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unanimously behold with a smile of pity, why || other respects. Though it sbould not be capable should nature not have led the other sex the l of either destroying or even diminishing the sun same road: I know bat one secret of preserving ll of vices, must we not confess that it makes us man from deptarity, and that is this--10 guard acquainted with them? We must live with his heart against peakness.

these slaves of vice, and associate with these fools, The stage is highly capable of performing great We must either shun or counteract them ; underpart of this momentous task. It presents the mine their influence, or fall under it. The stage mirror of truth to the numerous classes of fools, renders them incapable of taking us by surprize, and with salutary ridicule lashes folly under | We are prepared against their designs. The stage whaterer form it may appear. It effects in such has betrayed to us the secret of detecting and instzners, by means of satire, what in others it Il disarming them. It has stript off the deceitful periorms by exciting tender emotions or terror. mask that concealed the hypocrite, and laid open If we were to attempt to estimate the respective the net with which cunning and cabal encoma ralae of tragedy and comedy by the measure of passed us. It dragged deception and falsehood the effects which they produce, experience would

out of their crooked labyrinths, and exposed perhaps adjadge the preference to the latter.

their countenance to the light. Though the Ridicule and contempt wound the pride of man

dreadful remorse of the unføri unale Mrs. Haller,

in Kotzebue's Stranger, should not deter one vomore severely than indignation tortures his conscience. Oor cowardice flies from the dread of

luptuary from his criminal pursuits, and the pic. borrors, but this very cowardice betrays us to the

ture of the baneful effects of seduction should sting of satire. The laws and our conscience

not be capable of quenching his guiliy fames, presente us frequently from crimes and vices,

will it not enable unsuspecting onocence to see whilst the perception of our follies requires a

through the artful web of seduction, and teach it Dote retoed sense, which we can sharpen no

to tremble at the vows and the humage of the where more effectually than at the theatre. We

vile seducer? may, without much reluctance, empower a

The stage does, however, direct our attention friend to attack our morals and our heart, but we

not to man and human characters alone, it also find it more difficult to forgive him a single laugh

se him a single laugh renders us attentive to the fale of man, and at our expence. Our transgressions admit of an | teaches us the great art of enduring its blows observer and censor, but our follies scarcely can

with firmness. bear a witness. The stage alone is permitted

| Accident and design act an equally important freely to lash our weakness, because it spares our

Il part in the vicissitudes of our life;, we direct the peerishness, and does not desire to know the course of the latter, but must implicitly submit gunity fool. We see in its mirror, without blush to the former, We have reason to be satisfied ing, our follies drop their mask, and in general with the advantage, if unavoidable fatalites do are thankful for the gentle reprimand.

not surprise us unprepared ; if our courage and The effects producer by the stage do not, how prudence have exerted themselves already on sierer, terminate here. The theatre is in a higher milar occasions, and our heart has attaiurd a degree than any other public institution a school sufficient degree of firmness to endure the sudden of practical wisdom, a guide through civil life,

blow inflicted by adverse fale. The s'age pre20 unerring key to the most secret recesses of the

sents to our view a variegated scene of human haman soul. I will not deny that infatuation sufferings. It involves us artfully in foreign disand callousness of conscience frequently destroy tresses, and rewards us for momentary pangs with its best effects ; ibat these barriers to truth enable voluptuous tears and a most valuable acquisition Dumerous vices to stand undaunted before its of courage and experience. We follow on the mirror, and that thousands of generous senti stage the deserted Ariadne through the re-echoing ments, recommended from the stage, make no Naxos, descend with her through the horrid tower impression upon the icy heart of the spectator; of Ugolino, attend her to the dreadful scaffold, and and I am inclined to believe that Moliere's Har await with her in anxious dread the arrival of the pagon may not have reformed one usurer ; that awful hour of death. Here we hear surprised the suicide Beverley has reclaimed but a few of nature unobjectionably confirm what the secret his brethren from the dreadful vice of gambling; palpitations of our soul prognosticated. The and that the representation of Charles Moor will betrayed favourite of his Queen is deserted by not contribute much to render the high roads her favour in the dungeons of the lower; the safer : but though we should admit this to be the lagonized Francis Moor is abandoned, at the point case in most instances, or even be so unjust to of death, by his faithless sophistry. Eternity re maio:ain that the stage contributes nothing at all stores ihe deceased to the world, to reveal secrets to restrain the progress of vice, we cannot deny | which no living mortal can know, and the se. that its salutary influence is very great in many | cure villain is driven from his last horrid retreat,

because the grave evomits a dreadful witness B.fore Joseph 11. conquered the dreadful hydra against him.

