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WILLIAM MARKHAM, LL D. Archbishop of by darkening and perplexing the human under. York, was born in Ireland, we believe, in the standing, and bringing into contempt whatever year 1718. He was the son of an officer, at that had been esteemed sacred in religion, science, or time with his regiment in Ireland, and who was governinent. The Corcio was published, together of a Nottinghamshire family: he sent this his with a Latin speech made on presenting Dr. eldest son 10 Westminster school for education. Thomas as prolocutor to the higher house of conFrom Westminster he removed to Christ Church, vocation. -Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor ofl In January 1771, Dr. Markham was consearts in 1742, and that of master in 1745. Al crated Bishop of Chester, and in the succeeding school and at college he was distinguished by the month was, in the first establishment for the edu. elegance of his exercises, and particularly of biscation of the Prince of Wales, chosen preceptor Latin verses.

ll to his Royal Highness. Dr. Cyril Jackson, the About the year 1750, Dr. Markham was ap- || present Dean of Christ Church, was at the same pointed first master of Westininster school;ll rime appointed sub-preceptor. and he continued to discharge the laborious In June 1776, a new establishment was formed, duties of that useful and honourable employ- | when Dr. Markham was succeeded by Dr. Hurd, ment until January 1764. During his being the present Bishop of Worcester, and Dr. Jackmaster of this school, we can truly assert, that son by Dr. Arnold, tutor of St. John's College, none who preceded him was more truly beloved, Cambridge. Why Dr. Markham and Dr. Jackof held in greater respect by the youth of that son were not allowed to complete the education highly esteemed seminary of learning: indeed of the Prince of Wales, is not generally known : we have heard numbers of those who were under their successors had been celebrated tutors at his care, and who are now in the first situations Cambridge, and they had been distinguished at

in the country, mention Dr. Markham with the Oxford. It seems, therfore, that it was intended 'utmost regard and veneration.

to afford bis Royal Highness the united advan. Anable first master of Westminster is too pro- | tages that might be expected from those who minent a person to be overlooked by those who

excelled in the different pursuits of the two have the disposal of perferment. We find ac

universities. cordingly that in 1759, Dr. Markham was pro- This at least is known that Dr. Markham, in moted to the second stall in Durbam cathedral, ll the discharge of his duty, gave great satisfaction while he held the mastership, and in 1765, to to the King, who personally superintended the the deanery of Rochester, after he had resigned | education of his son, and that he has always reit. Both promotions were most probably owing tained a very enviable portion of the royal to patrons, to whom he had been recommended | favour. The following anecdote may be nenby his public services.

tioned in proof:--Mr. Pitt promised to a friend In 1767 he vacated the deanery of Rochester, || the deanery of York, when it should become and was created dean of Christ Church. The vacant by the death of Dr. Fontayne ; but he deanery of Christ Church is a dignity of very great was obliged to revoke the promise, having found importance and responsibility, involving the care that the King, in consequence of an application both of a college and a cathedral.

from Dr. Markham, intended it for his second In 1769 he was chosen tn preach the Concio son, the Rev. George Markham, who now ena ad Clerum to the synod of the province of Canter- | joys it. bury. On this occasion he demonstrated, with On January 20, 1777, Dr. Markham was trans. great force of argument and elegance of language lated to the Archbishopric of York. His life, as it that whatever in human knowledge is vain and can be viewed by a distant observer, appears to fanciful, has always been contrary to true religion; I have been an uninterrupted series of uncommon while it never opposed that learning which is con | felicity. Distinguished at a great school and an formable to reason and nature. He bestowed a ll eminent college, over both of which he was arti just encomium on the character of Newton and wards called to preside, and over the former as his views in philosophy; and at the same time || very early period of life; advancing in preter: lashed, with deserved severity, the metaphysi- | ments and reputation until he was promo cians of the French school, who were then al- || to a bishopric, and selected for an employment, tempting to carry their designs into execution, ll with the due execution of which the future Dope

