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and have given no person any legitimate subject il a courtezan; but what delicacy and what taste of complaint. The affronts which we cannot are required to seize the just gradations ! pardon, are those which we durst not, nay, which 1 There is an art by which we may procure we are unable to express, which, in some mea- esteem ourselves at the expence of the vanity of sure are not appreciable by words. A multitude others, and which throws a great charm over the of ladle civilities, anticipations, and attentions, | manners; but this is the secret of the most indicative of esteem or of interest, give a grace accomplished. and a relief to the character; it is that Power of To talk much of others and but little of our. gentility, which is called the air, the tone of good selves, is the amiable artifice of ingenious self. company.

love, which secretly gains the affcction of the Many people consider politeness as a kind of coldest hearts, which you are sure of pleasing : extentatious parade, as a luxury in manners, but vanity discovers no graces; it was not even adapted only to a certaia fortune and a certain | forgiven in the vain-glorious Bishop of Noyon*, rank: their rudeness they term plainness and though all his preteusions would have been adexse; they never suspect that agreeableness of l mitted had they any other herald than himself. .foros is one of the most essential elements of a Conversation is the field in which taste and the placid and happy life. But does not the true repose graces are exhibited to the greatest advantage; it and serenity of our days, depend more on a multi- .| has almost generally been relinquished for gamtode of trivial circumstances of hourly recurrence,

ing, a talent too difficult for most people to acthan on these important events, with which the quire. It cannot be denied, that courts them. path of life is but sparingly bes'rewed? The selves have lost much of their attraction by the habit of delicate sensations tends to give addi. change. Anne, of Austria, was the last Queen fional refinement to delicacy; vivacity of imagi

of France who had parties for the pur ose of mation and sensibility are improved by it; the conversation. Conversation is become an obaptitade to receive agreeable impressions is in

solete art, the secret of which is lost like that of creased, and the combination of all these pro

painting on glass; there, prevailed all the varied. duces the immense interval that separates good

tones of wit, the lively, the ingenious, the pic company from the unpolisherl multitude. quan!, the natural; there pressed by necessity, Those who are most negligent toward others,

or animated by circumstances, the imagina'ion are not themselves on that account insensible to

created exquisite turns, expressions fraught with any neglect of themselves. Your manners have

genius, which the French academy frequently fixed a standard of reciprocity; this balance,

adopted; the use of them was admitted among however, is not indifferent to the passions. What

the laws of the language; and the quality of acute pain have we often received from things

a man of fashion, which was then almost synoni. which appeared to be but trifles. The repeated

mous with that of a man of taste, gave some a prick of a pin is equivalent to a large wound;

seat among the chiefs of literature. and it matters not what it is that disturbs my re

At that time, when conversation constituted pose, if I have once lost my tranquillity.

the amusement of the most delicate persons, no Universal familiarity is in general insulting,

coxcombs destitute of ideas fatigued with their and throws a discredit on that of intimacy; on

insipidity; no sarcastic genius stung those who the other hand, universal and excessive reserve,

were present, or calumniated the absent; wit was seems a refinement of pride, which gives itself

keen without being malicious, and grazed withlittle concern about placing you high or low,

out wounding; the faculty of listening was left provided it keeps you at a distance.

How subtie is the principle of self. love, and * Such was the epithet given to that prelate, how difficult to be managed! It pervades every who, in other respects was a sensible man, and heart, as the igneous Auid pervades all nature. who founded a prize for poetry at the French In society it is a restless and mistrustful passion, academy. A very entertaining collection might which we ought continually to be careful of be made of all the sallies that escaped him, and offending; and in our own bosoms, how much which are preserved by tradi jon in society. A more delicate still is its nature! When pure, it single one will be sufficient in this place. As is honour: if it receive the slightest adulteration he acted consistently with his character even at it is tranformed into vanity and pride. Never the point of death, the priest who was with him, theless, like electricity, it has its conductors, and remonstrated, and assured him that he endanger. there exists an art by which it may be directed ed his eternal salvation; he replied, “ ( never and modified

mind that, father; depend upon it God will look In the conduct of life, self-love ought to hava twice before he dooms a Clermont Tunnerre to the bashfulnesi of a virgin, and the coquetry of | perdition."

