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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

THE CRIMINAL.

IN the whole history of man, there is no ) warns proud health, it produces only astonishchapter inore instructive for the heart and mind ment, expressed by a shake of the head. We look than the anaals of his deviations. By every upon th. unfortunate person (who, in the hour great crime, 1 power proportionally great has That he committed the action, equally as in that been exerted. When the secret operation of which he suffers for it, was a human being like our desire eonceals itself by the fainter light of ourselves), as a crear ureof a different species, whose common affectious, in he state of violent pas blood circulares otherwise than ours, and sion it becomes more rampant, more gigantic, whose will is subject to other laws; his fate and more visible; the more penetrating obser affects us but litile, for sympathy is only found ! ver of mankind, who knows b st what depend. on a remote consciousness of similar danger, and ence we oug it to place on the mechanism of the we are far from even dreaming of such a simicommon free will, and how far we are entiti d to Jarity. The lesson, therefore, is lost with the draw analogous conclusions, w. I transplant from application, and history, instead of proving a this province into his pneumatology many facts, school to enlighten us, must rest content with and them useful for moral life.

the pitiful merit of satisfying our curiosty. If The human heart is somethin' so very uni. | || she is to interest us more, if she is to attain her form, and, at the same time, so very complex, || great aim, she must of necessity choose one of that one and the same ability, or desire, can ope- || these two methods. The reader must either Tate in a thousand different forms and directions; become warm as the hero, or the hero must be can effect a thousand inconsistent phenomena; cold as the reader. and can appear differently combined in a thousand I know, that many of the best bistorians, both characters; while, on the other hand, a thousand modern and ancient, hare embriced the first dissuilar characters and actions may be deduced met hod, and have engaged the hearts of their from the same disposition, even when the person readers by an eloquent style. But this manner of whom we speak has not the least idea that || is an usurpation of the writer, and encroaches on such an affinity exists. Should there a Linneus the republican liberty of the reading world, who anse from the human race, as for the other are entitled to ju 'ge for theinselves; it is, at the realms of nature, who classified according to in same time, an infringement of those laws 'hat stinets and dispositions, how much should we be I limit the science, for this method is peculiarly surprised to see many a one, whose vices are con- and exclusively assigned to the orator and the fined to the small sphere of common life, and poet. For the historian, the latter only remains. circumscribed by the narrow limits of the laws, The hero must be cold as the reader, or, what ranked in the same order with the monster | is here equally the same, we must be acquainted Borgia,

with him, before he ac!s; we must see him not If we consider the matter in this point of view, only achieve his action, but see him wish to many objections may be made against the com achieve it. His thoughts are much more immon method of treating history; and here also, portant to us than his actions, and he springs of I suppose, lies the difficulty, why the study of his thoughts still more so than the consequences it has hitherto proved so little beneficial io com of those actions. The soil of Vesuvius hath been mon life. Betwixt the violent en otions in the investigated, in order to ascertain the origin of mind of the acting person, and the calm cum its conflagrarion; and why do we bestow less of posure of the reader, to whom this action is our attention on a moral than on a physical recounted, there exists a disagreeable contrast, phenomenon? Why do we not pay the same deth re lies such an immensity of distance, that it gree of regard to the nature and situation of affairs is difficult for the latter, nay almost impossible which environed such a person, till the collected for him, to form even an idea of a connection. tipder caught fire in his soul? The strange and There remains a chasm betwixt the historical marvellous in such a phenomenon charins the subject and the reader, which cuts off every dreamer, who delights in the wonderful. The possibility of a comparison or application; and, friend of truth seeks for a mother to these lost instead of exciting that salutary terror, which children. He seeks her in the unalterable struc.

No. XXI. Vol. III.

türe of the huinan soul, and in the unalterable economy by speculation ; 100 proud and too

conditions which externally determine il; and, | effeminate to change the state of the genuleman, · in these two he is sure to find her. He is then l, in which he lived, with that of the peasant; and

no longer surprised to see the poisonous hem to renounce his boasted liberty, he only saw one lock spring up in those very beds, where the resource left hiin, which thousands before and most salutary herbs usually flourish in profusion; after him have taken with better success, the or, to find wisdom and folly, vice and virtue, in resource to steal in an honest manner. His nathe same cradle together.

