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indeed to be found in two public libraries at || stilutions for the reception and relief of the sick, Madrid; but they are separated from the rest, and amongst these none is more distinguished as if pregnant with contagion, and can be ob- || than the grand hospital for male patients. tained for perisal only by means of a special || Besides this hospital, there is another called the Hicence from the inquisition. On observing to grand general hospital for women, which was one of the librarians, that this anxious care of founded by two private gentlemen. These two precluding the public from reading the works of hospitals were formerly under the direction of the foreign nations was a manifest proof of the ap. | council of Castile, but now are superintended by prehension entertained by the Spanish clergy of a special commission appointed by the King. the weakness of their articles of faith, I received The chief director is a grandee of Spain, and the for answer, “ That it could not be denied that ll members are spiritual and secular persons of the the people were not sufficiently instructed in re first respectability. With these hospitals are ligion, to be proof against the specious reasoning united several orders of both sexes, who are bound of foreign philosophers; the Spaniards, more Il to afford the patients all assistance in their power. over, were not accustomed to meditate on the Regularity, cleanliness, and the most careful at. theological and philosophical subjects, and to tention to the wanis of the patients, are the enter into solid investigations; that they, con- || most striking characteristics of these hospitals, sequently, were not capable of distinguishing There are three hundred surgeons appointed at truth from error." The Spaniards are, however, the grand hospital for male patients, who must no great lovers of reading scientific works, or any attend the regular physicians to the sick bed, and other serious composition. The literary works see their prescriptions carefully executed. After that interest them most, are plays, and legends of having served some years in the hospital, they saints, which contain the most extravagant ab. | are promoted in the army and navy, preferably surdities. Large collections of this kind of re- || to all others. The apartments are cleaned, and ligious composition are found almost in every ll the beds made by the charitable brethren and house: these and romances of knight-errantry sisters, whose tender attention to the wants and comprehend, generally speaking, the whole comforts of the patients is most exemplary. All compass of literary works that are deemed in the bedsteads in the hospitals are made of iron. teresting. It is, indeed, to be lamented, that a || I never saw a single flea in these hospitals; an people endowed with considerable natural capa-l evident proof of the great attention which is paid cities, and living in one of the finest countries to cleanliness. The strictest regularity with reon' the face of the globe, should have been re- spect to the diet of the sick, is enforced in both duced so low by spiritual and political despotism. hospitals. The patients have an excellent con." Spain formerly had a great many advantages be veniency to take the benefit of the air. The rese fore the other European countries, as her languageception into the hospital is not attended with the attained an high degree of refinement, and the least difficulty. Those that can walk, go there arts and sciences were successfully cultivated by | without any previous application or recommend. the Spaniards, whilst the greatest part of Europeation, and such as are unable to walk, send word to were involved in profound darkness.
the governors, informing them of their situation, The despotic restraint laid upon the progress when a chair is sent from the hospital to fetch of the Spaniards in mental refinement, is one of them. Foreigners who are admitted, are not the principal causes of the avidity with which even asked to what religious sect they belong. they plunge into the vortex of sensual pleasures. || Ecclesiastics of different nations are appointed to
There is, perhaps, no country in Europe where console foreigners in their own language. Every the goddess of love is more ardently worshipped Sunday and holiday the hospital for male patients than in Spain, which renders effeminacy of is visited by the charitable fraternity, and that for manners more universal in that couniry than it is || female patients by the charitable sisterhood, who any where else; prostitutes and married women comb and wash the sick, and do every thing in are indiscriminately given to intrigue.
their power to render the situation of these un. Charitable institutions abound in Spain, esper fortunate people particularly comfortable on the cially at Madrid, and reflect great honour on the Lord's day. In these humane exertions they are character of the Spaniards.
