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exist to be a sensation, and, if it exists, it is real and not delusive. But the judgments we form respecting the causes and conditions of the sensations of which we are aware, are very often erroneous and delusive cnough; and such judgments may be brought about in the domain of every sense, either by artificial combinations of sensations, or by the influence of unusual conditions of the body itself. The latter give rise to what are called subjective sensations.

Mankind would be subject to fewer delusions than they are, if they constantly bore in mind their liability to false judgments due to unusual combinations, either artificial or natural, of true sensations. Men say, “I felt,” “I heard,”

" " I saw” such and such a thing, when, in ninetynine cases out of a hundred, what they really mean is, that they judge that certain sensations of touch, hearing, or sight, of which they were conscious, were caused by such and such things.

6. Among subjective sensations within the domain of touch, are the feelings of creeping and prickling of the skin, which are not uncommon in certain states of the circulation. The subjective evil smells and bad tastes which accompany some diseases are very probably due to similar disturbances in the circulation of the sensory organs of smell and taste.

Many persons are liable to what may be called auditory spectra-music of various degrees of complexity sounding in their ears, without any external cause, while they are wide awake. I know not if other persons are similarly troubled, but in reading books written by persons with whom I am acquainted, I am sometimes tormented by hearing the words pronounced in the exact way in which these persons would utter them, any trick or peculiarity of voice, or gesture, being, also, very accurately reproduced. And I suppose that everyone must have been startled, at times, by the extreme distinctness with which his thoughts have embodied themselves in apparent voices.

The most wonderful exemplifications of subjective sensation, however, are afforded by the organ of sight.

Anyone who has witnessed the sufferings of a man labouring under delirium tremens (a disease produced by excessive drinking), from the marvellous distinctness of his visions, which sometimes take the forms of devils, sometimes of creeping animals, but almost always of something fearful or loathsome, will not doubt the intensity of subjective sensations in the domain of vision.

7. But that illusive visions of great distinctness should appear, it is not necessary for the nervous system to be thus obvious y deranged. People in the full possession of their faculties, and of high intelligence, may be subject to such appearances, for which no distinct cause can be assigned. An excellent illustration of this is the famous case of Mrs. A. given by Sir David Brewster, in his * Natural Magic." (See Appendix.)

It should be mentioned that Mrs. A. was naturally a person of very vivid imagination, and that, at the time the most notable of these illusions appeared, her health was weak from bronchitis and enfeebled digestion.

It is obvious that nothing but the singular courage and clear intellect of Mrs. A. prevented her from becoming a mine of ghost stories of the most excellently authenticated kind. And the particular value of her history lies in its showing, that the clearest testimony of the most unimpeachable witness inay be quite inconclusive as to the objective reality of something which the witness has seen.

Mrs. A. undoubtedly saw what she said she saw. The evidence of her eyes as to the existence of the apparitions, and of her cars to those of the voices, was, in itself, as perfectly trustworthy as their evidence would have been had the objects really existed. For there can be no doubt that exactly those parts of her retina which would have been affected by the image of a cat, and those parts of her auditory organ which would have been set vibrating by her husband's voice, or the portions of the sensorium with which those organs of sense are connected, were thrown into a corresponding state of activity by some internal cause.

What the senses testify is neither more nor less than the fact of their own affection. As to the cause of that affection they really say nothing, but leave the mind to form its own judgment on the matter. A hasty or superstitious person in Mrs. A.'s place would have formed a wrong judgment, and would have stood by it on the plea that ” she must believe her senses."

8. The delusions of the judgment, produced not by abnormal conditions of the body, but by unusual or artificial combinations of sensations, or by suggestions of ideas, are exceedingly numerous, and, occasionally are not a little remarkable.

Some of those which arise out of the sensation of touch have already been noted. I do not know of any produced through smell or taste, but hearing is a fertile source of such errors.

What is called ventriloquism (speaking from the belly), and is not uncommonly ascribed to a mysterious power of producing voice somewhere else than in the larynx, depends entirely upon the accuracy with which the performer can simulate sounds of a particular character, and upon the skill with which he can suggest a belief in the existence of the causes of these sounds. Thus, if the ventriloquist desire to create the belief that a voice issues from the bowels of the earth, he imitates with great accuracy the tones of such a half-stifled voice, and suggests the existence of some one uttering it by directing his answers and gestures towards the ground. These gestures and tones are such as would be produced by a given cause ; and no other cause being apparent, the mind of the bystander insensibly judges the suggested cause to exist.