to those who had not the ability to produce. || Such is the use of taste and grace applied to Nor is this a quality that ought to be despised; || manners. it is more rare than is imagined. The silly wit | From the preceding observations it would apticisms of buffoons, afforded amusement only in | pear, that the highest degree of mental cultiva. anti-chambers.

tion is necessary for the acquisition of this diffiEvery thing that had the appearance of dis cult art, and yet nothing is less essential ; it cussion was avoided; there was then no obsti. consists entirely in tradition and practice. If, nacy in dispute, no vehemence in the tone, no nevertheless, a multitude of observations and passion in the interest. Nothing was calculated I keenness of remark, be the object what it may, to excite languor; the conversation proceeded constitute precisely what is termed intelligence, lightly along, strewing brilliant traits and ex. it cannot be denied that this quality is peculiarly pressions, like flowers and rich spangles; it was attached to a knowledge of the world independent Camilla skimming the surface of the cornfields of all instruction and culture. The ignorance without bending the ears.

of the commander De Jars and of Marshal There is a certain elegant manner of taking d'Hocquincourt, had something extremely inone's place in the world, without exciting either ceresting and amiable*, and Matha cuts an es-aversion or dislike, and as it were by a tacit con cellent figure beside the Chevalier de Gramsent of the self-love of all. It is a rare and diffi montt. cult talent accompanied with something noble || | The cultivation of the mind and acquired and pleasing, and is to be found, as if implanted knowledge afforded, however, great advantages, by the hand of nature in the courtier and man even for society, in consequence of the multiof fashion.

tude of agreeable things which the imagination The subtieties of declamation cannot be ap- and the memory present to the judgment; and preciated even by the most musical ear; they l if the first class is equally capable of producing cannot be noted down; the greatest beauties of l amiable men, it cannot be denied that to the gesticulation arise in the actor from the impres- il second alone belong those who may be called sion of the moment, and have no written signs great men. Of this the Duke of Orleans, the to fix their value. A comprehensive glance, great Conde, and Prince Eugene, are demonstrawhich enables the warrior to combine circum I tions. stances and regulates his conduct, is itself the This leads us to other reflections: we must sudden illumination of genius. Thus it is with || now erect the light-house upon the rock. all the arts, and especially with the art of life. ll Reason, talents, and virtue are valuable posses. Rules can give only general results; it is delicacy | sions, which ensure the felicity of man in erery of judgment and of taste that suddenly make

stage of fortune, but they must be kept cona happy application of them; and readiness to cealed from the eyes of the world, which are seize and to execute, is the fruit of habit and

dazzled by their lustre. All our actions should practice.

receive an impulse from them; but as in the This it is that produces so great a superiority || scenery of the stage, the machines should rein the manners of the courtier, even with fewer Il main hidden from the eye of the spectator. It personal advantages. The ever varying scenes, tends also to the perfection of these figures, if the multiplicity of circumstances in which they are engaged, either as actors or witnesses, soon

stance roused the Cardinal, who was accordingly give them great experience. Arbiters of ele.

about to hasten to his proper place, gance, like Petronius, they feel keenly and judge

The King

being quite close to him, pushed him by the shrewdly; the sense of propriety never leaves

shoulder, and said in a peevish tone: “Go on, them even in the most difficult situations; 'a mistake would cost them too dear; they decide

Sir, go on; every body knows that you are

master here.” To obey or disobey appeared with promptitude and certainty, like a skilful

equally impossible; but the Cardinal did not long player, who has calculated all the chances*.