piness of his country was intiinately connected ; and graceful; in his manners and address, afterwards rewarded by the second dignity of the extremely dignified; and in his conversation, English Church, which he held nearly instructive, entertaining, and lively : our best years; the father of a numerous and prosperous encomiums, however, must fail in delineating family, and continued eill within a year or two of his character; yet it is but justice to his his death, in an extreme but vigorous old age, nemory to assert, that he passed an honourable able to feel all the happiness of his situation ; life in the service of his King, his County, what has he not enjoyed of those things which and the Church, with the additional lustre of are supposed to constitute the splendid or the every social and private virtue; and closed solid satisfaction of life? These satisfactions he the scene, with a death worthy that high and did enjoy, and he enjoyed them worthily. sacred office which he had so long and deser-

In his person the Archbishop of York was tall vedly filled.

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with sundry articles of trade that have little conDown to the street together be convey'd; nection with classical fragments, whilst the Where pepper, odours, frankincense are sold, tradesman, like the Sibyl, cares not a farthing And all small wares in wretched rhimes unrolld." | what becomes of them.


Nunquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere sato The following Essay is written by the Rev. Nec revocare situs aut jungere carmina curat. H.Kett, author of the celebrated work, entitled

VIRGIL. « Elements of General Knowledge." It was written in the year 1786, and published in

I was led into this train of thought by rethe Olla Podrida, a work orginating and pub-ceiving a pound of sugar from my neighbour lished at Oxford.

Tim Tear-tiile, the grocer, wrapt up in a sheet

of letter-press. Tim deals so largely in books, It it melancholy to reflect on the unhappy

that he has many more than are sufficient for his circumstances which have frequently attended

own ase, with which he very bountifully obliges the death of authors. If we turn over the pages

the literati in foreign parts. I reinember, just of literary history, we shall find th t although:

before the American war broke out, my curiosity, many have enjoyed the gratification of hearing was excited to know what a large hogshead, their own praises, and some have been basked which stood at the door contained. I found, on in the sunshine of opulent patronage, yet their

examination, that it was filled with old pamphlets, deaths have been often obscure, and some

most of thein on subjects of liberty, non-contimes disastrous. Cicero fell a victim to party

formity, and whiggism, which Tim was going to rage ; Sidney expired in the field of batile ; || ship of for a Yankee shopkeeper in New-Eng. Crichton fell by assassination; and Otway perish land. Whatever sage politicians may have said ed by famine,

to the contrary, it it not at all to be doubted, The fate of books is oftentimes similar to that that the importation of this cargo spread the of authors. The flattery of dedication, and the

wild-fire of rebellion among the Bostonians, and testimony of friends, are frequently interposed

was the sole cause of the late bloody and in vain to force them into popularity and ap. expensive war. Although my neighbour Tim plause. It is not the fashion of the present day is no scholar by profession, yet it is astonishing to indulge the hangman with the amusement of l what a progress he has made in books. He has committing books to the flames; yet they are finished a complete set of the General Councils, in many instances condemned to a more ignoble || and is now hard at work upon the Anle. Vicene destiny. The grocer, the chemist, and the tallow. Fathers, whom he cuts up with greater expedichandler, with “ruthless and unhallowed hands, tion than Dr. Priestley higself. Perhaps more tear whole libraries in pieces, and feel asilitie logic and metaphysics have passed through his compunction on the occasion, as the Thracian hands than Lord Monboddo ever saw. He would ladies did, when they dismembered Orpheus. I have been a long time dispatching a set of French The leaves are distributed ainong their customers Reviewers, had he not begun upon them when

the price of coffee was reducer. The other day || for his beloved Dapple. On my arrival at an some young sparks, who belong to a cele inn, after having studied the most curious manubrated academy, where every thing is taught, script in the house, the bill of fare, I unlock my brought him a parcel of Latin classics. Ho lore magazine of linen, and feast upon delicious off the covers with as much sang froid as a scraps of characters, until more substantial food is nymph of Billingsgate strips an oyster of its set on the table. When I travel in company, my shell, and bought Horace and Virgil for three associates complain of my taking an unreason. halfpence per pound. He observed, with a | able time tu equip myself. They are not aware, sapient look, “That as for your Virgili's transla- that frequently whilst they think I am fluctuattion into Larin, I reckon it no better than waste ing between boots and shoes, I am conjecturing paper; but if it had been Mr. Dryden's history of what the initial letters of my fragment stand for, the Trojan Horse, I should have kept it for my and that instead of changing my linen, I am own reading."