generally assisted by people of the first rank, and The charitable disposition of the Spaniards, is || I have frequently seen on these occasions even the most prominent feature in the character of ll grandees zealously employed in consoling and adboth rich and poor, and is not confined to their Il ministering relief to the sick. Ladies of the countrymen alone, but most generously extends || first eminence perforın the same charitable office itself to all foreigners without distinction. This in the hospital destined for their own sex. Thanks laudable disposition of the nation has been Il to our superior refinement ! our ladies of fashion productive of the most excellent public in- contrive to spend their time on the Lord's day in
a more rational manner at the card-table ! - llence with the los amigos del pais at Madrid ; but Besides the ample funds with which these hos little good has been effected as yet by these pitals are provided, they derive also a considerable societies revenue from one third of the net produce of all 11 The state of the Spanish universities is very theatres, and the total produce of all bull-bairings, Il lamentable : they are seminaries of superstition. which in the year 1804 amounted to 1,705,151 | The number of students at Salamanca once reals.-Besides these two grand hospitals, there l amounted 10 fifteen thousand ; at present it does are several more in Madrid of a smaller size, ll not exceed four thousand. The life of the stunamely, the French, Italian, Fleniish, Irish, dents is dissolute in the extreme. The grammar Peniaguese, &c. hospitals. In these smaller schools are not better than the universities, The hospitals every patient has a room to himself, - | Spaniards speak their language with great purity. Madrid likewise posseses a lying in and a found. The Spanish language not being crowded with lag hospital, which are equally well provided too many cons nants, is much superior in and adasinistered. A public institution for lendling | harmony to the French, English, and Gerinan, money opon pledges without interest, established and possesses a more numerous mass of popular in Madrid, is particularly honourable to the Spa | songs and ballads than any other European lanniards. It is left entirely to the justice and gra. I gunge. Cervantes, Lopez de Vega, Garcilasso, titude of the debtor, whether he chooses to pay a Calderon, Gongora, Boskan, Augustine Moreto, small sum, in lieu of interest, on redeeming his | Anthony de Solis, are the favourite authors of plerige. A committee for relieving the wants of the nation. They have distinguished themselves the pour is appointed in every parish. Their prin- | by romances, novels, poetry, and plays Cercipal care is directed to relieve such as are | vantes, besides his celebrated Don Quixutte, has ashained to make their necessity publicly known. | I written many works, as novels, comedies, and Tbe numerous religious fraternities existing in | eight smaller pieces, called entremezes (interSpain contribute likewise kindly to relieve the mezzos), which, by their comic spirit, are renneces.ities of those that are in distress. Many dered far superior to his plays. None of his grandees of the first class are members of these novels are deemed equal to his Quixotte : they pious associations.
are twelve in number, and contain a most faithMadrid contains many public libraries. The ful and animated description of the manners of royal library is the most complete, and open every his age. Of his plays, twelve only are extant. day. Any one inay without difficulty obtain the | Angels, devils, and sorcerers, are the leading chabook he wants; but this library as well as all || racters. Cervantes lived and died in poverty, others, contains very few modern works of erni. || and frequently was on the point of starving, nence. The philosophical writings of the English, || Lopez de Vega and Calderon are the principal Germans, and French, are entirely excluded. A Spanish dramatists. Lopez de Vega was born in separate apartment is allotted to prohibited books, 1562, at Madrid, and died on the same day which are extremely difficult to be obtained. || with our immortal Shakespeare; 1 coincidenceWith the royal library there is also connected a very remarkable. Cervantes, Calderon, and Que very valuable collection of scarce gold and silver vedo, were his cotemporaries. He acquired an coins : it possesses likewise a great number of immense furtune by his writings, which are unancient manuscripts. The royal collection of commonly numerous. He is notorious for having natural curiosities is extremely rich in mine neglected all rules of the dramatic art, a defect rals. The collection of precious stones is more which also distinguishes the numerous works of complete and valuable than any in Europe. Calderon. He is less original than Lopez de
There are several academies of arts and sciences | Vega. His Cat-Epopee (Galomachia) is the at Madrid, namely, the royal academy of Spain, most finished of all his works. Augustine Moreto and the academies of history, painting, and mell occupies the third rank among the Spanish dradicine. The former has published an excellent matists. A drama, entitled the Cavalier, is dictionary of the Spanish language, in six large reckoned the most eminent of his compositions, quarto volumes. The medical academy is the Gongora has written satiric-lyric poems, which least respected. The academy of painting his of | are highly valued, but difficult to be understood. late contributed very much to the promotion of The miscellanous poems of Boskar and Garcilasso the fine arts in Spain. The lectures on drawing, l are much easier. The compositions of the latter mathematics, and architecture, are open to all | are strongly tinctured with a melancholy cast, who wish to profit by them. The admission is | which is said to have been the effect of many gratis. No foreigner can obtain the prizes an domestic misfortones. Quevedo has rendered Dually distribated by this academy. Agricultural himself famous by his novels and dreams. The societies ste established in several parts of the prominent characteristic of his writings are a country. They keep up a constant correspond. | satirical wit, original humour, and knowledge
No. XX, Vol. III.
