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nity so long exercised by the house of Austria ia || ing is properly noticed, particularly the singular Germany has been annihilated, and Bonaparie maoner in which nearly all the houses are built, declared chief of a new circle of feudatory princes. so as to lean considerably forward in the street,

la the preface, Sir John Carr states that the which we do not recollect being noticed by other Tour sa taken amidst many untoward and em travellers. We also find ( what is generally conbarrassing circumstances, the melancholy effect sidered to be otherwise) that mendicity exists in of war, and therefore trusts that his pages will be Holland as well as in other countries Upon this perused sih indulgent candour. It will ni subject Sir John Carr remarks: “I soon found turally be asked under what protection the author that the received opinion of there being no vegtered upon a foreign and a hostile shore; this beggars in Holland, is perfectly erroneous. I was ve kur Robetter how to explain than in the frequently beset by those sons and daugh:er of atbor's own words, “ the public shall be my sorrow or idleness, who preferred their petition confessor." "lo the summer of the last year, with indefatigable pursuit, but in so gentle whilst the larger portion of the civilized world was tone, that it was evident they were fearful of the aoxiunsly awaiting the result of our sincere ne police.” In his account of this city, some gotiations for a peace, which, alas! the crafty curious and interesting anecdotes are given of the Ministers of Napoleon never intended should be family just raised to the throne of Holland, to other than mere “ Romans politiques.” The de which we refer our readers. In speaking of the sire of contemplating a country and a race of Dutch language, our au hor observes : “ It is people to me entirely new. induced me to tres generally understood that the language of Hol. pass upon their shores. I resolved upon visiting || land is divided into High and Low Dutch, whereas Holland, although in a state of reluctant war with there is but one pure language as in England, DT or country, of a war which yet permitted to l which is called Neder Dutch; the language of ber commerce a few stolen embraces with that of | the Netherlands, or of a country lying very low. England, and which forced many a pursy Dutch In Holland, as in every o her country, ibere is a man to lament the separation, and in the narcotic variety of provincial idioms; for instance, a raw atsmosphere of his consoling pipe, wish for better

| native of Friezland would not be understood at times. In gratifying my wishes, I was guilty of Amsterdam.” The Dutch have been long ceassaming a character respected in every country, | lebrated for the harmony of their chimes, or as as well for its being most wisely and profitably at they are called carillons, of which the following peace with all the world, as for its integrity and | interesting account is given : “ This species of enterprize,

music is entirely of Dutch origin, and in Holland, “I became an American, and by an act of tem and in the countries that formerly belonged to porary adoption fixed upon Baltimore, in North || her, can only be heard in great perfection. America, as the place of my nativity." Our “The French and Italians have never imitated author also observes, “ The stratagem, if not the Dutch in this taste; we have made the at. perfectly blameless, was at least intended to be an tempt in some of our churches, but in such a inoffensive one, I had no hopes of a peace, and || miserably bungling manner, that the nerves of consequently none of seeing Holland in a more even a Dutch skipper would scarcely be able to regular mode,

endure it. The carillons are played upon by “I sont not to investigate the nakedness of the means of keys, communicating with the bells, as land, and by availing myself of its confidence to those of the piano-forte and organ do with penetrate the military depôts, the dock, and strings and pipes, by a person called the Caril. arsenal of a country not in amity with my own. loneur, who is regularly instructed in the science; I abhor the character of the spy moving in a | the labour of the practical part of which is very friendly garb, however useful his treachery may || severe, he being almost always obliged to perform be to his employers. My imposition extended in his shirt with his collar unbuttoned, and geneao further than to enable me to make a pic rally forced by exertion into a profuse perspiraturesque tour through an almost aqueous king tion, some of the keys requiring two pounds dom, to view its natives in their ordinary habits, | weight to depress them. After the performance to glide upon their liquid roads, to saunter in the carilloneur is frequently obliged immediately their green avenues and flourishing gardens, and to go to bed. By pedals, communicating with trace the wonderful results of that daring and in the great bells, he is enabled with his feet to play defatigable ingenuity, which has raised the per- the base to several sprightly and even difficult manent habitation of man in the ncean, and made airs, which he performs with both his hands upon successful inroads opon the physical order of the the upper species of keys, which are projecting universe." After such a confession, we shall not sticks, wide enough asunder to be struck with withhold oar absolution.