shifting from the Duke of Marlborough to Lord I have been told by learned men, that it is a Chatham. question much debated in the Universities, . To those who wish not to forget all that their whether or no the place ought to agree with the school-masters taught them, this sort of light thing placed. Now after all that serious medita- reading is to be recommended. It would be so bad tion, which so abstruse a point requires, I am de- plan if all genteel people would furnish their termined to decide in the affirmative. For who can-trunks, portinanteaus, caravans, and tand-boxes not see the propriety, or rather (as Parson Square with the beauties of some author that suits their would say) the fitness of things, in wrapping up taste. If the beau monde should be afraid of ina cheesecake in pastoral, sugar candy in a dedi juring their eyes, by these studies, Mademoiselle cation, or gun-powder in a sermon on the 5th of Abigail, or Monsieur Valet de Chambre, had November?

| better be deputed to read trunk-lectures to them. There never was a time when learning forced Hoyle on Whist will answer extremely well for itself so much into notice as it does at present. old ladies; Tom Jones, or Joseph 'Andrews for You can no more walk a hundred yards in the | boarding school misses; Ecton's Thesaurus, of street, or go into any house, without seeing the Art of Shooting flying, for parsons; Patersome display of it, than you can turn a corner in son's Book of Roads, for lawyers on the circuit ; London without seeing a beggar, or hear a sailor | and Phillidor on Chess, for the gentlemen of talk without swearing. A man of fashion im- the army. perceptibly keeps up his acquaintance with his | Pedants may object, that if the above plan alphabet, by playing at the noble game of Te- | should become general, the works of the totum, or risking his fortune at an E O table. I learned will be no longer treasured up in the Book-stalls. furnish history; the walls of houses libraries of the great. But let them not be alarmpoetry; hand-bills medicine ; fire-screens geo ed; for they may be certain, that whilst books graphy, and clocks morality. These are the l are considered by a refined age as a species of channels which convey to the porter the know. ornamental furniture, and supply the place of ledge of the constitution, to the apprentice the the classics in wood, they will not be driven from art of rhyming, to Members of Parliament an their present posts. There is, it must be con. acquaintance with our India settlements, and to fessed, great reason to be alarmed at the destructhe fat alderman, wise sayings.

tion which threatens some branches of litera. For my own part I am not satisfied with such ture. Innumerable enemies are constantly on vulgar means of growing learned, but love to the watch, to annihilate insipid novels, scurrilous follow literature into her more, secret recesses. satires, party pamphlets, and indecent songs. If Fortunately chance has furnished me with the they chance to attract the public eye for a week means of doing this, without being driven to the or two, they cannot escape that destiny which immense bore of poring over books, which would their authors were too much dazzled with their only produce the effects of a dose of opium. I own charming productions to foresee. As weeds have a trunk, which, like the dagger of Hudibras, by their decay fertilize the soil from which they may be applied to more purposes than one. It sprung, soʻthese flimsy and noxious publications is lined with several sheets of the Royal Register, do great service to society, by lighting a pipe, emand of course contains much edifying information. bracing a tallow-candle, or forming the basis of During my travels, I watch my trunk with the a minced pie. same fond anxiety which Sancho used to feel

