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ciples, must be marvellously amusing. Nor is the entertainment dashed with any admixture of that bitterness which the general spirit of the times would lead us to expect. Cheynell really seems to have exerted himself with most active kindness for the good of both the soul and the body of his antagonist; and we think, that even the extracts which we are about to give will be sufficient to entitle the character of our worthy author to a place among those amiable exceptions, to which in the outset of this article we briefly alluded.
Chillingworth's great work having issued from the press with the imprimatur of Dr. Prideaux, Dr. Fell, Dr. Potter, and other leading men at Oxford, Cheynell prefaces his Relation with an address to these persons, the whole of which is redolent of that mixture of compassion and self-satisfaction of which we have already spoken.
“You that were his patrons and encouragers, as he acknowledged ever, when he was in the height of his rebellion, do you beware lest a worse thing come unto you. You that were the licensers of his subtle atheism; repent, repent ; for he was so hardened by your flattery, that (for ought the most charitable man can judge) he perished by your approbation : he ever appealed to his works even to his very dying day, and what was it which made him dote upon them, but your license and approbation?
"Sirs, the following history will testify my compassion towards your deceased friend, whom I ever opposed in a charitable and friendly way. I do not account it any glory to trample upon the carcase of Hector, or to pluck a dead lion by the beard.
“ I looked upon Mr. Chillingworth as one who had his head as full of scruples as it was of engines,* and therefore dealt as tenderly with him as I use to do with men of the most nice and tender consciences: for I considered, that though beef must be preserved with salt, yet plums must be preserved with sugar. I can assure you, I stooped as low to him as I could without falling, &c."
The recollection of his losses and injuries at Merton College now comes upon him; and almost in the very sentence in which he disclaims all angry motives, his language rises to a pitch of sternness and bitterness which we scarcely expected from him.
“No, no," he exclaims, “ I have almost forgot the visitation at Merton College, the denial of my grace, the plundering of my house and little library: I know when and where, and of whom, to demand satisfaction for all these injuries and indignities."
At the close of this part of his address, he vehemently quotes Ezekiel upon them, and then adds :
Alluding to his " testudines cum pluteis" at Gloucester.
“ Come, come away with this learned atheisme, your Judge looks upon you, the searcher of hearts and discoverer of secrets is acquainted with all your plots. The Lord sees, what the ancients of Oxford do in the dark, every man in the chambers of his imagery.”
The worthy doctor seems to have been fond of thus playing on the language of Scripture; a curious instance of it will occur to be mentioned hereafter : for the present, we must listen to the conclusion of his address to the “ Unhappy licensers," as he calls them.
“ I will not hold you longer upon the rack : learn the first lesson of Christianity, self-deniul; deny your own will, and submit yourselves to God's; deny your reason, and submit to faith : reason tells you, that there are some things above reason, and you cannot be so unreasonable as to make reason judge of those things which are above reason : remember that Master Chillingworth (your friend) did run mad with reason, and so lost his reason and religion both at once: he thought he might trust his reason in the highest points; his reason was to be judge, whether or no there be a God? Whether that God wrote any book? Whether the books usually received as canonical be the books, the Scriptures of God? What is the sense of those books ? What religion is best? What church purest? Come, do not wrangle, but believe, and obey your God, and then I shall be encouraged to subscribe myself,
Your friend and servant,
While reading such sentences as the preceding, we half expect that our readers will follow our example, and stop to enquire whether they are the expressions of a Papist or a Puritan. Yet they are the genuine offspring of a mind, far from the weakest among that stern assembly whose character was any thing but imbecility: they are from the pen of one, who, as we have seen, was highly honoured by the Parliament, and who was honoured still more highly afterwards,-for we find him in 1646, among those who were sent to convert the University of Oxford, and made a Visitor by the Parliament in the following year. But to proceed.
We cannot do better than give the account of the meeting between Chillingworth and our author in the words of the latter, especially as it contains matters which may perhaps have furnished an article in a Gazette Extraordinary of the day.
“ Mr. Chillingworth and I met in Sussex by an unexpected providence : I was driven from my own house by force of times, only (as the cavaliers confessed) because I was nominated to be a Member of the Assembly : and when I heard that my living was bestowed upon a Doctor (who if some Cambridge-men deceive me not, became the
stage far better than he doth the pulpit,) I resolved to exercise my ministry in Sussex, amongst my friends, in a place where there hath been little of the power of religion either known or practised. About the latter end of November I travelled from London to Chichester, according to my usual custom, to observe the monthly fast; and in my passage, with a thankful heart I shall ever acknowledge it, I was guarded by a convoy of sixteen soldiers, who faced about two hundred of the enemies forces, and put them all to flight. Upon the twelfth of December I visited a brave soldier of my acquaintance, Captain James Temple, who did that day defend the Fort at Bramber against a bold daring enemy, to the wonder of all the country: and I did not marvel at it, for he is a man that hath his head full of stra*tagems, his heart full of piety and valour, and his hand as full of success as it is of dexterity: my grateful pen might well run on in his commendation, to the eternal shame of those who have been ungrateful to him, to whom they do (under God) owe their preservation. But I intend not to defraud others of their deserved praise, who were present at that fierce encounter. There was present Colonel Harbert Morley, a gentleman of a nimble apprehension and vigilant spirit; but the cavaliers were kept at such a distance, that they never put the Colonel's regiment of horse to any trouble. There was present, likewise, Captain Henry Carleton, the antiprelatical son of a learned prelate, a man of a bold presence and fixed resolution, who loves his country better than his life. Capt. Simon Everden was there also, a man of slow speech, but sure performance, who deserves that motto of the old Roman, Non tam facile loquor, quum quod locutus sum præsto. You cannot expect that I should name all the rest of the commanders : but there were (you see) some difficulties in my way, which seemed insuperable, and yet the Lord of Hosts did bring me through these difficulties, safe from Bramber to Arundell, upon the twenty-first day of December, if I forget not. Master Chillingworth was at that time in Arundell Castle, which was surrendered to the much renowned commander, Sir William Waller, Serjeant-major-general of all the associated counties in the east and west, upon the sixth of January. As soon as the Castle was surrendered, I represented Master Chillingworth's condition to Sir William Waller, who commended him to the care of his worthy Chaplain, and his Chaplain showed so much charity and respect towards him, that he laid him upon his own bed, and supplied him with all necessaries which the place did afford. When the rest of the prisoners were sent up to London, Master Chillingworth made it evident to me, that he was not able to endure so long a journey; and if he had been put to it, he had certainly died by the way. I desired, therefore, that his journey might be shortened, and upon my humble motion he was sent to Chichester, where I interested the Governour that he might be secured by some officer of his acquaintance, and not put into the hands of the Marshal; the Governour gave order that Lieutenant Golledge should take charge of him, and placed him in the Bishop of Chichester's Palace, where he had very courteous usage, and all accommodations which were requisite for a sick man."
