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In winter, the fashionable world assembles all dence of a splendid and wealthy court, where the theatre, at concerts, balls, and clubs. In the there is a numerous body of the niilitary, a great suminer the theatre is not open, nor are there concourse of foreigners, and which is besides a either concerts or balls, and the city, which is considerable sea-port. never either very guy or very brilliant, becomes Though the dress of the men has every where then a dreary solitude to the foreigner who arrives within these few years undergone a kind of metafroni Paris, or even from Hamburgh, which might | morphosis, it has preserved here more traces of indeed be expected, as all persons of fortune are the ancient elegance than in most other great then in the country.
cities, The court, though not mean, is distinguished! The police of Copenhagen is admirable both by a spirit of economy suitable to the moderate from the vigilance of its magistrates, and the resources of the state, and displays no more lux- | | prudence of its regulations. For its institution urious splendour than is necessary to the support l the city is in a great measure indebted to the in. of its dignity, according to the rank it holds Auence of the famous Count Struensee, who, among the European powers.
notwithstanding many defects, and even crimes, The numerous clubs, which are not political | had the good sense to perceive all the importance societies, are frequented by the men as much in of this part of the administration, and the courage summer as in winter; some even have gardens to effect the changes necessary to bring it to per. without the city. In these clubs they read the fection. It was requisite to rouse in some man. news, make parties at play, converse, &c. La.
ner a nation lulled to sleep in the happy enjoy. dies are from time to time admitted, and concerts, ll ment of a long and profound peace, and which balls, and entertainments given. These are an had been governed by two sovereigns, one of invaluable resource to strangers, who find it very || whom was certainly too much occupied by the easy to introduce themselves into one or more of interests of the church; and the other, from an these circles, where they find a select society, and effect of the goodness of his character (he was the opportunity of making advantageous ac surnamed the affable le debonnaire) was perhaps quaintances. The entrance may be termed gra too fearful of innovations. tuitous to them during several months, as they The pavement is good, and kept in excellent only pay what they think proper to expend. I condition; there are almost every where com
It may excite surprise, that the inhabitants of modious foot ways. The streets have their naines a city intersected with canals situated on the sea, written legibly at each corner; but they are badly possessing so fine a marine, and having so great a lighted. All the houses are distinguished by number of pleasant walks and handsome villas on conspicuous numbers. There are few signs to its coasts, should very rarely make parties of plea obstruct the view, or endanger the safety of sure on the water, and seem to have so little taste passengers. Within the last twelve months a for this kind of amusement. But Copenhagen, Il paper has been published weekly, which might in this respect, resembles several other cities, serve as a model for all the great cities in Europe. which despise an advantage with which their si It is called the Friend of the Pulice, (l'Ami de leme luation furnishes them, and which would save Police them a great expence in carriages. Even the es. Copenhagen, till the year 1794, boasted one tablisment of seabaths is not of an earlier date of the finest castles in Europe ; it was, perhaps, than about ten years since.
after that of Caserta, the richest and most migni. Though the dress-doll of Paris no longer makes | ficent palace erected in modern times. This the tour of the North, the fashions of Copenha sumptuous edifice, which had already braved the gen are regulated by the modes of that city, as attacks of half a century, became the prey of a also by those of London and Berlin. Of these the conflagration, and was destroyed in a single night. German journals, embellished with engravings, Its mournful ruins are now visited by the curious, are the conveyers. The Danish ladies appear half in the same manner as they go to admire thos: naked as soon as the Parisian belles think proper of the Colosseum at Rome: they are precious and to disembarrass themselves of what they term the sacred remains in the eyes of the artist, and even superfluity of dress, and again resume their gar- l of the philosopher, who beholds in them the ments as soon as the latter admit the necessity of | fuzility of huinan grandeur and human labours, keeping themselves soniew hat warmcr. Decency, The spacious Hall of the Knights, in this however, if not rigidly, is at least very generally || castle, was astonishingly magnificent. Taste and respected. We find here some courtezans who The arts were exhausted in its decoration. are rather licentious, a small number of kept wo. Ji the Dane of distinction and opulence remen, who are known without being much no grets the only monument which he could oppose ticed, and perhaps a dozen women of gallantry. with advantage to those of other countries, and But this is little in a capital which is the resi- || which will certainly never be restored to its an
cient splendor; the citizen of lower rank laments | The expences of the King's household, which with acuter feelings, the dreadful conflagration ainouuted to 200,000 rix-dollars, (about 40,0001. which began on the 5th of June 1795, and con sterling) per annum, are now reduced to almost tinued to the 7th, in despite of all the efforts of the half, (several of the principal places have in art, courag", and assiduity.
