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order to catch them before sun-rize; and after il important of these copper-trines is that of Falun, having slepi a couple of hours at their fire, they which however has yielded less ore of late years leave it in the morning, ei'her 10 burn out of than forinerly. The mine of Olvidaberg, in East its: 1f, or to communicate to the rest of the forest.' Gothland, is the second in importance. The The only means of stopping the progress of such | iron mines are still more productive and numerous, a conflagration, is to dig a broad ditch round the'll These are found in all the provinces of the king. place where the forest is in llames, in order to dom; the mast lucrative are those in Westmaprevent their communicating to the other trees, nia, Wermeland, and Upland, amongst which and to suffer those that are already on fire to that of Dannemora and the foundery of Laefsta burn out. The building of ships, and particularly are particularly to be noticed. The export of of small vessels, is carried on with the greatest this article alone produces to he country a te. activity, and large quantities of planks and other venue of more than two millions of dollars. requisites for naval architecture are expor'ed. | Amongst the valuable stones of Sweden, the por.
The cultivation of grain is pretty considerable phyry, which is of the inost superb quality, is the in Scania, East Gothland, Smaland, Sudermania, most remarkable. Various kinds of marble are Upland, and Finland; but the produce of tlie also common; but i general they are inferior to harvest is not near sufficient for the consump- those of I:aly. The water of the sea furnishes tion of the inhabitants; particularly as the season the kingdom with a quantity of sall, but not is seldom favourable enough to ensure a good sufficient for the consumption of the inhabi. crop, and as the expenditure of grain in the dis- ll tanis; besides it is unfi for salling provisions, tilleries is iminense. The importation of grain particularly herrings. A great number of mines alone from foreign countries costs Sweden an. of sulphur are also fuund here, and several nually upwards of a million of dollars. The cul | mineral springs. tivation of tobacco has succeeded very well. The kingdom is divided into five principal dithroughout the whole country; it grows in the visions, namely, Sweden proper, Gohland, Nordgreatest abundance in the neighbourhood of land, Lapland, and Finland; comprchending Stockholm and Abo; and perhaps Sweden, at ihe in all twenty-eight governments. These are present moment, does not require any importa reckoned to contain not more more than 105 tion of this article from abroad, except in order towns, most of which are very small and ibinly to have it of a quality superior to that of its own inhabited; which affords a presumption that growth. Many orchards of fruit trees have of the citizens, who have enriched themselves by late been planted, which proves that the country commerce, leave the towns to purchase landed does not as yet abound in fruits; and in fact,
possessions. There are very few towns in the horticulture is too much neglected by the pea.
northern provinces, and in some governments not sants. It is rather singular that the best culti. a single one. vated lands are not to be found near the principal Sweden possesses in the north of Germany, roads, which is, undoubtedly, in part owing to anterior Pomerania, as far as the river Pene, with the circumstance, that the ancient inhabitants, the island of Rügen, the town of Weimar, and whilst exposed to the incursions of the Tartars the bailiwick of Neucloster, situated in the dutchy or Bohemians, thought it prudent to conceal their of Mecklenburg. By that part of Pomerania best pasturages and most cultivated plantations, that extends along the coast of the Baltic, the by choosing the situations behind high moun. Swedish territories border on those of Mecklentains, and a considerable distance from the pub burg and Prussia. Swedish Pomerania, together lic roads, where they are found at the present with the island of Rugen, form a territory of 1120 day.
