning Hymn) and 194, (Sundays.)

JOHN WICKLIFF.

John Wickliff, " The morning star of the Reformation," was born in Yorkshire in 1324, and was sent at an early age to Queen's College, Oxford, from whence he removed to Merton College, the most distinguished in the University at that period. Here he applied himself with great zeal to the learning of the schools, and acquired the celebrity which a profound knowledge of the philosophy and divinity then in vogue could confer. In 1360, being in his thirty-sixth year, he became the advocate for the University against the encroachments of the medicant friars, and wrote several tracts in opposition to their assumptions. His ability and courage in this contest so increased his reputation that in 1361 he was chosen Master of Balliol College, and four years later made Warden of Canterbury Hall, afterwards included in Christ Church. The death of Archbishop Islip, and the succession of Langham, who had been a monk, and therefore a favourer of the religious against the secular clergy, led to Wickliff's ejection from his wardenship, and the papal and royal sanction having been obtained, the monks occupied the places of Wickliff and his expelled fellows. Shortly after this decision Wickliff was admitted to the degree of D.D., a rank at that time unfrequent, and which, conferring a considerable amount of influence, must have facilitated the diffusion of his opinions throughout the kingdoms. Wickliff next appeared as opponent to the demand of the Pope for the tribute money originally granted to the see of Rome by King John, and this led to his introduction to the Duke of Lancaster, who became his devoted friend, and through whose favour he obtained the living of Lutterworth. Here he advanced in his writings and sermons those opinions which entitle him to the rank of reformer. He was not suffered, however, to remain unmolested, several bulls being fulminated against him, and a citation issued commanding him to appear at St. Alban's, where he was accompanied by the Duke of Lancaster and by Lord Henry Percy, Lord Marshal of England. He was mercifully preserved on this as on all other occasions from the rage of his enemies, and enabled to complete the translation of the Holy Scriptures into the vulgar tongue. Of this translation several manuscript copies are still extant, as well as nearly three hundred sermons supposed to have been preached at Lutterworth, where he continued, though not without annoyance, till his death in 1384, at the age of sixty. Forty-four years afterwards, that is in 1428, his remains were disentombed, and by command of the Pope burned to ashes, and scattered in the river running close by the church in which he had so faithfully ministered the Word of life. His writings were numerous ; extracts are given at pages 161, (The Sabbath,) 216, (Turning to God,) and 274, (Meekness.)

BISHOP WILKINS.

This ingenious prelate was a native of Fawsley, Northamptonshire, and entered a student of New Inn Hall, Oxford, in 1627, being then thirteen years of age. He made no long stay there, but removed to Magdalen Hall, and entering into holy orders became chaplain to the Count Palatine of the Rhine, with whom he continued some time. On the breaking out of the civil war he joined the Parliamentary party, and took the solemn league and covenant. He was made Warden of Wadham College in 1648, and in 1659 Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, but ejected thence soon after the Restoration. Through the interest of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, Dr. Wilkins (who had previously been appointed Dean of Ripon) was promoted to the see of Chester in 1668, but did not enjoy his preferment long, his death taking place in 1672. The Bishop's fame as a mathematician and a philosopher is very great. He published several works, the contents of which may be inferred from their titles: e.g., "The Discovery of a new World; or, a Discourse tending to prove that it is probable there may be another habitable World in the Moon; with a Discourse concerning the possibility of a passage thither," &c. He wrote also “An Essay towards a real Character and a Philosophical Language," as well as several theological works. Wood describes him as “A person endowed with rare gifts; a noted theologist and preacher, a curious critic in several matters, an excellent mathematician and experimentist, and one as well seen in mechanisms and new philosophy, of which he was a great promoter, as any man of his time." An extract from his works is given at page 184, (The Sabbath.)

GEORGE WITHER.

This writer, whose name is well known, was born in Hampshire in 1588, and entered Magdalen College, Oxford, from which after a short time he was recalled home. Disliking country occupations, he entered himself as a member of Lincoln's Inn, and in 1613 published a satirical piece entitled, “Abuses stript and whipt,” for writing which he was committed to the Marshalsea, where he remained a considerable time When the civil war broke out Wither joined the Parliamentary army, and rose to the rank of major. At the Restoration, his principles, and especially a pamphlet deemed seditious, rendered him obnoxious to the new government, and he was committed to Newgate, and afterwards to the Tower, and an impeachment ordered to be drawn up against him. Though forbidden the use of pen, ink, and paper, he wrote, by the connivance of his keeper, several pieces, of which some were afterwards published. When he was released is not known, but he lived till the year 1667, his age at the time of his decease being seventy-nine. Mr. Willmott, in the preface to his “Lives of Sacred Poets," speaks in the following terms of this writer's works: "In his more serious

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