consequence been several years vacant.) Those of In all great calamities there is a certain in- || the household of the Prince Royal, are still much fluence of fatality which frequently escapes the less in proportion. The chapel, the music of most intelligent observers, and which yet, inde. which is extremely good, has appertaining to it pendent of the universal consternation such dis nearly fifty individuals. The royal stables are asters produce, is one of their principal efficient reckoned to contain more than two hundred causes. Without the application of this prin-1 horses. ciple, it would be inconceivable that the means The garrison consists of six regiments of inemployed on this occasion to extinguish the fire, | fantry, the foot-guard, the horse guard, a corps of and which till then had always been found so artillery, two battalions of light infantry, a corps effectual, should not have been sufficient to stop of marines, and a squadron of hussars, amountthe progress of the flames.
ing in the whole to more than 10,000 men, when When the palace was burned, the fire broke the corps are complete ; to which are to be added out in the fifth story, and soon gained the upper the city militia, the chief officers of which are apartments and lofts, in which was a great quan appointed by the King, and the colonels and tity of timbers, planks, &c. of very dry wood, l. captains rank among the officers of the army. that had been brought thither to make a general The fortress of Fredericstadt, supported on repair of the edifice, and which served to feed the other side by the batteries of the arsenal, de the flames, and cause them to spread with ex fends the entrance of the harbour, where there treme rapidity.
is besides another battery, and where, in case of The great conflagration which began in the necessity, a number of armed flat boltomed arsenal, a year before that of the castle, broke out vessels are stationed for its protection. Strangers in the midst of the most combustible matters, as are not permitted to enter the two arsenals of the woud, pit-coal, pitch, rosin, cordage, &c. A
marine, without particular permission from the strong wind carried these flaming substances to King; the inhabitants themselves are not ad. the roofs of the houses already heated by the sun, mitted into them without leave from the comand principallý heaped them upon the steeple of mandant of the arsenal. The arsenals are situated St. Nicholas, the fall of which set fire to a whole l at some distance from each other, and, accordquarter of the city, by scattering its burning ruins ing to the account of those who have seen them, over it; thus affording an additional proof of the they are superb. M. Ramdohr, in his travels, dangerous inconvenience of gothic lowers. Thus speaks thus of them, though he only treats of a was reduced to ashes almost a fourth part of the part of these establishments. “We find a cum. eity, that is to say, 943 houses.
ber of spacious edifices placed between the ships But as there is no happiness without alloy, so that are building, the magazines, cranes, bridges, is there no evil without some indemnification. || batteries, and finished vessels. It is estimated The new streets are in general broader, the new that there are 1600 carpenters and joiners only; houses better built, and as the quarters which I was taken into a hall where the framings of were borned were the least handsome, the city ships were preparing. The length and breadth has so in uch improved in appearance, that in this of this hall are equal to the dimensions of a ship respect we scarcely any where met with its equal. || of the line, (they exceed them) and there being Immediately after the fire, such measures were nothing to obstruct the view, as on board a ship, taken with respect to the new buildings, as not the ere is struck with the vastness of the space. only ensured thoir safety and convenience, but || In fine," says the German traveller, after barang contributed to their embellishment. The city | spoken of the magnificent appearance of the was a new plienix arising more beautiful and || harbour, and his passing along the canals, "atles brilliant from its ashes.
