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incorporated with them; to this principle also |success." For they consider any whole length are reconcileable the two distinct beatings men of a string as a total, expressed by the ratio 1, tioned at page 13 of the work.
and its twelfth fifth is 531441-262144 of that Earl Stanhope then continues:--" Musicians length; from this subtract 2-1, as the true octave, and tuners are in the habit of talking of the wolf and it leaves 531441-524288, as that major in the singular number; I shall, however, shew comma (mentioned before) which is the above in the sequel that there are as many as five | Stanhope quint wolf. wolves, &c.” But when tuners generally speak To compare, in a similar manner, Earl Stan. of a wolf, in the singular number, it only shews hope's unnatural calculations of his major third that there is no occassion to attend to more than wolves with the natural ones of opposite writers, one wolf or distribution, as I have explained in I think quite unnecessary ; but I must notice the the former part of this essay, and not that the curious remark which his Lordship makes at well informed part of them knows of no more p. 7, of the work, concerning his third wolves, than one wolf; for several other writers have viz, that “ Nature has imprisoned them, each in shewn not only his Lordship's quint and inajor a column by itself.” If this was really the case, third wolves, but also minor third wolves, fourth nature might be accused of having executed an wolves, and minor and major sixth wolves, and unjust imprisonment on one of her most innoconsequenıly many more than those fave men cent productions; and any thing in nature night tioned before. To enumerate them, and those not only, and with equal propriety, be considered others which are also contained in our modern as imprisoned in its respective compass, but the diatonic scale, according to his Lordship's man whole universe would be nothing more than a ner, there would be one perfect fifth and one prison of prisons. . perfect fourth wolf; six minor fifth, and six From the explanation of wolves Earl Stanhope major fourth wolves; four major third, and four proceeds to that of their distribution, or of tem. minor sixth wolves; three minor third, and
perament. And at page 10 of the work, his Lord. three major sixth wolves; two major sccond, and ship says :-" There are a great number of dif two minor seventh wolves; and one minor ferent modes of temperament, which may be second, and one major seventh wolf; in all thirty- || classed as follows, viz: the equal temperament, four wolves. This, indeed, would be a host of and the unequal temperaments.” And after a howlers, sufficient to deter any person from few remarks on the former, his Lordship con. studying the art of tuning ; but I have shewn tinues :-" The equal temperament is, however, before that no more than one of them need be a mode of tuning which I very much disapprove ; attended to in tempering our modern scale. according to that erroneous system, there is not a
Those five wolves taught by Earl Stanhope single perfect third, nor single perfect fourth, nor are, one quint wolf, and four major third wolves; a single perfect quint in the whole instrument;" and the manner in which his Lordship calculates and at page 11,4“ Instead of concords discords them is as follows:- the length of a wire which | will be heard. But to have in any instrument would yield the lowest bass C, is fixed at 960 nothing but discords is abominable; and that is quarters of an inch; and a succession of twelve always and necessarily the case whenever that fifths, one over another, would require the il mode of tuning which is denominated the equal length of seven quarters of an inch, thirty- li temperament is adopted." nine hundreds of a quarter of an inch, and But the above remarks are contrary to reason, 905.276.408.179.929.662.935 decimal parts of to experience, and to part of Earl Staňhope's one of the latter. From this frightful and still ll own doctrines. For reason teaches us, that as it infinite number, subtract 7 quarters of an inch, is difficult to find in this world any thing perfect as the true ratio of that perfect octave in which in the strictest sense, we must adınit as perfect the twelfth fifth should terminate, and it produces | enough those things in which no imperfection is an equally long and infinite number for the ratio very perceptible. And universal experience con. of his Lordship's first, or quint wolf. To ex. || firms, that all our senses really will disregard an amine the correctness of such calculations I have almost imperceptible imperfection. So Earl no patience, and I can also suppose, that no per Stanhope himself considers his bi-equal and trison will ever attend to them; but the worst of equal fifths, fourths, and thirds, as perfect enough them is, that they serve only for one given arbi for consonances in his own temperament, though trary length of a string, and must be varied ac they are perhaps three times as imperfect as cording to any other given length of it. : those fifths, fourths, and thirds, which in the
How much more simple and natural than the equal temperament his Lordship calls dissonances above, are the calculations of those other writers, and abominable. which, according to the work before us, Earl At page 12, Earl Stanhope proceeds to the Stanhope finds “ not attended with the desired | particulars of his own temperament, where it