square miles in extent, with a population of froza If the vegetable kingdom be rather barren in | 100,000 to 110,000 souls. The climate is tolerthis country, the same cannot be said of the | ably temperate, and the soil in general fertile. If mineral. At Adelfors in Smaland, is a gold inine produces all kinds of grain in abundance, and that has been opened since the year 1758, but plenty of cattle; the geese of this country are which scarcely defrays the expence of working remarkable for their uncommon size. The sea, it. Another mine of gold is in the province of as well as the rivers and lakes, are plentifully Westmania. The most ancient and productive stocked with fish, and a considerable quantity of silver mine is that of Sala; it yields annually || amber is found on the coasts. This dutchy conabout 2000 marks of silver, if the accuracy of tains many trading towns, which export merthe returns can be relied upon. The other silver chandize to a very considerable amouni; the res mines are scarcely worth mentioning; but one of || venue of the crown is stated to be upwards of the principal sources of wealth to this country 20,000 dollars. consists in its mines of copper, which are not in. The King of Sweden, in his quality as Dux ferior in quality !o that of Japan. The most of Pomerania, has a vote at the Diet of Kalbos
bon. The states of the country consist partly of 1| causes of the university not being more frethe nobles who possess fiefs, and partly of the l quented are, undoubtedly, its vicinity to other deputies of the towns. The governor, who is more celebrated universities, and its distance from nominated by the King, and resides at Stralsund, the centre of Germany. It has, however, several presides over the regency. The university esta- | Swedish students, and one of the professors is a blished at Greifswald has a valuable library, and native of that country. several of its professors deservedly enjoy a high Sweden has only one colony; namely, the reputation in the literary world. The number of | Island of St. Bartholomew, one of the Antilles, students is nearly one hundred. The principal
A COMET, vulgarly called a blazing star, on || At length came the prodigious Comet of 1080, aecount of its appearance, is a very extraordinary | which descending almost perpendicularly towards sight; fur though the number of them be great, the sun, arose from him again with equal velocity, yet, on account of the long period of their revo- and was seen for four months together. Not lution, they but very seldom appear. They are long after, the illustrious Newton demonstrated, supposed to consist of a very compact and du not only what Kepler had found did necessarily rable subsance, capable of the greatest degree of obtain in the planetary system, but also that heat and cold without being subject to dissolu Comets observe the same law, moving in very tion, and, like the planets, shining only by re long eclipses round the sun, and describing equal flexion.
areas in equal times. By the ancients, Comets were considered as The revolutions of only two Comets (or the vapours, or meteors; and of this opinion was number of years necessary for performing a jour. Aristotle, the celebrated Greek philosopher. ney round the sun) are known with any certainty. These phenomena were therefore treated with The one is that which appeared in the years neglect, until the time of Seneca, who observed 1456, 1531, 1607, 1682, and 1759, and is astwo very remarkable ones, which he scrupled not certained to move round the sun in seventy-six to place a inongst the celestial bodies, though he years; it will therefore make its appearance in owns their motions to be governed by laws not
1895. The other is the Comet seen in 1680, in then known.
1106, in 531, and soon after the death of Julius Dr. Halley declares, that notwithstanding all | Cæsar, about forty-four years before Christ. It his researches into the histories of Comets, he || is mentioned by many historians of those times, found nothing satisfactory; antil a Constantino and by Pliny in his Natural History, where Aupolitan historian and astronomery in the year gustus Cæsar says concerning is, "lo the very A.D. 1337, pretty accurately described the paths 1 days of our games, a hairy star (Sydus Crinitum) of a Comet amongst the fixed stars. The next I was seen for seven days in that part of the heaComet which appeared, was in the year 1472, l, vens which is under the Septentriones; it arose and was observed by Regiomantarius; it was the about the eleventh hour of the day, and was swiftest of any that have hitherto appeared, and clearly to be seen all over the world.” The the nearest to the earth. This Comet, so dreaded period of this Comet is therefore ascertained, to on account of the magnitude of its body and tail, || be about five hundred and seventy-five years moved at the rate of forty degrees of a great circle Its next appearance will be in the year 2253, in the heavens, in the space of one day, and was I! The number of Comets belonging to our sys. the first of which we have any proper observa- tem is unknown, but it has been asceriained, tions. In the year 1577, a remarkable Comet that more than four hundred and fifty have been visited this earth, to the study of which Tycho seen, but the number whuse orbits are settled Brahe sedulously applied himself. This great l with sufficient accuracy for us to ascertain their astronomer, after many faithful observations, identity on their re-appearance, is only about found that it had no perceptible diurnal parallax; fifty-nine. The orbits of most of these are in. and consequently could not be an aërial vapour.'' clined to the plane of the ecliptic in large angles, Tycho was succeeded by the sagacious Kepler, and in their perihelion they come much nearer who discovcred the true physical system of this the sun than the earth does. Their motions in world.