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I LIVED on the frontiers of a province, 11" What senseless ferocity! do they wear the through which a hundred thousand men were same uniform only that they might murder each passing: the regular order of their march, the

alar order of their march, the other?” “Not at all; their enmity proceeds animating voice of martial music, their obedi- | from the colour of their facings, and the difference to the commands of their officers, and the ence between their buttons." “ But they serve fire of courage which kindled in their eyes, and beneath the same standard; they march against glowed in their countenances, presented the most the same enemy." “ Very true, but meanwhile awful and interesting spectacle. I began to re they decide private quarrels. They abhor each flect on the motive which could bave gathered other still more than they hate that enemy whom so many thousand men together around the same they are to meet ; every officer is jealous of his standards. If they are led by virtue, if they superior; but soon we shall attack the strike the brow of the proud tyrants of the earth, and then we shall have warm business." I mentally exclaimed, of the lawless oppressors “ What, you are going to seek other victims? of nations, they deserve our respect and our love; But if you continue your present conduct, you they are the brave defenders of the sacred rights will be all destroyed before the day of battle of humanity,

comes.” “What is that to us? we live upon On a sudden this crowd of soldiers halted, and death; one cannot make his way but on the dispersed itself. Still warm with the ideas which corpse of his companion. That is all I know." their appearance had awakened in my mind, 1 “ What an horrid employment is yours! why do followed them, and tried from their expressive you shed the blood of your friend? why feast gestures to guess the sentiments with which they upon carnage? Have you never felt the influwere inspired. What was my astonishment, ence of pity? How many orphans, how many when I saw those men, children of the same widows, will mourn your triumphs! Listen country, and subject to the same power, drawing | awhile to the dictates of your heart, they will their swords against each other with relentless ll condemn your cruelty.” “ This is very Gne, but animosity. I ran towards one of them, but it I do not understand it; here is the plain truth: I was too late, he was tearing his bloud stained did nothing till I was five feet eight inch's high; weapon from the corpse of his friend, “Wretch!” || I was endowed with an ostrich's stomach, fit to J exclaimed, “ do you not spare your companion, devour every thing, and I found it difficult to supe your brother?” “He really deserved that name,"| ply it with food. One day a good-natured serhe answered with a careless accent; “ he has | jeant, with a well filled purse and a liberal heart, fallen like a brave man.” “But what harm had | asked me to follow him to the public-house, and he done you, that you punished him so cruelly ?" after drinking the health of the king, our counNone at all; he was newly enlisted, we quar- || try, and our friends, till my head began to feel relled: it is our custom that every new comer giddy, spread twelve guineas upon the table, and should give a pledge of valour, He behaved very | told me they were mine if I would permit him to well, and has got no small honour by his conduct, I pin a cockade to my hat. Had my country herand we are sorry he suffered himself to be slain. self fallen at my feet, and begged with tears my Had be better kept on his guard, he would have assistance, she would have produced less effect avoided the blow, and we should have lived gnod upon me. I shook his hand and was enlisted, friends together.” “Is it possible," I replied | and that day was the most pleasant I had ever with grief and wonder ; " what remorseless bar. spent. I had never been able to satisfy my appebarity! But you are lost unless you hasten to es- tite; but now, I feasted abundantly, w. s admired cape; fly, his companions, his superiors will and by all the girls in the neighbourhood, and made must avenge his death.” “ Avenge his death ! as much noise as I pleased. The tables were soon Dever. I have only followed their example, and I tumed, and I experienced the whole weight of whoever should refuse to fight would be looked slavery: I deserted four times in seven years; deupon as a coward. Glory teaches us not to fear || feat or victory were alike indifferent to me; any death, and you must plainly perceive, that a man government suited me: I heard every potentate wbo should shrink froin a single combat, cannot! crying aloud, I'will give you bread, provided you be expected to do his duty in a day of action. Il shed your blood for me when I shall call you We call this a pattern of courage.” “ Yes; lo battle. Iihen determined to sell it as dear as but is this courage useful to your country"-il I could. “ Oh! one death is nothing; look at those two l “ I shall not tell you how many painful and companies that fight together, and cleverly too !" || difficult marches we performed, sometimes in the

