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tion not to give an unfavourable omen by any | knee, and was not worn so short by any but mistake.
feinales of no reputation, of the class of liberTlie mere putting on of these garments cannot tines, who did not fail to wear gaudy and extake up much time. Sabina had already put on pensive sandals with gold chains, buckles and her shift on her first entering the dressing room. other ornaments above 'heancles. But the tunic
This is a delicate tunic with sleeves, which cover of a matron had a peculiar kind of iruint, with only half of the upper part of the arm, made of abundance of folds, which reached so low as the finest cotton, and till she is completely dressed, scarcely to suffer any part of the feet to be seen. fastened under the breast with a narrow girdle. This irain was usually decorated with all kinds Kypassis, wlio alone has the honour of assisting of ornaments, and what the French term agrémens her mistress in this operation, unties the girdle, and applique's, and also with embroidering. Fine and first winds a small purple ribbon round the plates of beaten gold, or gold threads were likebreasts, by which means the ladies of antiquity wise frequently sewed to it: but in general it had obtained in an easier manner those advantages at the bottom a wider purple bo der. The tunic which the females of modern times seek to of our Sabina had such a border, which was still procure by means of elastic corsets. This Il further embellished by a bandeau of pearls fastened done, Dorcas reaches the tunic, properly so l to it with great art. called, which Kypassis helps the Domina to put Kypassis now girds this long tunic-chemise
Il with a simple white ribbon, as any other decoraAs this tunic, the uppermost of the under- || tion would be completely concealed by the mantle garments, constitutes the principal article of which is to come over it, or by the bagging folds of dress and displays the greatest luxury, it inay ll the tunic itself. The whole art of the sleeve in not be amiss, while Kypassis is thus employed, I this operation consists in drawing up the train. to take a view of it for a few moments. This which otherwise would fall upon the ground and garment is made of a stuff, the warp of which is prevent the possibility of walking, so far as to composed of the finest Milesian wool, and the shew only the toe of the foot, and to form a woof of cotton, of a brilliant white. It has short handsome fold all round above the girdle. sleeves, which only reach to the elbow, and which Sabina is now completely dressed except after a fashion common among the Dorian Greeks, | throwing on the long wliile mantle which Droso are cut longitudinally, and fastened together again holds in readiness. But the most important thing with gold clasps. At the bosom it has a border of all still remains to be done. The pearl crna. two fingers in breadth of double-dyer purple, ments which Sabinus recen:ly brought his wife call dibaphan, which was not only twice as strong from Alexandria, are still to be hung on. The a colour, but also twice as expensive as that which Il bracelets are not yet fastened, nor the rings put had only been once dyed. Of the same colour | on her fingers. Spatale already stands waiting is also the lowest part of the train, which was with the open jewel casket. In a few moments considered as characteristic of the tunic of the lour Venus Anadyomene will go forth perfect Roman matrons. The white tunic, properly so from the hands of her busy mailens. called, descended only a little lower than the
* The train was called instita, and was made * As the ancients had a particular shoe for l of the same kind of stuff as the tunic, but, as each foot, consequently a right and left shoe, any may still be seen from many Roman statues, it mistake in putting them on was looked upon as I had a great number of small foliis, and a purple a sign that every thing would go wrong during or gold border at the bottom. The tunic and the the whole day. This silly notion was sufficient train together were called stola, which exactly to give uneasiness even to the first of the Roman corresponds with the modern expression, full Emperors, who in many respects was a man of a dress, Fery little mind.
THE LADIES' TOILETTE; OR, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BEAUTY.