of pions hatred, did the stage already plant huB-sides the information which the stage gives

manity and meckness in our heart; the horrid us of the fate of man, it reaches us also to be just pictures which able dramatists diew of pagan to the unfortunate, arid to judge him with in

priestly fury, taught us to avoid religious haired, dulgent humanity. We are made acquainted and this dreadful mirror enabled Christianity to with the whole extent of his necessities before wipe off the spo s with which ii was stained. we are permitted to sit in judgment upon him. The errors of educa'ion might, by means of the Humanity and tolerance begin to predominate in stage, be attacked with equal success; but unfor. our age; their cheering rays have forced their tunately not one of our great dramatists has as yet way into the courts of justice, and even fariher

attempted to treat upon this important theme, into the hearts of princes. How ample a share Though there is nothing, by its consequences so has he s'age had in this beneficent change, by important for the general welfare of a nation as rendering men better acquainied with his bre- || education, yet it is totally abandoned to the prethren, and unfolding the secret springs which de- ll judices, the indolence, and the thoughtlessness teronine human actions!

of every individual. The stage alone would be A cerrain eminent class of men bas more rea. capable of exhibiting to public view the numeson to be grateful to the stage than the rest. rous unfortunate victims of neglected education ; Here the great and powerful hear what they here our fathers might learn to renounce perverse never or rarely hear-truth; and behold what maxims, and our mothers to love rationally. they never or rarely see-man in his natural False notions lead the heart of the best pedaform.

gngues astray, which renders the consequences Thus extensive is the influence of the stage the more pernicious, if they beast of unnatural u pon moral refinement; but its merits, in illu. | methods, and systematically ruin the tender plant minaring the human mind are no less important in academies and pedagogic hot houses. The and obvious; and it is in this higher region where present predominant custom of instructing chila great genius and zealous patriot turns it to the dren in ever

dren in every thing but in what tends to render best advantage. He casts a scrutinizing look at thein practical Christians and useful subjects, dethe whole human race, compares nations with serves, more than any other fashionable folly pations, centuries with centuries, and observes of the age, to be lashed the scourge of how slavishly the great mass of the people bend their neck beneath the yoke of prejudice and The stage might also be rendered instrumental opinion, which continually counteract their hap-in correcting the ideas of a nation relative 10 gopiness-observes that the purer rays of truth en- vernment and the superior powers. The legislalighten only a few solitary individuals, who tive power might here speak to the subject by the purchase the small gain, perhaps, at the expence medium of others, defend itself against his comof a whole life. By what means can a wise le- l plaints, before they could grow loud, and bribe gislator make a whole nation partake of the sa the mistrust of the mulitude without appearing lutary light emanaling from these purer says of l to have any share in the attempt. truth?

I cannot omit to animadvert here on the great The stage is the common channel by which influence which a well-regulated theatre might the light of truth emanates from the more en exercise over the spirit of a whole nation. By lightened part of a nation, and diffuses its gentle the national spirit of a people, I mean the simirays through the whole state. Notions more cor larity and harmony of its opinions and inclinarect, principles more refined, and purer senti tions relative to subjects concerning which ave. ments, Auw from her through all the veins of the ther nation entertains different notions and senti. great bulk of the nation; the mephitic mist of ments. The stage alone has it in its power to barbarism, the Egyptian darkness of superstition effect this harmony in a superior degree, as it disappears, the night gives way to conquering | pervades the whole territory of human know light. I beg leave to select only two from the ledge, exhausts all situations in life, and lays open numerous excellent fruits of the better stage: | the most hidden recesses of the human heart, and How universally has religious tolerance been dif as it is resorted to by all ranks and classes, and fused within these few last years. Before Les has the carliest access to the understanding and sing's Nathan the Jew, and Voltaire's Saladin, ll the heart. If in all our dramatic pieces, one the Saracen put us to the blush, and preached | leading feature did prevail, if our poels agreed the divine doctrine that pious submission to the among themselves, and would form a close union will of God does not depend on our opinions of for this purpose, if rigorous discrimination guided the nature of the Supreme Ruler of the world. them in their labours, if they would resolve to

satire.