midst of winter, when cold and hunger oppressed || gentlemen's seats and opulent villages, which ofus: how many times I have slept on the snowy | forded us an inexhaustible source of pillage. But ground, exposed to the biting norih; yer, I must our colonel has incurred the minister's displeaown, that I have met with many happy mo sure, and we all bear its weight." ments; I have tasted more than once the delight I retired to my own house, and sought a relief ful joy of vengeance. One day, after spending in books from the painful ideas which sadrlened two months in the midst of incessant dangers and my soul. I chose the famous work of Grotius, fatigues, we stormed and forced the gates of a and began to read it; but the cool way in which fortified town. Whilst breaking open every he describes the most cruel actions, and his long house, and pillaging the goods of the citizens, I and useless definitions of the art of slaughtering perceived a lovely woman, who, with dishevelled our fellow creatures, filled me with disgust, Ne. hair, and holding a baby in her arms, attempted ver was such an important subject so ill treated. to conceal herself. My thirst for plunder imme What, must the surface of the earth be deluged diately turned into a luxurious passion; every with blood ! and shall we prostitute our praise, thing is allowed in the storming of a place; I by heslowing it upon the being who cominits killed two companions of mine who wished to numerous murders in the face of day, because the seize her before me, stifled the child, whose voice of trumpets, and the thunder of cannons screams importuned my ears, and, intoxicated proclaim them aloud to the admiring world! with pleasure, set fire to the four corners of the whilst we hang the obscure robber, who stabs his house.” “You make me shudder.” “What, victims whilst shrouded in midnight darkness. for that only? why, the human species is like the This author clads the hideous fiend of war with a grass of the fields; it is no sooner cut down, than || mantle of purple, veils the horror that frowns in it grows again. Oh! we showed no mercy: it its features, and crowds its forehead with a dia. was forbidden us, we did not let one stone stand dem. Then, whilst the monster reddens with hu. upon another. I say nothing of many other he. Il man gore, he prostrates himself, and hails it as roical deeds, so common among brave soldiers || the giver of glory and fame. Who, thought I, like us. I have twice run the gauntlet, and may will dare to strip this idol of its ornaments, to teown friends, forced to execute the sentence, have | veal the terrihic spectre, who tramples on the caused my blood to stream from my shoulders. gasping corpse of children, maidens, and help. But I have been avenged, and iny officers, quiet less aged men; who snuffs exulting the scent of spectators of the correction, have often praised slaughter and death, through the vast extent of the vigour of my arm. I have at last returned to empires, and hovers over the surface of the ramy first colours, profiting by the amnesty granted vageď world ? I then burned Grotius's book, to deserters, and hope to rise here quicker than || hoping that this century would not roll over before."--" How so?"-"How so? the war has our heads without being honoured with a work just began, and we will take care to keep it up of a directly opposite tendency. as long as we can. Look at yonder regiment | Yielding to the melancholy ideas that stole newly raised, in a month thcre will not, perhaps, il upon me, I threw myself upon a couch; but remain one in twenty of those fine soldiers; then scarcely had sleep closed my eyes, when I found you may be sure that I will volunteer into it, and I was transported into a foreign land, and stood will get a bounty."-" Wha!! is it possible that in a wide extended plain. There, more than you should entertain such thoughts?"-" I am eighty thousand soldiers had spread their beds of not the only one, my companions, my officers straw beneath light and sheltering tents. Such think the same, and you know we inherit only an interesting spectacle had never struck my from the dead." I looked upon this man with sight. Here men seemed to enjoy the pristine terror, and left him, after advising him to be hu. || liberty of the antediluvian ages, far from the cormane. This advice made him smile, and I has rupted towns where vice and dissipation hold their tily rushed away.

court. I approached them; but what was my On the road I met with a whole company of U sorrow, when I perceived they were armed with soluiers, who loudly murmured; still deceived murderous weapons, when I deseried a battery of by the inspiration of my heart, I fancied they || thirty cannon geometrically pointed, and, when cursed the horrors of war. “ Undoubtedly," I looking at myself, I saw I was dressed in regia exclaimed, “humanity pleads the cause of those || medials, a knapsack on my back, a long tube whom you are compelled to murder.” “Not at which dealt forth death loaded my hands, and the all," one of them replied; " we are sent into a infernal bayonet hung by my side. On a sudden wretched country, where there is nothing else to the drums were bearen; like Horace and De plunder than the cottages of pour miserable peal) mosthenes, I philosophically threw down my sants, whilst we leave a rich province, full of | arms, and attempted to run away : but I was

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