the heavens are also different from those of the planets. When a Comet arrives within a certain struction of this world, and all the planetary sys. distance of the sun, it emits a prodigious fume item, by involving the globe of the planets in or vapour, called its tail. These tails seem largest their armosphere of water, in their return from and most splendid immediatrly after they return the cold regions. Amongst those who trave from the sun, because, being then hottest, they // written upon this subject are, Mr. Whiston and emit the greatest quantity of vapours, and are the learned Dr. Halley. The former is of opalways opposite those parts which the body of nion, that this world will be destroyed by a gethe Comet leaves in its descent, which is agree neral conflagration, occasioned by our globe be. able to the nature of smoke and vapour. They I ing involved in the tail of some Comet, after it also appear broader on heir upper part than near has been prodigiously heated in its passage from the head of the Coniet; like all va pours, the the sun. The latter declares, that it is possible higher they rise the more they dilate themselves. for a Comet to produce some change in the situThe tails of Come's are extremely long, some of ation and species of the earth's orbit, and in the thein having been computed to be not less than | length of the year, and says, “But may the great eighty millions of miles in lengih, and the tail of Goil avért a shock or contact of such great bodies, the Comet, which is now visible, is computed to | moving with such force, (which however is mabe three hundred thousand miles long. The ce nifestly by no means impossible,) lest this most lebrated Comet of the year 1680 came so near beautiful order of things be entirely destroyed, the sun, that it was not a sixth part of the sun's | and reduced into its ancient chaos.” Indeed, it diameter distant from its surface; and therefore has been shewn that the Comet of 1680, Novemits heat must then be two thonsand times hotter ber 11th, at one o'clock in ihe afternoon, was at than red hot iron. And from thence it took its so small a distance from the earth's orbit, that course from the sun to the distance of above had the earth been near that part of its orbit, eleven thousand millions of miles, which is at God only knows what the consequence might least fourteen times farther than the orbit of I have been! If then a Comet should encounter Saturn.
the earth at its return from the sun, it would Altheir first appearance, Comets are computed | undoubtedly consume the earth and all its inha. to be as near to Us as Jupiter, and therefore con- || bitants, as so many moths; it might convert the sidered to be less than that planet : the present matter of the present carth into a differerst kind one, (which has passed its perihelium) is supposed of substance, and render it an habitation fit for to be eighi times larger than our globe, and to beings of a quite different nature from ours, move with the ainazing velocity of sixteen thou Yet some circumstances sender it very improsand mules a minute. The conjecture respecting bable that such an event should happen at all, Comets are various. The ancients believed with regard to the definite time, though it is posthey were harbingers of divine vengeance :thus | sible in nature, for the planes of all the Comets' Homer
orbits are raised above those of the planets, 50 « A fatal sign to armies on the plain,
that there is but one particular place in the urbit « Or trembling sailors on the wat’ry main."
of a Comet where its tail can pass over the orbits
of the planels; and it is so many chances to one, Some of the moderns, particularly Sir Isaac that a planet happen to be in that part of its Newton, are of opinion, that they are ordained orbit at that parricular time. But should any of by Providence to sarily the sun at stated periods, lihe Comets approach so near us as to be more with mailer peculiar to its nature; and to make attracted by : he earth than the sun, we might up the deficiency which must arise from the indeed, by that means, acquire another moon, con inual emission of the particles of light. - || which would be a change to ou
which would be a change to our advantage, raThese, however, wre mere hypotheses. The ther than a subject of terror and dismay. save also may be said of every thing that can be Dr. Halley is of opinion, that the great Comet advanced concerning their being inhabited worlds, ll of 1680, appeared near the time of the general for if animals can exist there, they must be crea. | deluge, and that it probably was the occasion of tures very far different from any of which we
that catastrophe, which he therefore believes the hay... ine leat conception. Some who have in. Almighty caused to happen by a natural cause. dulcedinem eises in visionary ideas, think they !! If a Comet passed near the earth it might une are uppointed as the place of torment for the il doubtedly raise a very strong ride, the effects of damned; that each Comet is, properly and which would be, that it would lay all places literally speaking, a hell, from the intolerable and under water; and drown the inhabitants so far as inconceivable heat and cold which alternately it reached. For if so small a body as the moon, takes place in these bodies.