I

devote their pen exclusively to popular subjects, || improveinent; where no one faculty of the mind the stage sight, in a superior degree, guide the is strained at the expence of the other, nor any spirit of the nation.

pleasure is enjoyed to the injury of society at Before I coociale, I must mention one more large. When sorcow preys on the mind, when advantage of the stage, which is more important gloomy melancholy poisons our life, when we tban it is commonly thought. Human nature loathe the world and our occupations, when heavy cannot endore, for any length of time, to be burdens depress our mind, and our strength is untaterapially stretched on the wreck of nearly worn out by fatigue, then the theatre rebasinas, and the charms of the senses die away ceives us; the artificial world into which we are as tbey 250 gratified. Man, being cloyed by transported, makes us forget the real world with animal cajoyment, tired from long continued all its cares and burthens; we are regenerated, as exertions, tormented by an incessant desire of it were ; our feelings are roused; salutary passions exercising his faculties, pants after better and shake our dormant spirits, and give quicker cir. Eore refined enjoyments, or planges heedlessly culation to the stagnaling blood. The unfortunate into bratal excesses, which accelerate his ruin and sufferer weeps away his own sorrows while he destroy social tranquillity. Bacchantic orgies, || sheds a sympathizing tear at the distresses of trícous gambling, numberless wild excesses another; the giddy favourite of fortune grows hatched by idleness, are unavoidable, if the || sober, and the secure is rendered apprehensive. legislature does not know how to direct this | The sentinental Sybarite is inspired with manly activity of the soul to more noble pursuits. The || firmness, and the icy callousness of the raw barman of basiness, who generously devotes his life | barian is thawed. Every individual participates to the service of the state, is in danger of falling ll in the universal rapture of the audience; the a prey to misanthropic spleen-the man of learn pleasure that sparkles in every eye and glows in ing to become a dull pedant-and the multitude every bosom, seizes irresistibly upon his sympato be reluced to a state of brutality. The stage thizing heart, all distinctions of rank and cir. is an institution where pleasure is blended with cumstances are forgotten, and the whole assembly instruction, rest with exertion, diversion with seems to be but one happy family,

SPAIN, In its present Physical, Moral, Political, Religious, Statistical, and Literary State.

The Spaniards in general are by no means || to the keeping of the sabbath, it being a cominferior in point of capacity to any other civilized mon sight to see them on that day work in the nation; tbe mental lethargy, in which the whole fields, or perform any other manual labour, nation seems to be immersed, is owing to the though they would deem it a mortal sin were thraldom in which it has hitherto been kept by any one only to talk of labour on one of the the inquisition. Bigotry and an excessive na numerous festivals of the Virgin Mary. tional pride are the most predominant features “ The state of literature in Spain cannot but in the character of the Spaniards. They would greatly contribute to support the lamentable and sooner submit to the most excruciating tortures pernicious reign of darkness in that devoted than give up any one of the numerous mechani. country. The clergy take all possible pains to cal ceremonies which disgrace the christian reli render foreign literature suspected by the gion in Spain. A Spaniard would deem it the Spaniards, bestowing the names of protestants most enormous crime to omil hearing mass read and heretics upon all authors of eminence; and og a holiday, or to eat meat on a fast day, though these epithets alone are sufficient to prejudice a he would not scruple to assassinate an enemy, Spaniard against the compositions of men of or to commit a breach of the sixth command universal literary celebrity. The titles of promen, ot the same day. The holy virgin is in hibited hooks are usually affixed to the doors of every respect worshipped by this nation with the churches with a superscription purporting much greater devotion than the Supreme Being. that they savour of protestanism. The weekly Another instance of the total neglect of the Il papers are likewise commonly swelled with the essential precepts of bur religion, is the indif- | titles of books that come under this denomina. ference which the Spaniards display with respect'l lion. The best English and French authors are

because the grave evomits a dreadful witness || Before Joseph II. conquered the dreadful hydra against him.