9. The delusions of the judgment through the sense of sight--optical delusions, as they are called--are more numerous than any others, because such a great number of what we think to be simple visual sensations are really very complex aggregates of visual sensations, tactile sensations, judgments, and recollections of former sensations and judgments.

It will be instructive to analyse some of these judgments into their principles, an to explain the delusions by the application of these principles.

io. When an external body is felt by the touch to be in a given place, the image of that body falls on a point of the retina which lies at one end of a straight line joining the body and the retina, and traversing a particular region of the centre of the eye. This straight line is called the OPTIC AXIS.

Conversely, when any part of the surface of the retina


is excited, the luminous sensation is referred by the mind to some point outside the body, in the direction of the optic axis.

It is for this reason that when a phosphene is created by pressure, say on the outer and lower side of the eyeball, the luminous image appears to lie above, and to the inner side of, the eye. Any external object which could produce the sense of light in the part of the retina pressed upon must, owing to the inversion of the retinal images (see Lesson IX. § 23), in fact occupy this position; and hence the mind refers the light seen to an object in that position.

11. The same kind of explanation is applicable to the apparent paradox that, while all the pictures of external objects are certainly inverted on the retina by the refracting media of the eye, we nevertheless see them upright. It is difficult to understand this, until one reflects that the retina has, in itself, no means of indicating to the mind which of its parts lies at the top, and which at the bottom; and that the mind learns to call an impression on the retina high or low, right or left, simply on account of the association of such an impression with certain coincident tactile impressions. In other words, when one part of the retina is affected, the object causing the affection is found to be near the right hand; when another, the left ; when another, the hand has to be raised to reach the object ; when yet another, it has to be depressed to reach it. And thus the several impressions on the retina are called right, left, upper, lower, quite irrespectively of their real positions, of which the mind has, and can have, no cognizance.

12. When an external body is ascertained by touch to be simple, it forms but one image on the retina of a single eye; and when two or more images fall on the retina of a single eye, they ordinarily proceed from a corresponding number of bodies which are distinct to the touch.

Conversely, the sensation of two or more images is judged by the mind to proceed from two or more objects.

If two pin-holes be made in a piece of cardboard at a distance less than the diameter of the pupil, and a small object like the head of a pin be held pretty close to the eye, and viewed through these holes, two images of the

head of the pin will be seen. The reason of this is, that the rays of light from the head of the pin are split by the card into two minute pencils, which pass into the eye on either side of its centre, and cannot be united again and brought to one focus on account of the nearness of the pin to the eye. Hence they fall on different parts of the retina, and each pencil of rays, being very small, makes a tolerably distinct image of its own of the pin's head on the retina. Each of these images is now referred outward ($ 10) in the direction of the appropriate optic axis, and tivo pins are apparently seen instead of one. Alike explanation applies to multiplying glasses and doubly refracting crystals, both of which, in their own ways, split the pencils of light proceeding from a single object into two or more separate bundles. These give rise to as many images, each of which is referred by the mind to a distinct external object.

13. Certain visual phenomena ordinarily accompany those products of tactile sensation to which we give the name of size, distance, and form. Thus, other things being alike, the space of the retina covered by the image of a large object is larger than that covered by a small object; while that covered by a near object is larger than that covered by a distinct object; and, other conditions being alike, a near object is more bri liant than a distant one. Furthermore, the shadows of objects differ with the forms of their surfaces, as determined by touch.

Conversely, if these visual sensations can be produced, they inevitably suggest a belief in the existence of objects competent to produce the corresponding tactile sensations.

What is called perspective, whether solid or aërial, in drawing, or painting, depends on the application of these principles. It is a kind of visual ventriloquism—the painter putting upon his canvas all the conditions requisite for the production of images on the retina, having the size, relative form, and intensity of colour of those which would actually be produced by the objects themselves in nature. And the success of his picture, as an imitation, depends upon the closeness of the resemblance between the images it produces on the retina, and those which would be produced by the objects represented.

14. To most persons the image of a pin, at five or six

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