at the distance of sixty of the earth's semi-diaIt is supposed by some, that Comets are the meters, be able to raise a strong ride of twelve of means appointed by the Almighty for the de- || fifteen feet in height; a Comet as big as the
carth, and coming very near it, would raise a pro- || Those, therefore, who suppose the water to be digious tide, capable of overflowing all that part over all the face of the earth at once, must attriof the earth which was nearest to the Comet. bute it to a supernatural cause, and not to a Co
But it may be said, this could not drown all met, for it is impossible for a natural cause to places at once, for at the quadratures there would produce such an effect. It is also necessary, that be as great an ebb? But it may be answered, chis flood of waters should be perfectly free from that by the earth's rotation, it would pass over all all storns and tempesis : for if Noah's ark came the countries of the world successively, and there. to be tossed about in a raging sea, from its strucfore in the space of twenty-four hours, the whole ture and magnitude it must inevitably perish, earth would be involved in water, and all animals || with all its cargo of animals; and if this was as effect valiy destroyed as if the water had staid | granted, it would still be equally difficult to ac. one hundred and fifty days upon the earth, which count for another phenomenon, that is, how shells is the time mentioned by scripture; the natural and marine bodies, should be thrown upon the effect of this would be, that by such a prodigious land, or even to the tops of mountains, by such and rapid motion of this vast body of water a still water, and many of them buried deep in round the earth in twenty-four hours, all trees the earth; this effect is not at all reconcilable must be torn up by the roots, and carried along with such a supposition. Therefore, it does not with the current; all buildings demolished, the appear that both these hypotheses can be true rocks, hills, and niountains, dashed in pieces and for the calm sea, necessary for preserving the torn away; all the produet of the sea, fishes, || ark, could move none of the shells; and the shells, teeth, bones, &c. carried along with the rough sea, necessary for transporting the shells, flood, thrown upon the earth, or even to the tops would destroy the ark. The reconciling these of mountains, promiscuously with other bodies; ll things is not easy, but we believe it would be a hardly any thing could be found strong enough very difficult affair, to make out how such a great to withstand ils force. The like vast tide would !! concourse of water should be so very quiet and also be raised in the atmosphere, attended with still, so clear of winds, storms, and tempests, as the most violent com motion of the whole body of is here required. Hence we conclude, that the air, the consequence whereof would be continual ark and its contents were miraculously prerain. In such a case as this it would be impos. || served from destruction by the power of Omnisible for any ark to live at sea, or the strongest Il potence. man of war that ever was built.
SKETCH OF THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN,
AND OF THE MANNERS OF THE INHABITANTS.
The capital of the Danish monarchy con- || containing a variety of rare and curious objects; tains within it every thing that we elsewhere find a number of superb edifices, statues, and monuscattered through several cities : it has therefore ments of every kind. been compared to a giant's head on the shoulders If Copenhagen is little known to foreigners, if of a dwarf; to which may be allded, that it ap- || its manners, customs, and amusements, have not pears to regard with indifference, and perhaps yet sufficiently excited their curiosity to merit a even with a kind of pride, the state of languor | particular description, this is not a subject of rewhich afflicts the other parts of the body. proach to a nation, which is little desirous of
This city, which is of the third order, and si- acting a brilliant part above its strength. It postuated on the shore of the Baltic, is 25,200 feet sesses in its own language, as well as in German, in circuit, within which space are contained more several descriptions of the capital; and a topothan 80,000 inhabitants; that is to say, the graphy of Copenhagen, equally learned and actwenty-third part of the population of the state. !: curate, has lately been published by Mr. ProHere the court and the government reside; here | fessor Nyerup; while a portraiture of the manis the principal fortress of the country; the whole ners of the times daily appears under the title of fleet, and the marine arsenals; the only univer the Danish Spectator. It is from these autho. sity in Denmark and Norway; the bank; the rities principally, as well as from our own private seat of the sovereign tribunal; the principal aca- ! knowledge, that the present sketch is compiler. demies; the only good theatre in Denmark; a It is on the side next the sea that this city presuperb Jibrary, a veterinary school; a school for sents itself in all its magnificence. It is perceived cadets in the sea and land service; a museum, at the distance of several miles. When we ar