of the human heart. This dreams have been Jones. He is, however, closely watched by the translated into several languages, and frequently , inquisition, which has already prevented the imitated. He has also written several works on publication of the translations of several imhistorical, political, and theological subjects. The portant works, as for instance, the Encyclopedia most eminent modern authors are, Vego, Sarmi. and Robertsou's history of America. The monthento, Flores, Buriel, and Isla, all of them eccle- || ly publications which appear display also many siastics. Isla has written a keen satire upon in- l proofs of an increasing refinement of taste, and different preachers, under the title of Historia del enlightened understanding. The best historians famoso preditator fray Gerundio, in which he of the Spaniards are, Mariana, Solis, and Herattempts to reform the Spanish preachers; but reras. None has, however, distinguished himhis excellent plan was frustrated by the persecu self by a philosophical spirit. Father Isla has ions of ignorant and fanatic priests. Many of written the best compendium of the History of the latest writers display a considerable degree of Spain. The Spaniards have done much for good taste. The most distinguished of them is typographical beauty. The most splendid works Yriarte, who has translated several English works; are, Mariana's History and a Translation of Sal. amongst which are, the Spectator, Rambler, and lust, by the Infant Don Lewis. The price of Hume's History; besides some others of the the latter work is an ounce of gold. amusing kind, as Clarissa Harlowe and Tom 1
The rage of fashion is not confined to the || to put their girls in possession of this singular female sex in Europe alone; it extends its fan accomplishment, the mothers fasten strong rings tastic sway over the whole globe; and proud as round the legs of their female infants, below the our fashionable belles may be of their refinement knee, and above the ancles, which they wear all in dress, we may venture to assert, without fear their life. These rings, obstructing the free cirof contradiction, that they will never succeed in culation of the blood, force it to extend that part eclipsing the inventive genius which the fair-ones of the leg which they confine; whence the calves in the interior of America display in the disposal attain a most astonishing size, which affords to of their attire-though it consists of nothing else these Indian belles a charm whose all-conquering but the skin with which kind nature has furnish | power no young Indian gentleman is able to ed them.
resist. The beaus of the ladies with these bulky No female Indian in America would be so in calves wear enormous wigs made of feathers, decent as to go abroad naked; the women in the which in size completely correspond with the interior of Ainerica being invariably compelled, protuberant charms of the belles. An assembly by the tyranny of custom, to appear in public of this nation, consisting of naked men with completely dressed, which they perform by enormous wigs of feathers, and of girls with calves b. smearing the whole body with oil, and painting of such an unnatural size, must exhibit as ridicu. on it a great variety of figures in different colours; I lous a sight as a party of French ladies and gentle and travellers protest, that when thus arrayed | men of fashion in the 16th century, when the they appear to great advantage at a distance. former wore enormous artificial posteriors stuffed Another article of their dress consists of large with horse-hair, and the latter bellies of an astoteeth of fishes, suspended from their ears, which is nishing size, consisting of cushions filled with hang down to the shoulders, the tips of them be husks. ing pierced by their mothers in their earliest in- | The Achaguas reckon it one of the most fancy, and the holes gradually extended so much, charming ornaments to wear large artificial whiskthat a hand might pass through. They wear ers, covering one half of the face, and uniting rings in their nostrils, which hang down to the on the chin. These whiskers are so durable that upper lip, a necklace composed of monkies teeth, nothing is capable of removing them. The and bracelets consisting of shells; ornaments mother takes a fish's tooth as sharp as a lancet, which render them objects irresistibly bewitch- tattooing with it the figure of a pair of whiskers ing in the eyes of the young men of taste and on the lips, cheeks, and the chin of the child, fashion.