[Continued from Page 248, Vol. 11.] .,
The farther we proceed, the greater abun- || fashion which had been for some time introduced dance we find of materials relative to the different among women of quality. It was not only the changes of female dress in France. On entering hair of the head that they adorned with crimp upou the epoch of Henry the fourth's reign, we ribbon of different colours.” To obtain the famight introdure very circumstantial details con- | vour of a lady, was an expression that might then cerning the fashions; these, however, would not be i ken in a literal sense. only occasion too great prolixity, but would be 1 During this reign likewise appeared the prounin eresting to the reader. All the existing | digious ruffs invented in Spain, to conceal the monuments exhibit representations of these wen, an endeinial malady in that country. The costumes. I shall therefore pass very lightly over hoops became larger than ever, to judge from the reigns of Henry and his immediate successors, the portraits of that age which are still extant, confining myself to a few anecdotes and the and among others, from those of Queen Margaprincipal traits, which will give some idea of the ret, which brings to my recollection the followridiculous taste of the females even in the most | ing anecdote of that Princess : enlightened ages. It will be seen that the Margaret of France, the first wife of Henry fashions of the age of Louis XIV. Louis XV. IV. was inordinately addicted to gallantry. Henry and Louis XVI. were infinitely more extra himself often rallied her smartly on this subject. vagant than those of the early period of the She was married to him in 1572; the marriage monarchy.
was annulled in 1599; but still she was always Henry IV. perceived the necessity of assign- | calle! Queen Margaret. M. de Fresne Forget ing limits to a luxury that kept continually in. being one day with that princess, observed, that creasing. Of all the sumptuary laws enacted at | he was astonished how men and women with different epochs, none was so judicious as the such enormous ruffs, could eat soup without edict of 1604, in which Henry, after prohibiting spoiling them, and especially how the ladies the wearing of gold and silver upon apparel, adds, could be gallant in their prodigious large hoops. « excepting, however, women of pleasure and The queen made no reply, but a few days after. rogucs, for whom we are not sufficiently interest-wards having a very large ruff, and bouille to eat, ed to do them the honour to pay attention to she directed a spoon with a long handle to be their conduct." This ordinance was perhaps brought, so that she dispatched her mess with. the only one that produced a speedy effect; the nut soiling her dress. Having finished, she turnwomen of pleasure and rogues durst not avail ) ed to M. Fresne." There," said she to him, themselves of this exclusive permission, though with a smile, “ you see that with a little conthey had prid very little attention to the re. trivance, a reniedy may be found for every peated prohibitions which had heretofore been thing."-" Certainly, madam,” replied he, “ as issued : so true it is that these brilliant superflui. to what relates to the upper part I am perfectly ties are held in no higher estimation than the satisfied." example of the great procures thein.
Let us now pass to the 17th century; the But this law acted upon the women only as a fashion of wearing hoops ceased, and the lofty repellent, if i may be allowed to use that expres head-dress disappeared for some time; the latter, sive term of the medical art; that is, the fair | however, returned at the conclusion of the censex being restricted in the employment of ex- \ tury more ridiculous than ever. It is true thes terior ornaments, concentrated the science of the changed their naine, being then denominated toilette and of dress, and invented a fashion which l.fontanges. certainly no law could have touched, because it 1 Figure to yourself a vast edifice of wire, some. was out of sight. We shall briefly illustrate it by times two feet in height, and divided into several a passage from St. Foix's Essays on Paris : stories. On this frame was put a great quantity " The Marchioness d'Estrées, mother of the of bits of inuslin, ribbon, and hair. At the least beautiful Gabrielle, was killed in a sedition at | notion the whole fabric shook, and threatened Essone, in Auvergne. It appears that her body destructions which was extremely inconvenient, was left in the streets very indecently exposed, || It was nevertheless asserted that the husbands and furnished an opportunity of observing a " liked this fashion, and that it guaranteed the dise
