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8. The delusions of the judgment, produced not by abnormal conditions of the body, but by unusual or artificial combinations of sensations, or by suggestions of ideas, are exceedingly numerous, and, occasionally are not a little remarkable.

Some of those which arise out of the sensation of touch have already been noted. I do not know of any produced through smell or taste, but hearing is a fertile source of such errors.

What is called ventriloquism (speaking from the belly), and is not uncommonly ascribed to a mysterious power of producing voice somewhere else than in the larynx, depends entirely upon the accuracy with which the performer can simulate sounds of a particular character, and upon the skill with which he can suggest a belief in the existence of the causes of these sounds. Thus, if the ventriloquist desire to create the belief that a voice issues from the bowels of the earth, he imitates with great accuracy the tones of such a half-stifled voice, and suggests the existence of some one uttering it by directing his answers and gestures towards the ground. These gestures and tones are such as would be produced by a given cause; and no other cause being apparent, the mind of the bystander insensibly judges the suggested cause to exist.

9. The delusions of the judgment through the sense of sight-optical delusions, as they are called-are more numerous than any others, because such a great number of what we think to be simple visual sensations are really very complex aggregates of visual sensations, tactile sensations, judgments, and recollections of former sensations and judgments.

It will be instructive to analyse some of these judgments nto their principles, and to explain the delusions by the application of these principles.

io. When an external body is felt by the touch to be in a given place, the image of that body falls on a point of the retina which lies at one end of a straight line joining the body and the retina, and traversing a particular region of the centre of the eye. This straight line is called the

OPTIC AXIS.

Conversely, when any part of the surface of the retina

R

is excited, the luminous sensation is referred by the mind to some point outside the body, in the direction of the optic axis.

It is for this reason that when a phosphene is created by pressure, say on the outer and lower side of the eyeball, the luminous image appears to lie above, and to the inner side of, the eye. Any external object which could produce the sense of light in the part of the retina pressed upon must, owing to the inversion of the retinal images (see Lesson IX. § 23), in fact occupy this position; and hence the mind refers the light seen to an object in that position.

II. The same kind of explanation is applicable to the apparent paradox that, while all the pictures of external objects are certainly inverted on the retina by the refracting media of the eye, we nevertheless see them upright. It is difficult to understand this, until one reflects that the retina has, in itself, no means of indicating to the mind which of its parts lies at the top, and which at the bottom; and that the mind learns to call an impression on the retina high or low, right or left, simply on account of the association of such an impression with certain coincident tactile impressions. In other words, when one part of the retina is affected, the object causing the affection is found to be near the right hand; when another, the left; when another, the hand has to be raised to reach the object; when yet another, it has to be depressed to reach it. And thus the several impressions on the retina are called right, left, upper, lower, quite irrespectively of their real positions, of which the mind has, and can have, no cognizance.

12. When an external body is ascertained by touch to be simple, it forms but one image on the retina of a single eye; and when two or more images fall on the retina of a single eye, they ordinarily proceed from a corresponding number of bodies which are distinct to the touch.

Conversely, the sensation of two or more images is judged by the mind to proceed from two or more objects.

If two pin-holes be made in a piece of cardboard at a distance less than the diameter of the pupil, and a small object like the head of a pin be held pretty close to the eye, and viewed through these holes, two images of the

head of the pin will be seen. The reason of this is, that the rays of light from the head of the pin are split by the card into two minute pencils, which pass into the eye on either side of its centre, and cannot be united again and brought to one focus on account of the nearness of the pin to the eye. Hence they fall on different parts of the retina, and cach pencil of rays, being very small, makes a tolerably distinct image of its own of the pin's head on the retina. Each of these images is now referred outward (§ 10) in the direction of the appropriate optic axis, and two pins are apparently seen instead of one. A like explanation applies to multiplying glasses and doubly refracting crystals, both of which, in their own ways, split the pencils of light proceeding from a single object into two or more separate bundles. These give rise to as many images, each of which is referred by the mind to a distinct external object.

13. Certain visual phenomena ordinarily accompany those products of tactile sensation to which we give the name of size, distance, and form. Thus, other things being alike, the space of the retina covered by the image of a large object is larger than that covered by a small object; while that covered by a near object is larger than that covered by a distinct object; and, other conditions being alike, a near object is more bri liant than a distant one. Furthermore, the shadows of objects differ with the forms of their surfaces, as determined by touch.