coming out of the arsenals and the magazines, i On the road to Copenhagen, coming from | we would appreciate the human powers, and form Hamburgh, two objects principally merit the at. an idea of the genius of man, we must go to Copentention of travellers; the first is the handsome hagen, and survey the arsenals and the basins." little town of Christiansfeld, built between Hader-1. The sailors are lodged in barracks appropriate sleben and Coldingen by the Moravian brethren, ll to them. These are small houses of one or two and filled with manufactures; and the other, the stories, forming several streels near the harbour. mausolea of the Kings of Denmark, at Roschild, !| They contain about 6.000 sailors, together WHA one post (eight leagues) from the capital; they ll their families, and soine officers set over them , are remains of the ancient magnificence. in intain order. The sailors are well paid, ani
receive the principal part of their provisions in them a small sum of mones, which has been rekind; while the saldiers only receiv., including i served for them at the school, for the close of the money for their bread, six sous a day, French | their studies. This is the produce of ancient money (three pence ;) and the grenadiers six | legacies, of which there are others that furnish a sous and a liard. The pay of a cominodore is | fund to supply those students who have under1848 rix-dollars, and that of a colonel only 1740. || gone the requisite examinations, with the means A lieutenant in the navy has 192 rix-dollars, and of improving themselves by travelling, and a rea lieutenant in the army 135.
sidence in foreign universities. These usually, The Danish Minerva has an observation with during the last year, go to London, or Pariz, or respect to the sailors, which appears to us founded even farther; but it is much to be regretted, that on the strictest truth. “ It is," says the author, “a they rarely take their course towards Sweden and fact generally acknowledged, or, at least easily Russia, and that frequently they do not even proved, that there is no nation which has applied visit Norway, itself with more earnestness and success than ours The library of the university is very volumito preserve the health of its sailors, and furnish Il nous, but it is not in fact of great utility. It them with good provisions. The English alone contains few modern works, and many of the supply theirs with food as wholesome and in ancient are not coni plete. It secms to have been equal abundance; but no nation has been more adopted as a principle which does not appear to minutely careful in the measures it has taken to Il be ill founded, that a library so complete as that maintain order and cleanliness on board its vessels. of the King, and which may so easily be conThe same may be said relative to the arrange sulted, is sufficient for such a city as Copenments made with respect to the sick and wound hagen. But what is especially valuable in the ed. No where is so much care taken to provide library of the university, is a collection of Ice. them with the necessary clothing, and furnish landic manuscripts, many of which have already them with it at a reasonable price. The sailors been published, are not treated like prisoners, who cannot be The botanic garden contains about seven thou. suffered to go on shore. The list of the deaths sand plants, from every part of the globe. It is that have taken place on board our ships during | daily open to those whu apply themselves to the the last nine years, is a strong testimony in favour study of that science, and plants are likewise disof the good treatment of the crews."
tributed several times in the week to such stuCopenhagen possesses a very considerable and dents as wish to form collections. " richly endowed university; but it is an ancient || The cabinet of natural history is well furnished, establishment, which, notwithstanding various and contains many rare specimens; the collecreformations and changes, still too evidently bears Ition of serpents especially is very considerable. the marks, manners, and religion, of the age in | A great number of insects have been presented which it was founded. It is composed of twenty. || by the society of Arabian travellers, Niebuhr, &c. eight professors; viz. four of theology, five of The collection of minerals contains almost all jurisprudence, five of physic and surgery, the the known species, and some others which have rest are professors of philosophy, in the vague | not been described. The whole is arranged ac. acceptation of that word, for there is only onecording to the system of Werner. This cabinet who gives a course of philosophy, properly so 'l is open to every person once a week. called, while another gives a complete course of The university has besides a chemical laboFrench belles lettres. All the sciences are culti- || ratory, and an anatomical amphitheatre. vated here, with the exception, perhaps of one | The acaderny of surgery, composed of dis: .. or two, and all the professors have made them-ll guished and celebrated professors, is independent selves known by learned works; some have even of the university. acquired a reputation which has extended || The veterinary school is equally respectable; throughout Europe. The number of students is but it is not yet required in Denmark, as in Ausestimated to amount to 700, and in general we tria and Saxony, that all apprenticed farriers shall may affirm that they are well instructed. They indiscriminately go through a course of lectures undergo strict examinations on several subjects, || in it: it has been judged sufficient to oblige which even in Germany are too much neglected, I every diocese to send to it a pupil. The number as the mathematics, astronomy, the learned lan- of scholars in it is usually about forty. guages, &c.