violence and celerity by either of the two hands At Rotterdam, every objeet particularly strik- || edgeways, without the danger of hitting either of the adjoining keys. The player uses a thick standing the severity of British blockades, leather covering for the little finger of each hand, and the vigilance of British cruisers. We also to prevent the excessive pain, which the violence | find that the universities here participated in the of the stroke necessary to produce sufficient sound melancholy effects of war, which has very much requires. These musicians are very dexterous, reduced the number of its students, by attracting and will play pieces in three parts, producing the them to the army. first and second treble with the two hands on the | The principal obiects in Amsterdam are briefly upper set of keys and the base, as before de- noticed. In the description of ihe Stadt House, scribed. By this invention a whole town is enter 1) there is a curious account of the prisons and the tained in every quarter of it; that spirit of in- l state of the prisoners

state of the prisoners confined in dungeons, dustry which pervades the kingdom, no doubt which form part of the foundation of that stuOriginally suggested this sudorific mode of amus pendons pile, which must prove interesting to ing a large population, without making it ne- || every humane reader. cessary for them to quit their avocations one

Of the canals in this great city our author thus moment to enjoy it. The British army was speaks :-"the canals of this city are very conveequally surprised and gratihed by hearing upon nient, but many of thein most offensively im. the carillons of the principal church of Alkmaar | pure; the uniform greenness of which is their favourite air of “God save the King," || checquered only by dead cats, dogs, offal, and played in a masterly inanner as they entered that || vegetable substances of every kind, which are town,” Sir John Carr observes that the same || left to putrify at the top. until

left to putrify at the top, until the canal scaven. thrifty spirit, united to the beneficial effects of

gers remove them; the barges used on these ocpublic and expanded education, preserved the

casions present a very disgusting appear.ince; the monuments and works of art in Holland from mud which is raised by them forms most excel. violence during the fury of the revolution which

lent manure, and the sum it fetches in Brabant is annihilated the Stad: holderate.

calculated to be equal to the expence of the An intere ting account is given of the revolu voyage. Some of the most eminent Durch tion, which changed the republic into a royal physicians maintain, that the effluvia arising from government. In the new constitution, which is

the floating animal and vegetable inatier of these given nearly a: full length, (and which, by the canals is not injurious, and in proof, during a bye, unnecessarily swells the volume), we notice

contagious fever which ravaged this city, it was the following striking features: the guarantee of observed that the inhabitants who resided nearest the national debt; the free and unqualified ex the foulest canals were not infected, whilst those ercise of religion; the predominant, or, as we who lived near pure water only in few instances think, Sir John Carr ought to have called it, the escaped; but this by no means confirins the asserdespotic authority vested in the King. The esta

tion, because those inhabitants who lived adjoin. blishment of the Salique law, that only na ing to foul canals were inured to its contagion, tives shall be eligible to any offices under from its habitual application ; for the same reason the state, exclusive of those inmediately ap inedical men and nurses generally escape infec. pertaining to the King's household; that the

tion, from being so constantly exposed to it." royal revenue shall be two millions of florins, The ladies of Holland are spoken of very hand. or about two hundred thousand pounds: somely by our Tourist, and are represented as and that the royal palaces shall be confined to

observing the French fashions in their attire. three ; namely, the Hague, the Houses in the

There is a charming anecdote given in the aċWoo1, and a Soetdyke. As this constitution has count of the resuscitation societies, of the heroic not yet had time to shew whether its fruits will

humanity displayed by the present Emperor of be palatable to the Dutch or not, the author | Russia, in saving a poor fellow-creature from a con'en's himself with merely, and we may add watery grave in Lithuania. Our fair readers will perhaps unnecessarily, submitting it lo the coin-||

smile at the account given of a very singular ment of his readers.

establishineut, called the work-house of AmsterThe descriptions of the several towns through || dam, where “husbands upon complaint of ex. which Sir John Carr passed, are enlivened with travagance, drunkenness, &c. duly proved, send brief bue interesting, and not generally known, ll their wives to be confined, and receive the disanecdote, of the most distinguished among the cipline of the house; and wives their husbands, Dutch painters.