Conversely, if these visual sensations can be produced, they inevitably suggest a belief in the existence of objects competent to produce the corresponding tactile sensations.

What is called perspective, whether solid or aërial, in drawing, or painting, depends on the application of these principles. It is a kind of visual ventriloquism-the painter putting upon his canvas all the conditions requisite for the production of images on the retina, having the size, relative form, and intensity of colour of those which would actually be produced by the objects themselves in nature. And the success of his picture, as an imitation, depends upon the closeness of the resemblance between the images it produces on the retina, and those which would be produced by the objects represented.

14. To most persons the image of a pin, at five or six

inches from the eye, appears blurred and indistinct-the eye not being capable of adjustment to so short a focus. If a small hole be made in a piece of card, the circumferential rays which cause the blur are cut off, and the image becomes distinct. But at the same time it is magnified, or looks bigger, because the image of the pin, in spite of the loss of the circumferential rays, occupies a much larger extent of the retina when close than when distant. All convex glasses produce the same effect-while concave lenses diminish the apparent size of an object, because they diminish the size of its image on the retina.

15. The moon, or the sun, when near the horizon appear very much larger than they are when high in the sky. When in the latter position, in fact, we have nothing to compare them with, and the small extent of the retina which their images occupy suggests small absolute size. But as they set, we see them passing behind great trees and buildings which we know to be very large and very distant, and yet occupying a larger space on the retina than the latter do. Hence the vague suggestion of their larger

size.

16. If a convex surface be lighted from one side, the side towards the light is bright-that turned from the light, dark, or in shadow; while a concavity is shaded on the side towards the light, bright on the opposite side.

If a new half-crown, or a medal with a well-raised head upon its face, be lighted sideways by a candle, we at once know the head to be raised (or a cameo) by the disposition of the light and shade; and if an intaglio, or medal on which the head is hollowed out, be lighted in the same way, its nature is as readily judged by the eye.

But now, if either of the objects thus lighted be viewed with a convex lens, which inverts its position, the light and dark sides will be reversed. With the reversal the judgment of the mind will change, so that the cameo will be regarded as an intaglio, and the intaglio as a cameo; for the light still comes from where it did, but the cameo appears to have the shadows of an intaglio, and vice versâ. So completely, however, is this interpretation of the facts as a matter of judgment, that if a pin be stuck beside the medal so as to throw a shadow, the pin and its shadow, being reversed by the lens, will suggest that the direction

of the light is also reversed, and the medals will seem to be what they really are.

17. Whenever an external object is watched rapidly changing its form, a continuous series of different pictures of the object is impressed upon the same spot of the retina.

Conversely, if a continuous series of different pictures of one object is impressed upon one part of the retina, the mind judges that they are due to a single external object, undergoing changes of form.

This is the principle of the curious toy called the thaumatrope, or "zootrope," or "wheel of life," by the help of which, on looking through a hole, one sees images of jugglers throwing up and catching balls, or boys playing at leapfrog over one another's backs. This is managed by painting at intervals, on a disk of card, figures and jugglers in the attitudes of throwing, waiting to catch, and catching; or boys "giving a back," leaping, and coming into position after leaping. The disk is then made to rotate before an opening, so that each image shall be presented for an instant, and follow its predecessor before the impression of the latter has died away. The result is that the succession of different pictures irresistibly suggests one or more objects undergoing successive changes-the juggler seems to throw the balls, and the boys appear to jump over one another's backs.

18. When an external object is ascertained by touch to be single, the centres of its retinal images in the two eyes fall upon the centres of the yellow spots of the two eyes, when both eyes are directed towards it; but if there be two external objects, the centres of both their images cannot fall, at the same time, upon the centres of the yellow spots.

Conversely, when the centres of two images, formed simultaneously in the two eyes, fall upon the centres of the yellow spots, the mind judges the images to be caused by a single external object; but if not, by two.

This seems to be the only admissible explanation of the facts, that an object which appears single to the touch and when viewed with one eye, also appears single when it is viewed with both eyes, though two images of it are necessarily formed; and on the other hand, that when the centres of the two images of one object do not fall on the

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