becomes evident that the said temperament is the scale of one key exactly like that of another, teo intricate, not only to be produced, but also to and sings in E with four sharps, the same as in E be preserved in any stringeil instrument as well il far, with three Aats. a in organs. Both these I could prove by i Concerning Earl Stanhope's deviations from neberous very important arguments, if the limits the usual denominations of the musical intervals, of these pages would permit it. But it will be li I must observe : that to say a quint, for a fifth, sufficient to say, that at page 13, his Lordship || and a quart, for a fourth, may pass, though there requires two of his fifths to differ from a perfect is no necessity or apparent reason for it ; but that one: -" Only one in two thousand six hundred I conceive his Lordship's term of septave for and iftz-seren parts and a half nearly, or only seventh to be a mistake, which ought not to be about 1,198.831 parts in 3.000.000.000." And I generally adopted. For though the termination at page 14, three of his fif:hs to differ from a ave is found in octave, it is as unnatural in sepperfect one :-“ Only one in three hundred and tave as it would be in unisave, secave, tirtave, sixts-one parts and half nearly, or only about and so forth; or else the termination ime as in 8.998.850 parts in .000.000.000.” And equal Il prime, and septime, might with equal propriety to those intricacies in fifths, which can only be be added to the other intervals, as in octime, expressed in fractions of thousand of millions unisime, secime, &c. nearly, are those in fourths, thirds, sixths, se At page 19 of the work, Earl Stanhope conconds, and sevenths. But without the strict ex | cludes his doc!rine itself, with the following ob2010ss of those almost infinite ratios, the Stan. servation :-“Thus it is, that from our ignorance hope temperament is a mere pretence, and can and narrow prejudices, the perfection of the not exist. And as such an exactness is impos principles which are to be found in nature are by sible to be produced or preserved, I venture to us very frequently unobserved. But the more so that that temperament has never get existed, thoroughly we learn to understand them, the and can never exist.
more we ought to feel gratitude towards the Whatever exclamations therefore Earl Stan SUPREME BEING for enabling us to perceive the hope makes against the equal, and in favour of sublime excellence of their wonderful arrangebis own unequal temperament, they must be ment.” Whose ignorance and narrow prejudices considered as mere effusions of a mistaken fancy, are alluded to in this passage, I do not venture till the arguments I have advanced and can still to guess. And what his Lordship means by the advance are fairly confuted. And so long I am perfection of the principles which are found in inclined to consider the" decided approbation nature, and by the sublime excellence of their of those sixty or seventy of the very first pro wonderful arrangement, I am also unable to disa fessional persons, of both sexes, and of the ablest cover, because I do not find the work to give connoisseurs in England," quoted at page 18, of any explanation to that purpose. the work, rather as a mere innocent compliment The four succeeding pages contain tables, and paid his Lordship, than an intended positive de the last page a description of some curious dise cision concerning the temperament in question. coveries of Earl Stanhope, concerning his tem
The variety of character also, in the different perament.-But in my humble opinion that part keys of our compound scale, on which Earl of the work also rather confirms what I have said Stanhope sets so great a stress, is not of the same concerning the intricacy and impossibility of the importance to those players and composers who Stanhope temperament, than proves any thing know how to produce effects by modulation, contrary to the preferability of an equal temperarhythm, and so forth, as to inferior ones; or else ment to any unequal one, if either of them was to the human voice would be the most deficienı musi be adopted universally, and exclusively of all the cal instrument in that respect, because it tempers others.
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| consisting only of boiled and roasted meat, Soup is to a dinner what a portico is to a poultry, and fish, the soup should not be as rich palace; that is to say, it is not only the first dish || as if the repast was more splendid; and though but it ought to give a just idea of the feast, as an these kinds of soup are generally thought to be overture to a comic opera should always an- well known to cooks, yet often they are far from nounce the nature of the piece.
being good, as they require the greatest care and Thus if the dinner be rather a frugal one, il attention; but if the dinner be one of those in which the artist has strictly adhered to all the il revelled since the commencement of the feast. culinary rules, the soup ought by its excellence | This art, like many others, has made but very to announce the splendour of the feast. The slow progress, and, as well as every other art, it various receipts that exist for soups would fill || is to the Italians that we are Andebted for it. ten volumes, but we shall content ourselves with Formerly our housekeepers knew no other one which has been unanimously admired by all || system of arrangement than in the immense size amateurs of the table.
of their joints, and the different shape of their
dishes; a heavy profusion was the only merit of How to make Soup à la Camerani. our most splendid tables. This vulgar sumptuGet some real Neapolitan macaroni, some | osity attested opulence, but nothing in it anexcellent Parmesan cheese, and some Epping!
