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SECT. a plan for the discovery and settlement of those
parts of North America, lying north of the Gulf of 1584. Mexico, and which were as yet unknown and un
settled by the Spaniards, lie laid it before the queen and council; to whom it appeared a rational and practicable undertaking. He, therefore, easily obtained a renewal of letters patent to himself, in as ample form, and containing nearly the same clauses and provisions as in that to his brother Sir Hum phrey Gilbert.* As the monarchs of England, not
to China and the Molucca Isles, “ by the northwarde, northeastwarde, or northwarde,” creating them a corporation by the name of “The colleagues of the fellowship, for the discoverie of the north-west passage.” (See the letters patent at large in Hazard's Collections, Vol. 1, p. 28.) But this grant was in some measure superseded by a like project sét on foot about the same time in London, under the patronage of Mr. William Sanderson, an eminent merchant of that city. The two associations uniting, captain John Davis was sent out for that purpose, in the year 1585, to the northern coasts of America ; who made considerable discoveries in that part of the American continent since called Davis's Straits. (See Harris's Voyages, Vol. 2, p. 203.) The reader's attention may be interrupted for a moment, in noticing a remarkable clause in these letters patent, to Adrian Gilbert : mutiny on board the ships, while on their voyage, was to be punished, “ cause shall be found, in justice to require, by the verdict of twelve of the companie, sworne thereunto;" that is, by a jury selected from the ships company.
* They bear date the 25th of March, 26th of Eliz. (1584, new style,) and are nearly verbatim the same as the beforementioned patent to Sir Humphrey Gilbert. One small variance between them may be noted : in the clause granting power to Sir Walter, to capture all such vessels as shall be found trafficking within the limits of his grant, without his license, exception is made of the subjects of our realms and
only of the Tudor line, but afterwards of the Stuarts, SECT. were unwilling to be dependant on their parliaments for their revenues; they were, therefore, generally 1584.
and needy, to assist with money in the promotion of such laudable enterprises, as the one now contemplated by Raleigh.
With their patents for exclusive trade, especially with those which promised any emolument to the crown, they were extremely liberal. Hence, monopolies were among
the most grievous burthens, and the most frequent subject of complaint, even during the popular reign of Elizabeth. Sir Walter was, therefore, obliged to have recourse to the assistance of private individuals, to enable him to pursue his schemes. Be. fore he had obtained his patent, he had formed an association of his friends*, and had prevailed on several merchants and gentlemen, to advance large sums of money towards carrying on his designs.t Accordingly, within a month after the date of his patent, he was enabled to fit out two ships, under the command of captains Philip Amidas and Arthur
dominions, and all other persons in amitie with us, trading to the Newfoundlands for fishing, as heretofore they have commonly used.” This exception is not in the patent to Sir Humphrey Gilbert. See them at large in Hazard's Collections, Vol. 1, p. 33.
* Among these were Sir Richard Grenville, his kinsman, and Sir W. Sanderson, who had married his niece. Burk's Hist. of Virginia, Vol. 1, p. 45. The latter gentleman was, probably, the same as the one before mentioned, who was concerned with Adrian Gilbert, in the discovery of a north-west passage.
t Oldmixon's British Empire in America, Vol. 1, p. 210. Mod. Univ. Hist. Vol. 39, p. 235.
SECT. Barlow, to visit the countries which he intended to
settle, and to acquire some previous knowledge of 1584. their coasts, their soil, and productions. Voyage of captains
They sailed for the west of England on the 27th and Bar. of April following; and to avoid the error of Sir low.
Humphrey Gilbert, in holding too far north, they shaped their course for the Canaries, which they passed on the tenth of June,* and proceeding from thence to the West Indies, they crossed the Gulf of Mexico, and on the second of July, fell in with the coast of Florida. They sailed along this coast, till they came, on the 13th of the month, to a river, where they anchored; and going on shore, took possession in right of the queen, and for the use of the proprietors. They went to the tops of the hills which were nearest to the shore, from whence, though they were not high, they discovered the sea on all sides, and found the place where they landed, to be an island of about fifteen miles in length and six in breadth; then called by the natives, Wokoken.t
• Another reason for this course is said to be thus expres. sed in the account of this voyage, written by Barlow: “ Because we doubted that the current of the Bay of Mexico, between the Capes of Florida and Havannah, was much stronger than we afterwards found it to be.” Burk's Hist. of Virginia, Vol. 1, p. 46. Mod. Univ. Hist. Vol. 39, p. 236.
† The disagreement and confusion among all the writers on this voyage, as to the topography of the places referred to, render it almost impossible to ascertain with precision where this island was situated, or what river it was which they first entered. A passage cited (by Burk in his history of Virginia, Vol: 1, p. 46,) from Barlow's letter to Sir Walter Raleigh, preserved by Hackluyt, is supposed to throw some light
On the third day after their arrival and landing, SECT. they saw three of the natives in a canoe, one of whom went on shore and waited, without any signs 1584. of apprehension, the approach of a boat from the ships, which was sent to him. He spoke long and earnestly to them, in his own language, and then went with them on board, without any apparent fear. They gave him a shirt and hat, and some wine and meat, with all which he seemed pleased. After he had, with a seeming satisfaction, narrowly viewed the ships, and examined every part with his eyes and touch, he went in his canoe, to about a quarter of a mile's distance, where he fished, and returned in a short time, with his canoe loaded with fish; which he divided equally in two heaps, and making signs that each vessel should take one, he departed.
The next day several canoes appeared in view; in one of which came the king's brother, whose name was Granganemeo, attended with about forty The king himself, whose name was Win
upon the subject; wherein he says, that he, (Barlow) " with seven others, went in a boat, twenty miles into the river Occam, and the evening following, came to an island called Roanoke, distant from the harbour by which we entered, seven leagues." Stith (in his Hist. of Virginia,) seems to think that this island called Wokoken, must have been that now called Ocracocke. Beverly, (in his Hist. of Virginia,) says, "they anchored at an inlet by Roanoke." What is said also in the accounts of the subsequent voyages of Sir Richard Grenville to Roanoke, and the relief of the colony by Sir Francis Drake, seems to confirm the opinion, that Wokoken and Ocracocke were one and the same island; and the river where they an chored, Roanoke inlet.
SECT. gina,* lay ill of the wounds he had received in bat
tle, with a neighbouring nation. The behaviour of 1584. Granganemeo, when he approached the ships, is best
described in the very words of the original account of the voyage, as preserved in Hackluyt. “The maner of his comming was in this sort; hee left his boates altogether as the first man did (the day before) a
( little from the shippes by the shore, and came along to the place over against the shippes, followed with fortie men.
When he came to the place, his servants spread a long matte upon the ground, on which he satte downe ; and at the other end of the matte, foure others of his companie did the like, the rest of his men stood round about him, somewhat a farre off: when we came to the shore to him, with our weapons, hee never moved from his place, nor any of the other foure, nor never mistrusted any harme to be offered from us; but sitting still, he beckoned us to come and sit by him, which we performed : and being set, hee made all signs of joy and wel. come.”+ Our navigators made to him and his four chiefs, presents of several toys, which he kindly accepted; but he took all himself, and gave them
, to understand, that none there had a right to any thing but himself. Two days afterwards they let him see their merchandise ; of which nothing seemed to please him more than a pewter dish, for which he gave twenty deer-skins; and making a hole in the rim of it, hung it over his neck for a
* The country was called by the natives, Wingådocia, in . respect possibly to the reigning chief, Wingina.
it See Holmes's Annals, Vol. 1, p. 117.