1 The principal fiterary societies are, the acade. There are different establishments in which all my of sciences; the society for promoting the considerable number of studenis are lodged gratis, | study of the history and languages of the North; and receive a small pension to enable them to the academy of belles lettres; the socitty of rural prosecute their studies. On their arrival at the l economy; the royal society.of medicine; the university, the scholars frequently bring with | genealogico-heraldic society, which is publish.
Na. XXIV. Vol. III.
ing an historieal accuunt of the noble families of n likewise Petersburgh may oppose some celebrated Denmark, with an engraving of their arms; the ar.ists; but these are phenomena which may be society of Icelandic literature, which has for its compared to planets surrounded by two or three object the instruction, especially in economical satellites, which may be too easily confounded knowledge, of the Icelanders, by publishing its ainong the infinite number of common stars. It memoirs in their language; the sociсty of Scan is, however, enjoined to all persons, whose prodinavian literature, established to unite the fession requires a knowledge of drawing, to send learned of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, by regularly their pupils to take lessons at the aca alternately publishing their labours; and lastly, demy. They cannot ever obrain their freedom the new society of literature, All these societies || in these professious till they have subinitted to publish works, propose prizes, and prosecuring 1 the examination of the academy a drawing with zeal and perseverance, their several objects, made from the work of some eminent master. continually diffuse a variety of knowledge, which || The last public exbibition of pictures was in has already efficacivusly contributed to the state | 1795. The private collections of paintings are of splendour which has been attained by a small i much too insignificant to merit notice, though country so little favoured by nature, and which we sometimes find in them very interesting pichas had to struggle against more than one power tures, principally among the portraits, a taste for ful obstacle.
which is much the most general. The superb library of the King is endowed The King's library contains more than eighty with a fund of three thousand rix dollars per thousand engravings, as also a superb collection annum, for adding to it new and rare books, and of flowers and fruits, painted on vellum, forming has been enriched with two maguficent collec. four large volumes in folio, and one of a smaller tions of prints. It may reasonably be presumed, size, monuments of the industry of the last that in a city containing so many men of learn age. ing, and in which the study of foreign languages There are at Copenhagen iwo equestrian stais more cultivated than perhaps any where else, | tues, one of which decorates the square of the there must be many excellent private libraries, as new town, and represents Frederick V. It is a also, circulating libraries, and reading societies, superb piece of sculpture, the work of Saly, which subscribe for almost all the new works and who at the time of its erection, published the journals published in Europe.
description of it in French. The writer of the The cabinet of curiosities formerly enjoyed a present article saw this Colossus conveyed 10 the very great reputation, which in fact it still de. place where it is erected, and is convinced that Serves from the valuable things it contains. It it is necessary to have wilnessed such a spectacle, therefore is frequently visited by strangers, and to form an idea of what may be effected by the receives the encomiums of amateurs. There are || aid of inachines, and the hands of men, directed also several private collections of curious objects, by genius. It was a scene the most truly grand which there is reason to believe will soon be and majestic that can be imagined. added to the cabinet of the King, to form a na. At a small distance from the city, is a very tional museum. In fine, if we wish to have all beautiful obelisk, erected in memory of the abo. general but precise idea of the present improved lition of the feudal rights. One of the inost custate of literature at Copenhagen, it will be suffi- rious edifices is the observatory, finished in 1656, cient to know, that there are now in that city after the plan of the celebrated Longomontanus. sevencen or eighteen printers, nearly the same | Its height is one hundred and fifty feet, and its nu ber of booksellers; and that there are pub- il diameter sixty. A winding ascent, gentle and Jished about twenty journals, and almost as many alınost insensible, without a single step, leads to gazettes and periodical publications.