cretion of their wives. Every piece of which il pleasing the monarch overcame every other conthis enormous head-dress was composed had a sideration, and the whole night was employed particular name, and these names were not less in destroying the edifice of three stories. The ridiculous than the things they denoted. Among .two uppermost were totally suppressed, and the which were the duchess, the solitaire, the cab third was cut down to one half. Thus ended the bage, the mouse, the inusqueteer, the crescent, reign of high head-dresses, which had been re. the firmament, the tenth heaven, and others linquished and again adopted at various periods equaliş ludicrous. This fashion was, however, during 300 years, and which again appeared, suddenly relinquished; the hearl-dress became some time afterwards, as we shall presently see, extravagantly low; and to make amends, the with increased extravagance. women adopted high heels. This sudden change I regret exceedingly that I am obliged to gave occasion to the following lines, by Chau adduce an additional proof that women never lieu, which conclude with an epigram of con drop one ridiculous fashion, without adopting siderable point :
another: it is the duty of an historian to adhere “ Paris cède à la mode et change ses parures,
to the truth. Vitain impendere vero was the motto * Ce peuple imitateur et singe de la cour,
of Rousseau, who, however, did not treat of “ A commencé depuis un jour,
subjects so important as that which now employs “ D'humilier, enfin, l'orgueil de ces coiffures : my pen. But to proceed. " Mainte courte beauté s'en plaint, gronde, et
11 High head-dresses having now disappeared in a tempête,
single night, as if by enchantment, it became “ Et pour se rallonger, consultant les destins, necessary that feminine caprice should fix on some “ Apprend d'eux qu'on retrouve, en haussant new object. Hoops again came into fashion. It ses patins,
is true they were not called by their former “ La taille que l'on perd en abaissant sa tête. appellation of vertugadins. What woman would “ Voila le changement extrême
have worn a fashion as old as the time of Francis " Qui met en mouvement nos femmes de Paris: 1. She who could have proposed such a thing “ Pour la coiffure des maris
would have become an object of derision. But “Elle est ici toujours la même."
by a stroke of genius, the name of paniers was This happy change in the head-dress was
given to them, and all the women fell passionately not of long duration. The women soon began
in love with them. The circumstances which led to again to erect magnificent edifices upon their
the revival of this extravagant costume were these: heads. But, alas! the empire of fashion, like
The return of hoops was owing to the same all other empires, is subject to violent revolu
two English ladies who have been already men. tions; a single moment was sufficient to destroy
tioned. Two days after the downfall of the a head dress or demolish a bastile and that mo towering head dress, they look a walk, in the ment arrived. Two English ladies effected a most evening, in the great alley of the Thuilleries. astonishing revolution in the fashions, which can Their robes expanded by vast hoops of whalebone, not fail to form a distinguished feature in this
excited the curiosity of the Parisians, naturally history. These two ladies who had recently arrived
an inquistive race, but whese curiosity in this at Paris, went to Versailles in June 1714, to see
case was very pardonable, since the spectacle Louis XIV. at supper. They wore an extreme
was then in view. They crowded round the low head-dress, which was then as ridiculous as
two ladies to examine them, and the concourse one iwo feet high would appear at present. No
increasing every moment, they had well nigh sooner had they entered than they produced such
been squeezed to death. A bench saved thein a sensation that a considerable noise took place.
There was at that time a yew hedge on either
side of the alley, and seats were placed at interThe King inquired the reason of this extraordinary bustle, and was informed that it was occa
vals, near the hedge. It was behind one of these sioned by the presence of two ladies, whose heads
seats that the two ladies entrenched themselves, were dressed in a very singular style. When the
and there they could with less danger sustain the King saw them. he observed to the duchess and ! impetuous assaults of public Curiosity. Never.
theless their situation became rather awkward. other ladies who were supping with him, that if the women had any sense, they would relinquish
It is true they were protected both in the front their ridiculous head-dress and adopt the simple
and the rear; but they begin to be warmly at
tacked on the flanks, when a soldier found meins fashion of the two strangers. The wishes of a
to extric.te thein. He opened a passage through King are commands to his courtiers. The ladies
he yew hedge, assisted the besieged through the were sensible that they should be obliged 10 sub
breach, and conducted them to the orangery of mit: the sacrifice was painful-to demolish such
the Thuilleries. lofty head-dresses was little better than decapita- | tion. There was no remedy; the fear of dis- |
[To be continued.)
ESSAY ON POLITENESS IN MANNERS.