and after having wiped off the blood, rubs the The women of a certain Indian nation in incision with a black powder, which produces America consider a very bulky calf to the leg as the figure of a pair of whiskers uuter to be el. one of the greatest personal charms, and in order II faced,
The Omaguas, a nation of the kingdom of same occasion in the eastern countries. The anQuito, make small syringes of gum elastic, one cient Romans are known to have taken a gentle of which is presented to each of their guests when emetic during dinner, in order to make room they give an entertainment. The omission of for an additional quantity of victuals, a custom this act of civility would he looked upon as a of which the fashionable world at Vienna are mark of an utter want of good breeding, and the likewise accused by several travellers, though we application of a clyster, in the presence of the have great reason to suspect that this charge whole company, before they sit down to dinner, is utterly unfounded, and nothing but the effect is reckoned by thera as necessary for the purposes of a foolish desire of saying something new, of cleanliness, as the washing of hands on the though at the expence of truth.
OR, MORNING SCENES IN THE DRESSING-ROOM OF A ROMAN LADY,
[Continued from Vol. II. Page 128.]
Scene VI.-Droso fetches the Robes ; Washing of Hands; View of the Wardrobe and of
the Apartments of the Slaves; Presses for Clothes, Shoes; the Tunic.
The interruption of the officious Zenothe- |did you not say that, on this day, you would wear mis, and Myrrhinetta's unexpected delivery bad the new pearl dress a-la-Cleopatra which your protracted Donna Sabina's breakfast to such a husband lately brought you from Alexandria? length, that double diligence was now necessary | You certaiuly only wanted to put my memory in arranging the other necessary parts of her to the proof. For that dress must likewise be dress. One of her maids had long been waiting | accompanied with the pearl Aounces." . for orders to that effect. Her name was Droso Sabina turned to Droso, with a look of severity and to her the chief care of Sabina's wardrobe on her brow from which the name of Saturninus was cum initted. She now advanced to ask the pronounced by Kypassis had scarcely been able important question whether her mistress would to disperse the gloomy clouds which again bewear the gold flounce, or that which was festoone | gan to gather there. “You have your answer.” ed with pearls, together with the state dress in said she. which it was necessary she should appear at the At her nod Ky passis brings a wet sponge in a solemnity. “ The maids,” added Droso, “ are silver wash-hand basin. The slave had just dipall waiting in the wardrobe for your orders. The ped it into asses milk, and now gently rubs with clothes are taken out of the presses and every it the hands of her mistress. A maiden standing thing is ready."
by her side, holds the soft towel ready for drying The question is obviously of considerable im. them. It was not for nothing that Sabina had portance, and requires a mature, but at the same cast her eye on the golden and silky locks of the time speedy consideration. Sabina was going to | page who was still waiting in the corner for her a review and was likely to be herself surveyed by command. At her beck he adsanced and the a thousand eyes; she was going to see and to be l haughty lady wiped her hands in the beautiful seen, exposed as she would be in an open balcony ringlets of the fair bort. from head to foot, to the inquisitive eyes of jea. * These were linen towels, the stuff of which lous rivals. « What is your opinion, Kypassis :" || had been so beaten both in the thread and web, said the lady to her favorite attendant who has as to be perfectly shaggy, but extremely soft and already been introduced to the notice of the
pleasant to the touch, like cotton wool. This reader.
was a refinement far surpassing our modern With the utmost respect the brown Kypassis replied : “ Who can presume, most excellent + In Petronius c. 27. we find Trimalchio doing mistress, to direct your taste which all the Roman | the same thing. It cannot be doubted that the ladies implicitly take for the standard of their history of the fair sinner in the Gospel who dress! But, some weeks since when you sent washed the feet of her respected teacher and your cousin Saturninus the beautiful bandeaus | dried them with her hair, ought to be taken in of pearls for the chest and head of his charger, || the same manner.