rive by the passage of the Sound, nothing in the good taste, that we are entering the capital; and norih can equal the prospect presented by the hough our surprise is not immediately excited by channel which leads to it, and which has Den- magnificent buildings, as in the Piazza del Popolo, mark on the right, Sweden on the left, and the at Rome, the pleasure we feel increases as we capital almost in front. The gothic towers with advance, and especially when we approach the which it abounds, and which from a distance have New Town, situated at the other extremity, and a most majestic appearance, and perhaps more composed of magnificent palaces; and Frederick attractive than the modern cupolas, engage and Square, which is unique in its kind, from the fix the aitention of travellers by the height of perfect symmetry of the four palaces that form their spires, as well as by the diversity of the it, inclosing the beautiful statue placed in the brilliant ornaments with which they are deco. centre, and separated by four broad streets, runrated. We have perpetually before our eyes, on || ning in the direction of the four cardinal points. the coast of Denmark, a continued succession of The foreigner who has conceived but a mode. rich plains, vast forests, meadows, superb man rate or mean idea of this metropolis, must be exsions, neat villas, and pleasant gardens adorned tremely surprised when arriving by sea, he first with all the ornaments of art; while the Swedish traverses the New Town, which is such in its shore presents corn-lands, pastures, a moun. kind, that it may be said to have no model. He tainous and picturesque coast, and at length the finds broad straight streets, well paved with footIsle of Hoeen, so celebrated for the observatory ways, kept in excellent condition; handsome of Tycho Brahe. We leave behind us two towns edifices on each side, and every where the signs of two different kingdoins, Helsingoer (or Elsi- of wealth and magnificence; numerous equineur), with the famous fortress of Cronenburg pages, elegant liveries, a number of servants, &c. and Helsingburg, which appear to unite as the but few foot passengers, and no crowd or stopnavigator proceeds. He seems to sail in the midst page in this quarter, which seems the asylum of of a lake, but soon he discovers the sea, and discareless ease, without any of that bustle which is linguishes the whole exłent of the plain of Co | usually produced by the vicinity of the court and penhagen, its ports filled with vessels, and its the custom-house. In short, it resembles in this environs more feriile in appearance than they are l quietness a square at the west end of London, in reality, because the different monuments of which appears dull and solitary, compared with art give them ton great a relief. .
Cheapside and other streets in the heart of the Three objects especially (the late conflagra | city. tions having destroyed the others) attract the at. There are few cities which contain within them tention of the distant spectator. The first is the so many agreeable walks as Copenhagen. The tower of the church of St. Saviour, which is as-rampari, and the boulevard which runs at the foot cended by a circular staircase on the outside, or of it, are in several places planted with handsome namented with a handsome balustrade of latten trees. These surround the city, and present a brass; the second, the astonishing height of the prospect equally pleasing and varied. But the steeple of the church of our Lady; and the third, King's garden is much to be preferred from the the singular forın of the observatory, which per | regularity and elegance with which it is laid out, fectly resembles a colossal column.
its fountains, statues, &c. Entrance to it is perWhen we arrive by land on the side of Ros- | mitted at all hours, and the public find there a child, we view the reverse of ihe medal. It is recreation beneficial to health. not possible to discover distinctly the city, which, But this is not the country of frivolous aniuse. with all its avenues, is hid by a bill, when we ments. We find here no booths filled with perare only at the distance of a league and a hall,
formers of tricks of strengih or dexterity, or exthough the tops of the towers had been already | hibitors of wild beasts ; no jugglers playing cups perceiv.d at the distance of ten or twelve leagues and balls, no players on hand-organs, or itinerant Were it not for the goodness of the road, which I musicians. We may sometimes hear a fiddle permits the horses to travel with expedition, it scraped to assist the mirth of some servant maids would here certainly be very irksome, as the ob and artizans; but the common people in general ject of our journey seems to remove from us in dance but little, or not at all. They have 100 proportion as we advance. Al length, however, much phlegm, or too little naoney to sacrifice to we come suddenly, as it were, upon the city, the their pleasures. Their amusements seem all resight of which then makes a very forcible im- served for the festival of St. John, when they go pression.
to make merry in the Park, at the distance of The entrance of London, Paris, Viena, and two or three leagues from the city, whilber flock, many other great citie , promises bu: little; but as the poet says of the Italian courts, here as soon as we have passed the first barrier, wel. Donne e donzelle, e brute e belle. perceive by a certain air of clegance, order, and“ Women and maidens, homely and handsome."