of pious hatred, did the stage already plant huBesides the information which the stage gives | manity and meekness in our heart; the horrid us of the face of man, it reaches us also to be just pictures which able dramatists diew of pagan to the unfortunate, and to judge him with in

priestly fury, taught us to avoid religious haired, dulgent bumanity. We are made acquainted and this dreadful mirror enabled Christianity to with the whole extent of his necessities before wipe off i he spo s with which it was slained. we are permitted to sit in judgment upon him. The errors of education might, by means of the Humanity and tolerance begin to predominate in stage, be aliacked with equal success; but unforour age; their cheering rays have forced their

tunately not one of our great dramatists has as yet way into the courts of justice, and even fariher

attempted to treat upon this important theme. into the hearts of princes. How ample a share Though there is nothing, by its consequences so has be s'age had in this beneficent change, by important for the general welfare of a nation as rendering me a better acquainted with his bre education, yet it is totally abandoned to the prethren, and unfolding the secret springs which de- / judices, the indolence, and the thoughtlessness termine human actions!

of every individual. The stage alone would be A certain eminent class of men has more rea. capable of exhibiting to public view the numeson to be grateful to the stage than the rest. rous unfortunate victims of neglected education ; Here the great and powerful hear what they here our fathers might learn to renounce perverse never or rarely hear-truth; and behold what maxims, and our mothers to love rationally. they never or rarely seeman in his natural

False notions lead the heart of the best pedaform.

grgues astray, which renders the consequences Thus extensive is the influence of the stage the more perpicious, if they beast of unnatural upon nioral refinement; but its merits, in illu

methods, and systematically ruin the tender plant minating the human mind are no less important

in academies and pedagogic hot houses. The and obvious; and it is in this higher region where

present predominant custom of instructing chil. a great genius and zealous patriot turns it to the

dren in every thing but in what tends to render best advantage. He casts a scrutinizing look at thein practical Christians and useful subjects, dethe whole human race, compares nations with

serves, more than any other fashionable folly nations, centuries with centuries, and observes

of the age, to be lashed by the scourge of how slavishly the great mass of the people bend satire. their neck beneath the yoke of prejudice and I The stage might also be rendered instrumental opinion, which continually counteract their hap-l in correcting the ideas of a nation relative to gopiness observes that the purer rays of truih en vernment and the superior powers. The legislalighten only a few solitary individuals, who'l tive power might here speak to the subject by the purchase the small gain, perhaps, at the expence medium of others, defend itself against his comof a whole life. By what means can a wise le plaints, before they could grow loud, and bribe gislator make a whole nation partake of the sa-l the mistrust of the muliitude without appearing lutary light emanating from these purer rays of to have any share in the attempt. truth?

I cannot omit to animadvert here on the great The stage is the common channel by which influence which a well-regulated theatre might the light of truth emanates from the more en exercise over the spirit of a whole nation. By lightened part of a nation, and diffuses its gentle the national spirit of a people, I mean the simi. rays through the whole state. Notions more cor- larity and harmony of its opinions and inclinareci, principles more refined, and purer senti- tions relative to subjects concerning which allo. ments, Auw from her through all the veins of the ther nation entertains differenį norions and senti. great bulk of the nation ; the mephitic mist of || ments. The stage alone has it in its power to barbarism, the Egyptian darkness of superstition effect this harmony in a superior degree, as it disappears, the night gives way to conquering pervades the whole territory of human know. light.' I beg leave to select only two from the ledge, exhausts all situations in life, and lays open numerous excellent fruits of the better stage: || the most hidden recesses of the human heart, and How universally has religious tolerance been dif- ll as it is resorted to by all ranks and classes, and fused within ihese few last years. Before Les- has the earliest access to the understanding and sing's Nathan the Jew, and Voltaire's Saladin, ll the heart. If in all our dramatic pieces, one the Saracen put us to the blush, and preached leading feature did prevail, if our poets agreed the divine doctrine that pious submission to the l among themselves, and would form a close union will of God does not depend on our opinions of for this purpose, if rigorous discrimination guided the nature of the Supreme Ruler of the world. I them in their labours, if they would resolve to

devote their pen exclusively to popular subjects, improveinent; where no one faculty of the mind the

e stage mighe, in a superior degree, guide the || is strained at the expence of the other, nor any spirit of the nation.