hesitate. “I will go on, Sire," said he, in a * The most remarkable trail of this extraor. submissive tone, "since your Majesty cornmands diwary promp:itude of judgement, is to be found || me, but it shall be like the meanest of your ser. in the life of Cardinal Richelieu. Louis XIII. vants.” At the same moment he snatched i hated him, entrusted his authority to him, as it flambeau from one of the pages, and proceeded were by force, and thought to recover it by ll a few steps before the King, whom his ingenuity affronting him. One evening the King had just || and presence of mind restored to good humour. broken up the council, the Cardinal was speak-il See the conversation of the Marshal d'Hocing to some one at the door of the chamber, ll quincourt with father Canaye, in the works of without being aware of the movement behind Saini Evremond. him. The doors suddenly opened; this circum- ! f Memoirs of the Chevalier Grammont.

the painter is an anatomist; but when he is satis || soul of Louis XIV. to cherish so near him a man fed with the correctness of the attitudes, and almost as great as himself. the expression of the head, he hastens to cover Rivals are not the only objects of which the rigid dryness of the outline with the softness talents have occasion to be apprehensive. “I of the flesh, the freshness of colouring, and the am tired of hearing him called the Just," said the elegance of drapery; he exhibits to the eye Alhenian peasani, when he signed the proscripnothing but sentiment, soul and life.

tion of Aristides; he has revealed to us the secret Reason alone has something cold and formal, of human nature. Envy, like the royal tyger, which is repugnant even to taste, and insup attacks merely for the pleasure it takes in destrucportable to friyolity; how many graces it re tion. quires to render it tolerable !

The greatest strength of mind consists in We are fond of talking vf virtue, but we never checking your flight, and appearing to men only wish to meet with her except in affairs of busi. at that degrçe of elevation which you know to ness; her presence disturbs, her look intimidates; be either useful or agreeable to them. When 2 vigilant conscience foresees her judgments and you are willing to be second to every one, you anticipates censure by batred. To no purpose is may rest assured that you will be the first in the she covered with the veil of modesty; it is but opinion of all. Reputation is obtained like the 100 transparent; like Homer's gods, virtue ought prize of valour among the Athenians, which was not to mingle among men unless concealed under decreed to bim whom every one thought the most a human form, nor should she be discovered but worthy after himself. by her miracles.

Ye men of ardent genius and exalted virtue, The human mind is so constituted, that though | enjoy in secret your sentiments and your intellithe perfection of each action individually de

gence; truth and virtue are beauties for contemlights, charms, and extorts applause, yet a con

plation. In the society of nature alone, seize in tinued series of perfection fatigues and oppresses; mysterious obscurity the boon she offerss her it shocks the self-love of all. How small is the enjoyments, like those of love, cannut be comnumber of those pure and tender hearis in whom municated; those who taste, are alone capable the love of the fair, the good, the true, burns

of appreciating them. Keep yourselves down like the sacred fire, and which cling with en to the ordinary standard; exhibit only the amiable thusiastic attachment to the models which are

man, and reserve the great man for peculiar set before them! Most people are willing to occasions ; you have sufficient rea-on to exult, bestow their admiration to-day, if they may re

but do not give the world notice to hate you. serve their censures for to-morrow; but to be Of what use is vain applause? All that passes out always obliged to applaud would be a cruel of your heart is but empty sound; it is what punishment for public malignity. The world is is within that constitutes felicity. Leave the a suspicious tyrant; it hates whatever exceeds popular favour and the reputation of a day for the ordinary standard, and the sage will the buffoons of fortune; the homage of ages continually inculcate the lesson given by Par- || belongs to genius and virtue. Wait till the setmenio to Philotas: “My son, make thyself ting of the sun, your shadow will then lengthen little!"

behind you, your name will be sacred, when it Has not Richardson been reproached on ac- l shall be no more than a sound. Such is the count of the uniformly perfect character of his || greatness, such the glory of inan; but to think, Grandison ? And yet he is but the hero of a to feel, and to please, to be ansiable and to be novel; the public has in this judgment accused loved,- this it is that constituies true felicity. itself. The Duke de Montausier would nnt have been

because he was unable to act otherwise. Some a favourite at any couri* ; it required the great

one representing to him that he educated the

beir to the throne with too great severity, and The Duke de Montausier has come the that he would repent it when the Prince became nearest of any modern character to Cato of King, he replied: “If Monseigneur is an honest Utaca, of whom Velleius Paterculus says, that man, he will ihank me for my severity, and if he he always did what was right, not because he is not, I should be ashamed of his favour." intended to act more virtuously than others, but ||

AN ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF VIENNA, AND THE MANNERS OF

ITS INHABITANTS.