POLITENESS, like taste and grace, is some. | over it, and exercised a kind of dominion by thing that pleases us, that we feel and love, with. lineans of that talent of seduction which is pe. out being able precisely to define its nature. It culiar to them, and which Montesquieu calls might even be styled, without impropriety, taste “ the art which little minds possess of governing and grace in manners. In this point of view, angreat ones." Force was then obliged to yield to investigation into the nature of politeness would address; the question now no longer was how to lead us into the metaphysics of taste; and the vanquish and subdue, but how to attract by in. numerous observations which we are daily ena sinuating manners and to please, became a nebled to make in society, are capable of furnish cessity. The constant collisions of society had ing us with sufficient light to trace the connec worn off its asperities'; a general tone of amenity tion of politeness with letters and the arts. and politeness began to distinguish the inhabi.
If, indeed, we observe that politeness in man. tants of cities; rudeness became disgusting; it ners was always cotemporary with taste in the was confined to the peasantry, and received the arts, that the ages of Pericles, of Augustus, and contemptuous appellation of clownishness. Louis XIV. were the most brilliant epochs of The influence of women was still stronger in attic wit, Roman urbanity, and French polite society than in business; it was only through ness, it will be difficult to deny this analogy, the | their empire over society that they usurped poliexistence of which I suspect.
tical authority : grace subdued force. The ver. In the origin of societies men had little con- ll satility of their imaginations.
satility of their imaginations, the delicacy of nection with each other; domestic cares occu their impressions, the vivacity of their sentiments pied their lives, whose only ornaments were fa
soon 'imparted a character of elegance to manmily virtues If accident brought them together, ners. They created taste, and gave publicity to benevolence shone in its utmost purity, when it the secrets of graces. That art of exciting in. was not obscured by interest; a stranger was terest without feeling any; of paying attention either a guest or an enemy, and never was man to all, and of engaging the attention of all even an indifferent object to his fellow. Their virtues
while thinking only of one; that delicacy in were open, their manners rude, and their passions touching the weak side of a heart; that address violent. Each had at that time his peculiar cha in sparing every one's self-love, that dexterity in facter, and bore strong marks of originality
pleasing every one's taste, that universality in all Similar, but not perfectly alike, all the indivi the means of charming soon awakened tender duals of the species were distinguished by re
sentiments. The aris were the offspring of the markable differences; as the leaves of the oaks
passions, which they tend to strengthen : sensiof the forest, though of the same texture and
bility animated genius; imagination formed en. form, all vary from each other in the exact shape
chanting chimeras, which were encouraged in and tint.
every heart by the magic of poetry and music; Society in its progress, assembling men in large all the passions were blended into one, and hence masses, and inclosing them in towns, connected
sprung that niodel of the beautiful, which created thein by closer ties. Their interests were com
all virtues, all talents, and all graces, Influenced bined in a thousand ways; the wants of indivi
by the same charm, and, as it were, by one comduals became more numerous, and their affairs more complicated; their very passions changed
Greeks, they had separate apartments, and very their aspect, as wild plants removed into our
little communication with the other sex. But Gardens, there assum: new forms: in a word, I the intrigues of the Seraelio and the revolutions their relations and dependencies were infinitely
caused by women in almost all the eastern courts, diversified.
prove that the shutting them up is but a feeble Social order soon extended itself like an im
obstacle to their influence. It was the jealousy mense net, one of th: meshes of which cannot
of a plebeian woman against her sister whose be shaken without affecting a great number of
husband was consul, that caused the elevation of others. Womien enter d more or less into so.
plebeians to the Consulate. From the invasion ciety", they consequently assumed an influence
of Greece, by Xerxes, to the peace of Utrecht, it
is impossible to mention, perhaps one singl. great The seclusion of women was a law of an. ll political event in which the innu-nce of women tiquity among all the Orientals. Among the has not been exerted in two opposite ways.