for two, three, and four years together.” It appears that the Hague has materially suf From Holland Sir John Carr departet for the fered by the revolution, much more so than the || Rhine, where he met with ainple subjects for his commercial towns, owing to the resources pen and pencil. which they derived from a high and unsubdued || In the beginning of Chap. 22. a singular ad. spirit of commerce and enterprize, notwith- || venture which accurred to the author, is related,

in which his liberty, if not his life, was in immi- || times condescends to supply original information nent peril, and displays by what artful stratagems by the records of magazines and the collections the French police is supported.

of newspapers; and the simplicity of good sense A description of the principal cities on the l yields to the unmeaning melody of poetic nonright and left banks of the Rhine, and of their sense,-yet will the lines of Sir John Carr not polrial and social state, since the horrors of war only amuse the hours of leisure, but improve hase been removed from them, is given. The those of thought. zother aceederl as far as Darmstadt, when hosti- When the “ bird's eye view” which our author lites, which were just commenced against Russia takes of a country is considered, the greatest and the state ef the Continent, obliged him to re- credit is due to his industry and observation, and

our wonder is excited, not at his opportunity to The volume is embellished with twenty | see so little, but at his ability to write so much. aquisite engravings by a distinguished artist, He appears indefatigable in his study of countries from drawings made on the spot by Sir John and manners, and his remarks and observations Cart, and is in no respect inferior to his other are in general well expressed, penetrating and productions. Though in some instances the just. Upon the whole, we recommend this work lirely imagination of Sir John Carr leads him to the notice of all those who cultivate a spirit of into the error of verbose composition, and words inquiry, and are interested in the state and history are sometimes more redundant than ideas;- of other nations. though the sober narrative of the traveller some.'!

AN HISTORICAL ESSAY ON THE SECRET TRIBUNALS IN GERMANY.

Tae curiosity of the public was strongly 1 appeal from the country and provincial tribunals, excited some years since by the allusions that and to give jurigment, and enforce execution in occur in Hermann of Unna, and several other cases relating to property, personal liberty, breach novels, to a powerful society, once existing in of the public peace, apostacy, and transgressions Germany under the name of the Secret Tribunals. committed against the church, they sat in judgAs no satisfactory account has hitherto been given ment three times a year, in an open field, when of the nature and origin of this singular society, || all the hereditary proprietors of the district were we have been led to suppose, that a brief narrative | unexceptionally bound to appear. On these of its institution and original sendency would, occasions, the ancient national laws of the Saxons, by no means, be displeasing. On this presump as well as the privileges and restrictions granted tioa we present it to our readers from the third by the Emperor, were discussed, the law ful sal.s volume of Veit Weber's (Sagen der Vorzeit) || of estates confirmed, and all illegal actions comTraditions of Antient Times

mitted since the last session, reported. On these When after a war of thirty-three years, the heads, the community consulted the decrees of Emperor Charles I, had subjected the Saxons to the law, and pronounced decisive sentence, proa the sway of his sceptre, and compelled them to vided every thing were perfectly clear, and no worship the cross, the conquered districts were capital crime could be proved. divided by him into counties and bishoprics. On Illegal actions, at that time, were divided into the conclusion of a peace, in the year 805, the such as admitted reparation, and such as did not Saxons, amongst other privileges, attained per Cablösliche, and unablösliche). The former, for mission to retain their national laws, under the instance, calumny, manslaughter, &c. might be inspection of imperial judges (counts,) and to be compensated by fines, whilst the latter, treason, entirely exempted from the control of the bishops, assassination, adultery, &c. were punished with except in spiritual matters. Several counties and death. In the latter class of offences were combishoprics composed a delegate county (send. prized, apostacy, sorcery, sacrilege, contempt of grafschaft), which was superintended by an im the christian festivals, profanation of christian perial delegate (send-gruf), whose office was to tombs, and conspiracies against the worshippers watch over the preservation of civil and ecclesi of the cross. In all cases of this kind, the trial astic order, to unite the private and often clash was begun in the public session, but concluded ing interests of the counts and bishops for the || before a private or secret tribunal. The whole Emperor's service.