the top, supported on one side by a column of Notwithstanding all the efforts of the govern || stone, and on the other by the wall of the tower. ment to encourage the fine arts, not withstanding It is of such a solid construction, and the dethe ancient and admirable establishment of the clivity is so easy, that there are instances of its acadeing of painting and sculpture, it must be having been ascended in a carriage. confessed, that with the exception of music, it To give an idea of the commerce of Copenis not at Copenhagen that we find the greatest | hagen it will be sufficient to say, tht in the year number of amateurs and real connoisseurs. It 1798 there were three hundred and thirty-eight appears that, in general, the less temperate clic ships, carrying twenty-six thousand one hundred mates of the north are unfavourable to the cul. and eighty-three lists, and navigating in every tivation of painting and sculpture, From Dres part of the globe. In 1745 there were only den :o Petersburgh these arts are reduced, ii may reckoned one hundred and three, but the number be said, merely to vegetale. Sweden, indeed, ll has been continually increasing progressively. bgas.s her Sergell; to whom Copenhagen, and in the year before last, five thousand nine huis
dred and ninety-four ships entered the port of panies are therefore so mixed that even in those Copenhagen, of which two thousand and sixty. which might be expected to consist only of six were from different foreign ports, two thou courtiers, we find merchants, literary men, artists, sand four hundred and ninety from Danish ports, and vice dersa. The lines of demarkation befour hundred and fourteen from Norway, nine (ween the different ranks are very indistinctly hundred and welve from the two duchies, and drawn. I have seen ministers in the saine party ninety-two from the East and West Indies. with artists, and their ladies with the widow of From 1797 10 1799 more than forty vessels have an apothecary. The brother-in-law of a chambeen annually sent to Iceland. However advan. berlain is frequently only a common clerk, and tageous to Denmark this commerce may appear, the wife of a marshal of the court, has visited it would doubtless be more so were it not all almost every day at the house of the minister of concentered in the capital, which by attracting the parish."-But when we come out of Copen. to itself every kind of industry prevents iis ex- || hagen we expect to find the environs full of ertion in the provinces, which are in conse small inns and ale-houses. They are indeed sufquence condemned to a languor fatal to the ge. ficiently numerous, but are neither wretched for neral prosperity.
dirty; though they do not present the same As to the mechanical professions they do not cheerfulness nor convenience which we are ac. here afford any subject for praise, nor do the customed to find in the neighbourhood of many abilities of our artisans merit any particular no other great cities. There are, however, a number tice. The establishment of corporations forming of handsome country houses, in which strangers a long and fatal chain, which extends from the are the better received, as the inhabitants of Coextremity of the empire far into the north, in penhagen, being generally able to speak several cessantly presents obstacles to the progress of in foreign languages, are extremely hospitable; and dustry, Al Copenhagen, indeed, the example it is not necessary for a foreigner to speak the has lately been given of the means which should | language of the country to be well received; it is be employed to destroy this monstrous produc. sufficient to be able to explain him.se!f in French tion of the ages of ignorance, and the moment or German. approaches, when, after considering and regu Travellers, likewise, should not omit-to visit lating the interests of the poor, attention will be Cronenburg, Elsineur, the manufactory of arms seriously directed to the measures proper for fa Il of Count Schimmelmann near Fredensburg, vauriog the developement and perfecting of and the cannon foundery of the Prince of Hesse, ialents. A particular society has undertaken to which are superb and delightful situations, execute the plan which will lead to so desirable If we would entirely vary the scene, and turn an object.
Il our view to a soil, manners, and customs absoThis city, within these ten years, may boast | lutely different, we have only to go to the Isle an establishment, the parallel of which is scarcely | of Amag, which communicates with the city by any where to be found except in some parts of a bridge, and of which a small part is incorpo. Germany. This is a school for forming tutors rated with the city itself. This island, which is for the country schools. The number of pupils sevaral leagues in cireuit, is perfectly level, and which have been sent out or still remain in it only embellished with two or three sinall copses, amounts to one hundred and fifteen. These ap forming as it were one entire kitchen garden, prenticed-preceptors are taught, boarded, &c. at || which furnishes Copenhagen .with vegetables, a price extremely moderate. Another establish- and some fine meadows which supply it with meat is soon to be formed for the instruction of milk. The inhabitants of the Isle of Amag are those who are to exercise the functions of masters || descended from Batavians, who settled there at in the Latin schools. The plan of this latter in the beginning of the sixteenth century. Those stitution has been approved by the King.
of the country parts of the island, though they As to society and visiting, we may refer to the may be said to be at the gates of the city, have testimony of Mr. Ramduhr. “In the choice of preserved their ancient dress, customs, and even), associates," says that judicious writer, “ no re- ll in some villages, considerable remains of their gard is had to rank or birth. Every one chuses a || language; without, however, retaining either all circle at his pleasure, and without consulting any ll the industry or all the economy for which their. thing but his connections and inclinations. Com ancestors were so commendably distinguished.