Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South India

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Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010 - Religion - 386 pages
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The volume "Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South Asia" edited by Michael Bergunder, Heiko Frese, and Ulrike Schroder focuses on South India during the colonial period in the 19th and 20th century. The study's purpose is to explore the impact that notions of ritual, caste, and religion had on Indian society during the time. The various authors give detailed analyses of Tamil and Telugu sources, emphasizing the historical background by accenting the newly established print media of the time. They show how these concepts played a crucial role in the formation of social, cultural, and religious identities, and with this vitally contribute to the history of colonisation in India.

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Vemulawada Bheemakavi was a great Telugu Poet. Now i am doing research on Vemulawada Bheemakavi, so please provide this article.
Please follow the link for complete story on Shri Vemulawada
Bheemakavi: www.shribheemalingeswaraswamy.org
Please mail soft copy to sbsdevastanams@gmail.com or kacharagadla@gmail.com

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Nadar or Nadalvar descend from the ancient Villavar rulers of India. The Europeans have been pretending as experts in Dravidian culture. Germans or Dutch hardly know Tamil or Malayalam. While vehemently attacking all the Dravidian Kshatriyas the Europeans dont hesitate to fabricate that Christianity existed during ancient Tamil period. Christianity was not a known religeon to ancient Tamil Villavar people. Until the fall of Pandyan dynasty in 1310 AD none of the Dravidian Tamil records mentioned Christianity or St.Thomas. But Villavars and Nadalvars are mentioned in numerous iinscriptions. When Portuguese came to Kerala Tamil was the major language and Villarvattom Kingodm of Villavars was there. But after Five hundred years of European colonialism Tamils completely disappeared from Kerala. This is because the Europeans (Portuguese Dutch and British) were converting Villavar and Meenavar people to Christianity and therby destroyed the cultural identity of Villavar peoople. The Portuguese were actually supporting the Tulu Nepalese antagonists of Tamil Villavar people from Ahichatra/Nepal. The Matriarchal Tulu Nepalese dynasties became powerful because of this European conspiracy. Now the European Pseudo-scholors pretend that they are expert Indologists.
Villavars were merely slaves during the British rule.
Southern Villavar titles of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Villavar (Villavarayar) Vanavar (Vanathirayar Vanavarayar) Malaiyar Enathirayar (Eyinan+Adhi) Maveli Maran
Nadalvar (Nadavar Nadava Nadakkamar) were the Villavar aristocracy which ruled the country.
Seagoing supporting clan was called Meenavar.
Northern Villavar titles of Andhra and Northern India
Bana Mahabali Balija Banajiga
The Northern Bana kingdom disintegrated when more and more Nagas and Gangas came from Orissa and Ganjetic plains.
It is ironic that the Pandyan and Chera kingdoms were brought down by the northern counterparts of the Villavars the Banas.
The Pandyan Kingdom which was defeated by Malik Kafur was occupied by the Balija Naicks and Banas in 1378.
Shanar or Chanar used to be the common name for Nadars. Shanar means Chieftain.
Shanar Ghaut or Shanar Malai is the ancient hideout of Nadars when the Pandyan Kingdom is attacked. Shanar Malai is situated near Tenkasi the ancient Pandyan Royal house .
Travancore state Manual page 14.
Sanarapalayam is a place North of Madras. This could be one of the Sanar army camps of the later Pandyan Empires northern borders till 1310 AD.
Sanarpalayam are found near Thiruchengode, Perunthurai, Erode, Dharapuram, Gopichetti Palayam at the Northern borders of Pandyan Kingdom.
Palayam in Tamil means Army Camp or Barracks.
Similarly in the Chola country Sannanallur is found near Nannilam.
Nadalvar is the title for the aristocracy of the Villavar people . Nadalvar Nadava Nadar Nattavar and Nattar are some of the varriants.
DONA BEATRIZ NATOVER (NADAVAR) the last princess of Kodungaloor, the Capital of Chera kingdom.
Thrissur Museum contains a Gravestone of a Portuguese Noble man called Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita from the 16th century erected by his wife Dona Beatriz Natover. Dona Beatriz Natover was a indigenous Malayali woman who had a temple at Kodungaloor the medival capital of Chera Dynasty. Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita initially was protecting this temple as Vicar and he was also a school teacher Mestre Escola (School master) in the school run by Dona Beatriz Natover. Ultimately Dona Beatriz Natover was converted to Christianity and acquired the Christian name Dona Beatriz. Perhaps she is from the Chera or Pandian aristocracy with title Nadavar of Kerala.
Tax collectors called Nattavar is mentioned in five inscriptions from Pennai and Gaddilam river valleys at South Arcot under the Vijaya Nagara Naickers in 1572-1573 period.


I M Nallaswamy
Maraimalai Adigal 18761950
Saiva defiance against
No religion but ritual? Robert Caldwell
Tamilspeaking Muslims and
C J Fuller and Ilari priya Narasimhan
R lvnkumthalaputhi
T Velawda Mudaliar s N hidamharam Iyer on the message

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About the author (2010)

Michael Bergunder is professor of the history of religions and mission studies at the University of Heidelberg.

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