community, by right, should have pronounced Invested with the power to decide in matters of ll sentence in open cuurt upon the guilty, but she superficial knowledge which ihe incidental owners | maintained, that Charles I. had instituted the of hereditary estates might have of the christian secret tribunals in the same form, both external religion, rendered them incoinpetent to decide and internal, which it had in the 13th and 14th on the heinousness of the crime; hence, trans- | | centuries, and conferred upon them that astoactions of this nature were not finally decided nishing extent of jurisdiction, which was grain public session, and seven judges (schäf'en) dually wrested from the enfeebled executive aus were selected from the community, to inquire, i thorities. in a secret meeting, into the criminality of such 1 The Westphalian secret tribunals are first mentransactions, and to pronounce sentence of death, tioned as generally known in the year 1211, and or decree the payment of a fine, as circumstances recorded as having still been in force in the year inighe require. In the secret meetings also the 1659. They never were formally abrogated; judges gave informations of crimes privately com- but only lost their influence by degrees, when the mitted, and which were reporied to them by their | sword of justice was again wielded by vigorous spies.

hands. When the criminal, after having been suun- || These Westphalian secret tribunals, at first, moned, appeared, and was incap.ble of making | were only designed for Westphalia, and had no a satisfactory defence, he was condemned either l jurisdiction over any other province. The exto pay a mulct, or else was sentenced to suffer tent of their jurisdiction was limited in the west death. The latter punishment, however, was by the Rhine, in the east by the Weser, in the remitied, if he had previously confessed his crime north by Friesland and the territory of Utrecht, to a priest, and atoned for it as required by the and in the south by the Westerwald (western ecclesiastical taw ; whilst, in such cases, neither | forest) and Hessia. Tribunals of these secret the priest nor judges were permitted to divulge Westphalian judges ( Freystühle) were to be found it. The interest of Christianity, which it was | only in the duchies of Guelders, Cleves, and the Emperor's wish to recommended, rendered | Westphalia, in the principalities of Corvey and this indulgence necessary to the Saxons. If, Minden, and the Landgraviate of Hessen; in the however, the accused did not appear, he was counties of Benthiem, Limburg, Lippe, Mark, pat-lawed, and this sentence was cominunicated Ravensberg, Rechlinhausen, Rietsberg, Sayn, to the neighbouring counts, who were called to Waldeck, and Steinfurt; in the signories of assist in giving it effect.

Gehmen, Neustadt, and Rheda, and in the ter. Annually a public diet was holden by the ritory of Dortmund, a free imperial town. Emperor's delegate, in Saxony, to inquire into The Emperor, being supreme judge of all se. the state of the Christian religion, and in what cular courts of judicature in Germany, was also manner the magistrates had discharged their | the sole creator and chief of all free tribnnals. duty; as well as to compel the counts and Free counties were certain districts, compre. judges to administer justice with impartiality, || hending several parishes, where the judges and and to give information of such illegal acts of counsellors of the secret ban administered justice, their countrymen, as had occurred to their know. conformably to the territorial statutes. A free ledge. Besides this diet, he also held special county generally contained several tribunals sub(gebotene) sessions, in which judgment was given ject to the controul of one master of the chair in matters of appeal, and against such persons as II (stuhlherr). There masters of the chair, who could not properly be prosecuted before the re commonly were secular or ecclesiastical gular judges. The decrees pronounced in these princes, held their appointment by the will of sessions affected the life of the accused. Those the Emperor, and forfeited it on deciding in malwho refused to appear, were declared to be out ters not coming under their jurisdiction, or delawed (vervehmt), whence, afterwards, arose the viaring in their decrees from the laws of the free denomination of vehmgericht, i.e. the tribunal tribunals. They appointed the free counts by which the criminal was separated from those (.freygrafen), who were presidents of individual who enjoyed the ordinary protection of the || tribunals of the secret ban. They were presented laws.