pleasure is enjoyed to the injury of society at Before I conclude, I must mention one more || large. When sortow preys on the mind, when advantage of the stage, which is more important | gloomy melancholy poisons our life, when we than it is commonly thought. Human nature loathe the world and our occupations, when heavy canno: endure, for any length of time, to be burdens depress our mind, and our strength is uninterruptedly stretched on the wreck of nearly worn out by fatigue, then the theatre rebusiness, and the charms of the senses die away ceives us; the artificial world into which we are as they are gratified. Man, being cloyed by || Transported, makes us forget the real world with animal enjoyment, tired from long continued all its cares and burthens; we are regenerated, as exertions, tormented by an incessant desire of it were; our feelings are roused; salutary passions exercising his faculties, pants after better and shake our dormant spirits, and give quicker cir. more refined enjoyments, or plonges heedlessly | culation to the stagnating bloor. The unfortunate into brutal excesses, which accelerate his ruin and sufferer weeps away his own sorrows while he destroy social tranquillity. Bacchantic orgies, | sheds a sympathizing tear at the distresses of rainous gambling, numberless wild excesses another; the giddy favourite of fortune grows hatched by idleness, are unavoidable, if the sober, and the secure is rendered apprehensive. legislature does not know how to direct this ii The sentiinental Sybarite is inspired with manly activity of the soul to more noble pursuits. The | firmness, and the icy callousness of the raw bar. man of business, who generously devotes his life barian is thawed. Every individual participates to the service of the state, is in danger of falling in the universal rapture of the audience; the a prey to misanthropic spleen-ihe man of learn | pleasure that sparkles in every eye and glows in ing to become a dull pedant-and the multitude ll.every bosom, seizes irresistibly upon his sympato be reluced to a state of brutality. The stage thizing heart, all distinctions of rank and ciris an institution where pleasure is blended with cumstances are forgotten, and the whole assembly instruction, rest with exertion, diversion with || seems to be but one happy family.

SPAIN, In its present Physical, Moral, Political, Religious, Statistical, and Literary State.

The Spaniards in general are by no means il to the keeping of the sabbath, it being a cominferior in point of capacity to any other civilized mon sight to see them on that day work in the , nation; the mental lethargy, in which the whole fields, or perform any other manual labour, nation seems to be immersed, is owing to the though they would deem it a mortal sin were thraldom in which it has hitherto been kept by 1 any one only to talk of labour on one of the the inquisition. Bigotry and an excessive na numerous festivals of the Virgin Mary. tional pride are the most predoininant features “ The state of literature in Spain cannot but in the character of the Spaniards. They would greatly contribute to support the lamentable and sooner submit to the most excruciating tortures pernicious reign of darkness in that devoted than give up any one of the numerous mechani country. The clergy take all possible pains to cal ceremonies which disgrace the christian reli render foreign literature suspected by the gion in Spain. A Spaniard would deem it the Spaniards, bestowing the names of protestants most enormous crime to omit hearing mass read and heretics upon all authors of eminence; and on a holiday, or to eat meat on a fast day, though these epithets alone are sufficient to prejudice a he would not scruple to assassinate an enemy, Spaniard against the compositions of men of or to commit a breach of the sixth command | universal literary celebrity. The titles of proment, on the same day. The holy virgin is in hibited hooks are usually affixed to the doors of every respect worshipped by this nation with the churches with a superscription purporting much greater devotion than the Supreme Being. |that they savour of protestanism. The weekly Another instance of the total neglect of the papers are likewise commonly swelled with the essential precepts of our religion, is the indif- !| titles of books that come under this denominaference which the Spaniirds display with respect ' tion. The best English and French authors are

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