Here Cheynell kindly and sedulously attended his patient, anxious to restore his body, but still more his soul to health.
“ I entreated him to pluck up his spirits, and not to yield to the disease ; but I perceived, that though reason be stout when it encounters with faith, yet reason is not so valiant when it is to encounter with affliction: and I cannot but observe, that many a parliamentsoldier hath been more chearful in a prison, than this discoursing engineer, and learned captive was in a palace. Believe it, reader, believe it, that neither gifts, nor parts, nor profession, nor any thing else but faith, will sustain the spirit of a man in spiritual straights and worldly encumbrances, when without there are fightings, and within there are fears."
If we may rely upon the testimony of our author, Chillingworth's disease was aggravated by the situation in which he felt himself with regard to the great officers who were taken prisoners in Arundell Castle. “ They looked upon hiin,” says Cheynell, “ as an intruder into their Councils of War, and (as one of them whispered) the Queen's intelligencer, who was set as a spie over them and all their proceedings.”
And, hereupon, he gives us an elaborate defence of the Grand Engineer, as he called him, from the unjust prejudices of the cavalier-officers, in which he freely and not unsuccessfully indulges his disposition and his talents for satirical exaggeration. And having achieved a triumphant victory in this subordinate contest, he thus conducts us into that field whence we are to view him gathering laurels, in his own opinion at least, more glorious and more lasting.
“Let not, then, Master Chillingworth be charged with more faults than he was guilty of; I cannot but vindicate his reputation from all false aspersions, which are cast upon him by some who know not how to excuse themselves : I took all the care I could of his body whilst he was sick, and will (as far as he was innocent) take care of his fame and reputation now he is dead. Nay, whilst he was alive, I took care of something more precious than his health or reputation, to wit, his precious and beloved soul ; for, in compassion to his soul, I dealt freely and plainly with him, and told him that he had been very active in fermenting these bloody wars against the Parliament and Commonwealth of England, his natural country, and by consequent, against the very light of nature."
This is the commencement of a series of teasing attacks which our champion made upon poor Chillingworth during this his last sickness. It must be confessed, that in some of them the advantage appears to be on the side of Cheynell, but we recollect the Lion and the Sculptor, and the wonder ceases. But, even if we regard the relation of Cheynell, as in all respects
strictly true, it is impossible for a moment to allow our faith in the adherence of Chillingworth to all that he had previously maintained, to be staggered. We doubt not, that many of our readers have experienced, and therefore can recall to their imagination, what it is to have a mind which, for days and weeks, and months and years, baffles, by its feverish intenseness of thought, all the ordinary tendencies of the body to seek repose in sleep. It was so with Chillingworth. “ His only unhappiness,” says Lord Clarendon, "proceeded from his sleeping too little, and thinking too much.” And, with such an unhappy frame of mind, with spirits depressed by sickness, by the unkindness of present rivals, and the inattention of absent friends, who can wonder if he made a feeble defence against the galling impertinencies of his bigotted though well-meaning adversary?
As it is not our intention to occupy the attention of our readers with questions in politics, which they must look for elsewhere, we shall pass on to that which is more peculiar to the tract before us, the personal history of Chillingworth. We cannot, however, omit the following passage, which expresses in few words the low estate to which, in his adversary's view of the matter, the great champion of reason had fallen.
Truely, I was ashamed to dispute with him any longer, when he had given me so much advantage: for first, he clearly condemned himself for being confederate with them, whose intentions were destructive; because, no man must promote an ill design by any means whatsoever, be they never so lawful. Secondly, he confessed himself clean out of his way when he was in arms; for war, saith he, (and he learnt to say so of the Anabaptists and Socinians) is not the way of Jesus Christ ; all that he could say for himself was, that he had no command in the army; and yet, their greatest officers told me, that in a true construction, there was no man else that had a command to any purpose, but Master Chillingworth."
Finding that all his anxious efforts to produce a change in the principles of his patient were but labour in vain, Cheynell “ desired him, that he would now take off his thoughts from all matters of speculation, and fix upon some practical point which might make for his edification.” The return that Chillingworth made for this advice is remarkable, and pointed.
“ He thanked me, (as I hope) very heartily, and told me that in all points of religion he was settled, and had fully expressed himself for the satisfaction of others in his book, which was approved and licensed by very learned and judicious divines.”
We are not informed by our author, of the particulars of the death of Chillingworth. He only relates, that he rode bimself