to the Emperor for confirmation by the masters If a conclusion may be drawn from a similarity || of their chair, who were made responsible for of procedure and tendency in two criminal in- || them, upon which they were invested with the stitutions, it may be concluded, that these two royal ban, and obliged to swear fealty and obehad both a common origin, and that the secret Ildience to the head of the empire. The latter tribunals of Westphalia were continuations of also could punish the free counts, or deprive these secret criminal sessions, gradually changed ll them of their office, occupy the seat of a free and new-moulded in conformity to circumstances count in the tribunals, decide in matters of apand the wants of the times; although the free peal brought before him, inspect and reform the knights, actuated by family pride, unanimously Il tribunals, and appoint the free knights (fray

in which his liberty, if not his life, was in immi. || times condescends to supply original information nent peril, and displays by what artful stratagems by the records of magazines and the collections the French police is supported.

of newspapers; and the simplicity of good sense A description of the principal cities on the l yields to the unmeaning melody of poetic nonright and left banks of the Rhine, and of their sense, yet will the lines of Sir John Carr not political and social state, since the horrors of war only amuse the hours of leisure, but improve have been removed from them, is given. The those of thought. author proceeded as far as Darmstadt, when hosti- When the" bird's eye view" which our author lities, which were just commenced against Russia takes of a country is considered, the greatest and the state of the Continent, obliged him to re-credit is due to his industry and observation, and turn.

our wonder is excited, not at his opportunity to The volume is embellished with twenty see so litile, but at his ability to write so much. exquisite engravings by a distinguished artist, He appears indefatigable in his study of countries from drawings made on the spot by Sir John and manners, and his remarks and observations Carr, and is in no respect inferior to his other are in general well expressed, penetrating and productions. Though in some instances the just. Upon the whole, we recommend this work lively imagination of Sir John Carr leads him to the notice of all those who cultivate a spirit of into the error of verbose composition, and words inquiry, and are interested in the state and history are sometimes more redundant than ideas; of other nations. though the sober narrative of the traveller some.'!

AN HISTORICAL ESSAY ON THE SECRET TRIBUNALS IN GERMANY.

Tue curiosity of the public was strongly || appeal from the country and provincial tribunals, excited some years since by the allusions that and to give jurgment, and enforce execution in occur in Hermann of Unna, and several other cases relating to property, personal liberty, breach novels, to a powerful society, once existing in of the public peace, apostacy, and transgressions Germany under the name of the Secret Tribunals. committed against the church, they sat in judgAs no satisfactory account has hitherto been given ment three times a year, in an open field, when of the nature and origin of this singular society, Il all the hereditary proprietors of the district were we have been led to suppose, that a brief narrative unexceptionally bound to appear. On these of its institution and original sendency would, occasions, the ancient national laws of the Saxons, by no means, be displeasing. On this presump- il as well as the privileges and restrictions granted tion we present it to our readers from the third 11 by the Emperor, were discussed, the lawful sal. s volume of Veit Weber's (Sagen der Vorzeit) of estates confirmed, and all illegal actions comTraditions of Antient Times.

mitted since the last session, reported. On these When after a war of thirty-three years, the heads, the community consulted the decrees of Emperor Charles I, had subjected the Saxons to the law, and pronounced decisive sentence, proa the sway of his sceptre, and compelled them to vided every thing were perfectly clear, and no worship the cross, the conquered districts were capital crime could be proved. divided by him into counties and bishoprics. On Illegal actions, at that time, were divided into the conclusion of a peace, in the year 80s, the such as admitted reparation, and such as did not Saxons, amongst other privileges, attained per | Cablösliche, and unablösliche). The former, for mission to retain their national laws, under the instance, calumny, manslaughter, &c. might be inspection of imperial judges (counts,) and to be compensated by fines, whilst the latter, treason, entirely exempted from the control of the bishops, ll assassination, adultery, &c. were punished with except in spiritual matters. Several counties and | death. In the latter class of offences were coin. bishoprics composed a delegate county (send. prized, apostacy, sorcery, sacrilege, contempt of grafschaft), which was superintended by an im the christian festivals, profanation of christian perial delegate (send-gruf), whose office was to tombs, and conspiracies against the worshippers watch over the preservation of civil and ecclesi of the cross. In all cases of this kind, the trial astic order, to unite the private and often clash was begun in the public session, but concluded ing interests of the counts and bishops for the before a private or secret tribunal. The whole Emperor's service.

community, by right, should have pronounced lavested with the power to decide in matters of Il sentence in open cuurt upon the guilty, but the

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