towels of the fi
Droso meanwhile flies back to the wardrobe, || pellation, and were called vesliplice (folders of and accompanied by two other maidens brings clothes.) As etiquette forbade the Roman the Domina's dress. But let us first attend the ladies of distinction to appear in public in any swift footed slave into the wardrobe-apartment, || other costume than that appropriated to matrons, situated in the left wing of the house, near the excepting the purple Aounce, and the stripes of rooms of the weavers, the embroiderers and the gold in the tynic, this dress admitted of no other dress-makers, and which promises to afford our colour than white for the upper garment, and no curiosity for a few moments abundant gratifica other material than the finest woollen or halftion.
silk; and no pains were spared to give these Figure to yourself the back part of the spaci
white garments the highest degree of smoothness ous place where Sabina resides, swarming like an and brilliancy of which they were susceptible. ant's nest with slaves of both sexes, who have no For this purpose they used particular presses, beother employment than by the exercise of every neath which the clothes were kept, till they kind of art and profession to supply in the cheap- il were taken out for use. Before they were put est manner every want of the Domina, to gratify || | into this machine, they were folded with the her every whim however impracticable it may greatest care, and this practice was also extended appear. Here a whole wing is divided partly into to the garments of the men of Rome, when they small chambers in which the female slaves are became az effeminate as the women. From this obliged to make a wretched shift, and parily into | employment then these slaves received their aplarger rooms where certain occupations require pellation, and in this apartment we observe se. the joint labours of many. The first apartment veral presses and smoothing machines, for the backward is the spinning and weaving room. above mentioned purpose. In the exquisitely This we may know from the singing of the in polished chests ranged round the room are dustrious weavers and spinners; for thus these
contained all the treasures of our Domina's poor creatures who are obliged to work late and !
wardrobe. The inscriptions afford some idea early in order to execute their allotted tasks,
of the multiplicity of the garments kept here, beguile their tedious labour. The spinners are
for Sabina in private parties of pleasure was superintended by a very severe task mistress, fond of imitating the coloured fancy dresses of and some of them by the commands of the
females of easy virtue*, and had a distinct wardDomina are even compelled to do a double por- 11 robe for each particular festival and for every tion of work as a punishment. Near them are season. the weavers who are employed in weaving a kind Dorcas !" cried the half breathless Droso, as of fine muslin after a new pattern for a summer she entered the apartment containing the warddress for the Domina. Formerly in the more robe, to one of her companions, “ make haste virtuous and happy days of Rome, the mistress and get ready the train with the flounce festooned of the family occupied herself in spinning and with pearls! The Domina has chosen that dress weaving in the great hall, in the midst of her for the day!" Dorcas had fortunately received female slaves. This practice had however been an early intimation from Kypassis, and had already relinquislied long before the days of our Sabina ; sewed the purple train decorated with pearls, to and it was regarded as mere affectation in the the most beautiful new and brilliant white tunic. Empress Livi', that she was determined to make The other garments has long been ready; and the all the ordinary clothes worn by her husband, little troop of clothes-folders instantly set off the Emperor Augustus. Now a Roman lady of with the different parts of the Domina's dress fashion had scarcely time to revise the accounts carefully laid over their arms, and carried of her overseer once in a decade, and to give her them, exhaling the most costly perfumes into
neve pattern for a torinent to her wretched spin. | Sabina's dressing-room. Karmion had just put ners and weavers.
on ihe feet of her mistress the shoes of the The next apartment is occupied by the dress finest white leather, paying particular atten. makers. Though a rich Roman ladly might per. haps purchase the most costly stuffs of Syrian and * Though in Ovid's Art of Love and other Alexandrian merchants, they were always made poets, we find mention made of as many different up by her own slaves kept in the house for that i colours for ladies clothes, as there are among the particular purpose. Close to this was the apart. l patterns of modern times; it should not be ment of the embroiderers, of whose skill and I forgotten that they are speaking only of that ingenuity we shall soon see a specimen; and class of dressy and good-natured females who next came the room containing the war Irobe were called at Rume, libertinæ, and not of matrons, itself, where some slaves especially employed :, who wore no other coloured stuffs than gold and there, awaited with eager expectation Droso's, purple, unless they chose wantonly to degrade return. These females had also a peculiar ap- || themselves.