nounced either taste or elegance. Paul Verobutter, about two dozen capon livers, some nese's painting of the Marriage in Canaan, which celery, carrots, parsnips, leaks, &c. First begin is exhibited at the Museum at Paris, will give by inincing the livers and vegetables, then put you a just idea of the style which then reigned. them, with a piece of butter, into a stew pan,
When the art of confection had attained some and let them simmer; while this is builing, the perfection, a new manner of serving up deserts macaroni should be put in warm water to whiten, ll was invented. The happy combination of fresh then drain it well, and season it with pepper and || with preserved fruit, led to the idea of imitating all-spice; afterwards take your iureen, which the trees on which it grew; the Italians, who must be of a ware that will bear the heat of the were the first inventors of this style, carried it to fore, and lay at the bottom of it a bed of livers and | an eminent degree of perfection. macaroni, and grate over it some Parmesan To increase the elegance of this service, plates cheese; do this alternately until the cureen is of the brightest metal were introduced, which filled; then place it on the fire, and let it simmer were afterwards ornamented with looking glasses; gently until by tasting you find it dune. This in the midst of variously coloured sands were soup, which from its thickness might more pro painted flowers which produced the beautiful perly be termed a stew, is delicious, and the variety of a parterre, and to complete the illusion, origin of numerous indigestions.
these parterres were covered with lille figures
made of sugar, and very naturally coloured, ON DESERT.
which formed the representation in miniature of a Desert is to a dinner what the sky-rockets are select party walking in a pleasure ground be. to fire-works, the most brilliant part, and the spangled with flowers. one which requires the re-union of a crowd of
THE FATAL EFFECTS OF SELF-LOVE CONSIDERED agreeable talents. A good butler ought to be
WITH ITS RELATIONS TO COOKERY. at the same time an iceman, a confectioner, a decorator, a painter, an architect, a sculptor, and The old adage which assures us that our eyes a florist; it is in this repast for the eye where are larger than our stomach, is a truth which you may see his talents expand in the most ought not to be forgotten by certain Amphytriastonishing manner. There have been some ons, who, borne away by a foolish vanity, sacrifice feasts in which the desert alone has cost twelve every thing for the first glances, and serve up a hundred pounds; but as this course speaks more repast fit for twenty people, when there are but to the eyes than any of the other senses, the eight or ten guests, and by this means are seldom accomplished epicure contents himself with ad. able to receive their friends. Such persons would miring it; a piece of stimulating cheese is more give ten dinners in a year instead of three, if they prized by him than the most pompous and splen
were less to consult the eyes of their guests than did decorations.
their appetites. We have said that the desert is to the courses Domestic economy vainly endeavours to make that precede it what sky-rockets are to fire-works, the remains of a splendid entertainment last and if this simile be not exact under every rela throughout the week, it cannot succeed, and tion, it will be owned, at least, that it makes us I proves beyond a doubt that pride is in this incomprehend that a desert ought to be the most stance an enemy -to real enjoyment. Boileau brilliant part of a feast; that its appearance should has said with much truth :-"Qu'un diner resurprise, astonish, and enchant the guests; and chauffé ne valut jamais rien;" and it is to underthat if every thing that has preceded it has fully stand one's interest very ill to prepare a dinner satisfied the taste, the desert ought to speak to that comes on the table for eight days, and is the soul through the medium of the eyes. It only really good on the first. must excite a generál sensation of surprise and || This is not the only fault into which an ill admiration, which will put a finishing hand to || devised self love may lead us at dinner time: the enjoyments in which the company have || and, in short, to proceed methodically, we will
begia by saying, that symmetry is one of the fatal to the taste, and which at the utmost can most formidable enemies to good living. It is only satisfy the thoughtless and the foolish. proved that every thing in this nether world must Vainly have Amphitryons of sound judgment, be served up, gathered, or eaten when ripe; I who were obliged to sacrifice their own opinion from the rose down to the omelette which mus! | to custom without possessing sufficient strength be devoured the instant it is turned out of the of mind to follow the precepts of their forefrying pan; from the partridge, the excellence fathers, felt the fatal consequences of a regular of which often depends on an hour's mortifica-l and systematical dinner, and sought to remedy it tion, to the mince pye, which should make but by using artificial heat; pewter dishes filled with one leap from the mouth of the oven to that of boiling water, and some also with charcoal, have the epicure; there is in every thing a mo- been used for this purpose, but these are but ment of perfection which should be skilfully melancholy palliatives, and tend less to keep the caught.
natural heat than to dry up the meat. Ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum ; which What then is to be done? will exclaim the means in English, protraction or precipitation in man of the world, who is a slave to fashion and cookery are equally prejudicial to ragouts. vanity. We will answer, despise the one and
There is not one real epicure that is not ac- | lay aside the other; give six principal dishes guainted with this established truth; and how it instead of twelve, but let them be larger ; serve was possible to renounce the custom of serving them up one after the other, or at the utmost up dish after dish, to adopt that of covering the two at a time, from the soup to the desert. This table with fifteen or twenty different ones, which will be the means of tasting every dish hot, of cannot be all swallowed at the same time, and the eating plentifully, doing justice to the whole of last of which are sure to be cold? A ridiculous the repast, satisfying the most bashful apperites, vanity has dictated this pompous symmetry so and giving an excellent dinner with much less
| Oft in its little crucible hath waned, ON TISITING THE TOMB OF J. W. CHANDLER. | And wih its last expiring glimmer met BUT for dread recollection, sad yet dear,
His eye unclos'd little of rest had he, And evidence of other eyes than these,
For when the painter pausid the poet sung. I would deny that this was Chandler's grave..