mon inspiration, courageous minds performed || desolated France almost without intermission ever great actions, which great talents immortalized | since the death of Henry II. Similar circumon canvass and in marble. The theatre arose; || stances produced similar effects. Louis XIV. artists became giore numerous, and monuments had even some advantages in point of situation multiplied heroes. A picturesque religion, Hover Augustus. In France as at Rome, the people mingied heaven wiih earth in a concurrence of sighed only for repose and an established aureciprocal pasjons; the pencil and the chisel in thority. Legitimate power, established on the the hands of Phidias and Apelles, were solely I most ancient basis, gave the young King, at the occupied in producing images of the gods, of very beginning of his reign a firmness, which heroes and of beauty; while the lyre and the Augustus, the usurper, could obtain only frumn flase united their melodious tones to embellish |time and the benefits of his reign. the hymns of Callimachus, the strains of Pindar | The blood of Henry IV. and St. Louis, which, and the odes of Anacreon. Such is the picture for so many ages had rendered the glory of a of that period of aitic politeness which for a | single family the glory of the whole nation, was short time blessed a suil fertile in prodigies, and more venerable to he French, than it was possible enveloped in an atinosphere of voluptuousness. for the fable of Venus and Anchises to be to the
Rome, barbarous and Aushed with conquest, Romans. The youth of the King, his graceful incessantly agitated by civil dissensions, by the | person, his wit, the greatness of his character, con inual struggles of ambition for power, retained that mixture of Spanish dignity and Italian elethe rudenes, of her manners in the midst of her | gance, which he had acquired from Anne of triumphs. To no purpose did subjugated Greece Austria and the Cardinal Mazarine, filled all his adorn with her spoils the capital of the conquerors subjects with admiration, affection and enthu. of the worlt; the love of aris and of letters, and siasm ; and it might be asserted of him with the politeness of inanners, which is so intimately more truth than Virgil said of Augustus: “He connected with it, could never gain a fooring in reigns over people who willingly submit to his their ferocious hearts. The monuments of genius laws.” Every heart was opened to love, joy and transplanted to Rome remained strangers to them, I hope; all were prepared to receive agreeable imand served rather for trophies than models, till pressions. What dispositions could be more Marius, Scylla, Pompey, Cæsar, those scourges favourable to the introduction of the arts, of of their country and avengers of the world, harl | letters, and of politeness of manners! at length by their atrocities and disasters, created! What then is taste, what is grace, what is their a necessity for the government of Augustus. effect on society, and how can they alter mano Every thing then assumed a new form : the gates | ners? of the temple of Janus were shut; all the violent Taste is a delicate touch of sensibility applied passions, restrained by authority, became tran- to agreeable objects. Its judgment is the result quillized, and were lulled to sleep; repose and of the impressions it has received. It adopts or felicity softened every mind, and rudeness disap Il rejects at once, without reflection or calculation; peared. The love of pleasure, so natural toit consists entirely in emotion. It is independent peaceful man, the sensibility, arising from plea of rules, for it preceded, nay it made them: and sure, or the expectation of it, taste, politeness | before the undersianding has combined the proand the graces were every where displayed, and portions and proprieties, taste has decided : it has assigned to this historical epoch a distinguished l juilged, because it has felt. It may be said that place in history.
tasse is the consciousness of beauty. Those two The age of Louis XIV, the comparison of principles have, in fact, one common source, which to the age of Augustus does honour to the sensibilily affected by moral sentiments, or by latter*, likewise succeeded civil wars which had agreeable sentiments. How fertile is this prin
ciple of sensibility! The discovery of the nature ** To persons not divested of classic prejudices, of the human soul, which is acknowledged to this assertion will perhaps appear exaggerated; be the principle of love, is ihe sure basis of but if it be considered that the age of Augustus il inorality and of arts as well as of religiont. This was distinguished only by letters, and that ele- || discovery gives birth to a new system of metagance of manners, which cannot be appreciated physics, which proposes for the ubject of iis rebut by contemporaries; while the age of Louis searches the whole theory of the affections, as the XIV. was that of all arts, of all talents, of all ll other embraces in its speculations the whole genius, from Turenne to la Quintinie, from Bos. ll theory of the ideas, suet to Lenótre, we shall be astonished at this l Ideal beauty, that torch of genius which Prodigious fecundity of nature at one period, and
to "What is religion ?" says Pascal, "God shall acknowledge is without either a model or
sensible to the heart.” a copy in history.
No. XX, Vol. III,