[Conclusled from Page 93.]

sions.

FEw journals are read, doubtless because of Kant is no longer held in any estimation in they are very common in public places. The ll this city. best literary and political gazelles art generally ll In 1796 the list of promotions for the uni. the least in vogue. In a word, iris painful to versity contained thirty-two doctors in physic, six observe, hae the best works cannot be procured in law, and five in divinity. In 1797 there were without great difficulty.

nor less than one hundred and four doctors in In a system of things like the present very little physic, twenty-one surgeons, and ninety-two may be expected froin literature and the arts.

persons appointed as ordinary surgeons, who Every spark of genius is stified in its birth, un- | enjoyed the liberty of following their profesle-s some child of the muses, impelled by an extraordinary ardour, should break the fetters that The military medico-chirurgical institution, bind him, and at the risk of happiness soar above the object of which is to form surgeons for the every obstacle which lies in his way.

army, known by the name of the academy of It is worthy of notice, that i he literature of the || Joseph, deserves to be mentioned here. It has modern Greeks lays its foundation in this city. | six professors, and from five to six hundred slu. It employs at this time three presses. Some of dents. the Greeks translate many German, French, and! The inhabitants are generally kind and simple Italian works into their own language. They in their manners. Sometimes we may observe a compose likewise calendars, gazettes, &c. in rather studied politeness, and an affectation in laGreek.

vishing titles and attentions, which forms a conIt is not certain whether from a taste for the l trast with their bomely appearance and un

DpoEnglish or a disgust to the French, that now lished manners; all this may be attributed to the more than ever the nobles, and those who copy || influence of the court and the ministers of the after them, have their children taught the former petty German Princes who reside in Vienna as language. Nor is it uncommon to observe a | agents for their respective employers. Their young lady going to mass with a prayer-book re manners and language have been studiously co. sembling those in use among the English Ca-l pied by the people in general. tholics.

The strongest propensity of ihe inhabitants is The English in this city, let their condition be|| | for good living; and if it cannot be said that they what it may, enjoy at present the privilege of always indulge themselves in delicacies, yet it being presented at court by their minister, and must be confessed that they eat much and drink consequently of having an introduction to the in proportion. first circles which has given rise to so many sin The traveller from Venice and Milan would gular adventures.

here find some mixture of the Italian manners Besides the universities, there are different and customs large schools, in which a great number of scho. Chocolate is here as in Italy much used, though lars are taught (at a moderate price) whatever re but little esteemed in the North. It is the same lates to commerce; such as lerste normale, with certain veget bles, such as broccoli, apples which has one professor employed in giving lec of paradise, &c. The daily parade of the Preter tures on the physical education of children, and may, in some measure, resemble the Italian pa. likewise gymnasia, or colleges, where the methods rades. If gallantry in the higher ranks is not so of teaching are by no means consistent with the general as in the latter country, it is not attended improvements of the age.

here with any stigma. The Italian language is The university has, among other professors, likewise much spoken. In consequence of the two for the Latin, one for the French language many censures which the corrupt language of the and literature, and another for the Italian. It natives has incurred, its diction is become more has others for history and chemistry, as far as it pure than hai of most other Germans. But thei: relates to the science of agriculture ; but no one pronunciation is still defective. is appointed to give lectures on the management The women are lovely, and preserve their and preservation of forests. The philosophy | charms to an advanced age. They are fond o

dress and pleasure, their minds are not without || friend and countryman, without regard to the culture, but they are very much confined in the situation north or south, now assumes another choice of their books. They cultivate music in | tone; he retires within himself; and must be preference to every other study or amusement. twice addressed before he deigns an answer. For