| Peace to thy manes, heaven-instructed bard! I boas no muse's partial sınile, nor claim
Though to the gazing passenger no stone The sacred ardour of the poet's brains,
Thy merit shall proclaim,-what though no bard, Or worth like thine should not remain unsung,
An idle stringer of half-living lines, Nor slighted be a poet's memory.
Hitch thy acquirements in some halting verse, But what has grief with polished phrase to do,
Yet, not unmindful of thy virtues he And all the idle vanities of speech?
Who to thy shade this passing tribute gives. Enough that truth its simple purpose speak. Round 's festive board no more thou'rt seen He who lies here, amid the common dead,
Where, as the bottle wheel'd its jovial course Unseulptured and unsung, once knew full well The streaming light of intellect has play'd; The dating mind in fancy's maze to lead; Chasten'd th’exhilirating grape, and gave To build the mystic power of heav'nly sounds;
| The feast of reason to the flow of wine. Or trace, with modest pencil, nature's hues
Those days, alas! are gone--and oft I pause, In all their changeful variance of shade.
And pouder on the dread uncertainty Unheeding be the noisy world without,
Of who may follow next.
Thus imperceptibly we disappear,
Is thinned to perfect solitude; and thus
Our best affections torn, we gradual sink Night hath his labours watch'd, the midnight | Unheeding and unheeded to the grave.
So humble, that (though with unparalleld OR, THE MOTHER'S DIRGE.
She might even a palace adorn,) FROM bubbling streams, or springs that rise
She oft in the hedge hides her innocent face, In mountain grot, or willowy vale,
And grows at the foot of the thorn. Bring water while I close these eyes,
So beauty, ye fair ones, is doubly refind, And kiss these lips so cold and pale.
When modesty heighiens its charms : From lufted grove and shadowy glen
When meekness divine adds a gem to the mind, Unirodden by the feet of men,
The heart of the suitor it warms : Froin sedgy banks and fragrant fields,
Let none talk of Venus, and all her proud train, Bring every flower that nature yields;
(The Graces that wait at her call ;) And scalier every breathing sweet,
'Tis meekness alone, which the conquest will On lovid Marie's winding sheet.
gain; Ble e pirit, newly freed from pain,
This vi'let surpasses them all. .
Nursid by the Zephyr's balıny sighs,
And cherish'd by the tears of Morn; And lay thee down, with many a tear,
() How'r of Aow'rs! unfold-arise ! Clad in thy shroud of spoiless white,
10 hasle, delicious Rose, be born! To slumber through thy wcary night.
Unh'erling wish! no-yet awhile, Thy ten ler smile, thy soothing voice,
Be yet awhile thy diwn delay'd; Thy playful innuence, no more,
Since the same hour that sees thee smile Thy fond, foud mother, shall rejoice;
In orient bloom, shall see thee fade. Thy lille dreams of joys are o'er.
Cecilia thus, an opening flow'r, Of all the graces of thy inind,
Must with’ring droop al heav'n's decree;
Like her thou bloom'st thy little hour,
And she alas ! must fade like thee.
But go and on her bosom die ;
Al once thy (hrone and blissful tomb;
To share with thee so sweet a doom.
Love shall thy graceful bent advise,
Thy blushing trem'lous tints reveal; And sings a salute to the dawn;
Go, bright yet hurtless charm her eyes; The sun with his splendour embroiders the east,
Go, deck her bosom, not conceal. And brightens the dew on the lawn :
Should sore bold hand invade thee there, While the sons of debauch to indulgence give | From Love's asylum rudely torn ; way,
O rose, a lover's vengeance bear,
And let my rival feel thy thorn.
CEASE to weep, my long-lov'd Mary,
Tho'a beauteous Nymph I've seen; In beauty's diversity drest :
Young and gaya very Fairy, From the rose, the carnation, the pink, and the Still thou reign'st my bosom's Queen. clove,
Ruby lips and sparkling eyes,
Let my giddy Girl possess ;
Not one true sigh I love thee less !
The April buds which deck'd thy check; In modest concealment she peeps on the day, Chang'd thy lovely tresses grey, Yet none can excel her in sweets :
And rough'd thy brow-once marble sleek.