No people enjoy so many pleasures as the in merly whatever descended the Danube was dear habitants of this place. In addition to numerous to him; now he examines before he makes his public houses where there is eating and drinking choice, and consults his judgment before he and dancing," it is likewise customary for the yields to the impulse of his heart. people in general to share in the diversions which Mistrust of foreigners is moreover increased seem reserved fo: persons of rank only. The || by the marked ingratitude with which their serpicture of enjoyment which is always accom vices have been too often rewarded. To these panied by that of misery, stands here alone. - causes are united the events in France and the Upon our arrival at Vienna two classes only pre rigorous vigilance of the police, which these sent themselves to our view, the nobility and citi. events rendered necessary, and which have zens. The lower class is not visible; luxury has effaced one of the most striking trails in the confounded it with the second, and even with the character of the natives, namely, their atfirst sometimes. But in order to complete the tachment to association, and effectually conrepresentation which has been made of the in curred to suppress the gaiety natural to small pri. habitants, it may not be improper to borrow vate circles, and to stifle every happy sentiment the sentiments of an eminent writer on that of humanity. subject.

Among the common crimes of Vienna, rob« At all times the greatest happiness of a bery must be considered the principal. The aunative of Vienna has been a good table, and with thor who has furnished us with the little extract that-which is no more couple of good which we have transcribed upon their character, friends. He now becomes less communicative. and who is in general sufficiently prepossessed in His reserve borders on mistrust. He continues favour of his country, forms a frightful picture to be fond of public places. He looks and lis of the robberies committed in this city. tens with an interest but not with a desire to be “ Every gold and silver-smith is in danger of noticed. Formerly he was pleased with hearing his property. We have now, in 1797, three the news from foreigners; now he contents him robberies a day perpetual. There are pickpocself with reading it as he can. Formerly he kets, housebreakers, and robbers who enter by adopted the opinions of foreigners, and even per the roofs, and take away the linen which is placed fect strangers, now he forms a system for himself, for drying in the garrets; others strip the beds to which he obstinately adheres; he knows more | of the feathers, and the coach-boxes of their than others; he learns the spirit of the age in leather; others mount horses and take away the Gazette of Vienna, the course of political chaises, chariots, and other valuable articles." events in the Wienerbo, one of the worst The lower order of citizens and servants have papers that exists;” but his favourite writer, Il preserved the use of bonnets or leather caps, who has all his confidence, is the famous Gazet richly embroidered ; these ornaments of luxury teer of Neuwied (it is easy to judge whether this often serve as objects of temptation to the robber. gazette is partial). This change in the exterior The editor himself was about eight years ago conduct of the natives, this sterility of ideas, has witness to a daring attack made upon a woman arisen from the melancholy events which have

in the middle of the street, upon the aptaken place in a great nation, and attracted the

proach of evening. The man succeeded in inhabitants of Vienna more to the enjoyment of

tearing off her bonnet, and afterwards in escaptheir own exclusive happiness. It originates ing through the multitude that was quickly collikewise in the measures of government, who

lected. perpetually keep a watchful eye over the actions

At the same time a man was killed by a stiletto and discourses of the public, and consequently in the open street, and at no unseasonable hour, render them timid and embarrassed. So that without any discovery being made of the murwhatever wears the resemblance of a political derer; but crimes of this magnitude are very society is cautiously avoided. This air of sang rare. The natives, although fashioned in many froid which the natives put on, in opposition to

respects after the Italians, are, however, far the inhabitants of other German provinces, is at from presenting in their character the glaring the same time the effect of the policy and rivalry | defects which a

defects which are laid to the charge of the of the different courts. A citizen of Vienna, || former. who used to converse with every German as a Upon going out of the city we are struck with

the beauty and magnificence of the numerous * For servants even learn to dance, I chateaux, parks, and gardens, observable in the No. XXII, Vol. III.

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