tive town lay on the borders of one of the prince's Were I even to set no value on any of the forests. He became deer-stealer, and the pro. advantages which pneumatology derives from duce of his depredations passed faithfully into such a method of treating history, it inerits, how the hands of his mistress. ever, a preference on this account alone, that it Amongst the lovers of Hannah, was Robert, a eradicates the cruel scorn and proud security with huntsman to the forester, who soon observing the which unproved standing virtue generally looks | advantage which the liberality of his rival had down on the fallen, as it diffuses the meek II gained over him, sought after the cause of this spirit of toleration, without which, no fugitive change with an evil eye. He went vftener to can return, no reconciliation of the law can the Sun, for this was the sign of the inn; his take place, and no infected member of society watchful eye, sharpened by jealousy and envy, can be rescued from the general contagion. soon discovered whence this money flowed. Not

If the criminal, of whom I shall presently long before that period a severe edict had been speak, was still entitled to appeal to that spirit revived against the deer-stealers, which conof toleration, if he was really lost to the state demned the transgressors to bridewell. Robert beyond a possibility of recovery, I shall·leave to was indefatigable in watching all the secret steps the judgment of the reader. Our mercy can of his enemy, and, at last, succeeded in detecting now be of no avail, for he died by the hand of the imprudent inn-keeper in the fact. Wolf the executioner; but the dissection of his vices was imprisoned, and it was with great difficulty, may prove a lesson to humanity, perhaps, also and not without the sacrifice of all his little to justice.

property, that he obtained a commutation of Christian Wolf was the son of an innkeeper, I his punishment. in a country town of **** (the name of which, Robert triumphed. His rival was beaten off from reasons, which will appear evident in the || the field, and Hannah's favour lost for the sequel, we must conceal); he assisted his mo beggar. Wolf knew his enemy, and this enemy ther to carry on the business till his twentieth

was the happy possessor of his Johanna. A year, for his father was dead. The house was

galling sense of his own want, joined to injured little frequented, and Wolf had inany idle hours. pride, poverty, and jealousy combined, break in From the time he had been at school he had upon his sensibility, hunger drives him on the been known as a wild youth. Grown up girls wide world, revenge and passion rivet him to the complained frequently of his assurance, and the spot. He again became a deer stealer ; but Ro. boys of the town paid homage to his inventive bert's redoubled vigilance entraps him a second abilities. Nature had neglected his person. A Il time. Now he experiences the full severity of little unseemly figure, frizzled hair of a disa ll the law, for he has nothing more to give; and in greeable black colour, a flat nose, and swollen Il a few weeks, he is delivered over to the brideupper lip, which was besides distorted by a well of the capital. kick of a horse, rendered his appearance so ex The year of punishment is endured, his pas. tremely repulsive, thàt it frightened all the wo sion had grown by absence, and his obstinacy men from him, and afforded an inexhaustible had risen under the pressure of inisfortune. Scarce fund of merriment to his comrades.

had he oblained his liberty, when he hastened to He wished to oblain that by defiance, which

his native place to show himself to his Johanna. was refused him by nature; because he dis- | He appears, but is avoided. Pressing want, at pleased, he resolved at pleasing. He was sensual, last, humbled his pride, and got the better of his and persuaded himself that he was in love. The effeminacy. He offers himself as a day labourer girl he choose treated bim ill; he had reason to to the rich of the place; the husbandman looks fear that his rival was happier ; but the girl was with contempt on the weak effeminate wretch; poor. A heart that was shut to the profes the muscular appearance of his sturdy rival bears sions of love might open to his presents; but he off the preference by this unfeeling patron. He himself was oppressert with want, and the vain makes a last attempt. A place is still vacant ; attempt to render his external agreeable, con- ll the last lost appointment of an honest name-he sumed the little he gained by a bad business. I applies to be made town's herdsman, but the Too easy and too ignorant to remedy his ruined peasant will not trust his swine to a profligate.

In all his plans disappointed, every where re- liberty, and made my confinement appear the pulsed, he became, for the third time, deer more horrid. It was then I swore an irreconcilstealer, and, for the third time, was uplucky able inextinguishable harred to all that bure the enough to fall into the hands of his vigilant resemblance of man, and what I swore I have eneiny.

faithfully kept. This second relapse aggravated his guilt. The “My first thought, on recovering my liberty, jodges looked into the book of laws, but none was my native town. As little as I had there to of them read the state of mind of the accused. hope for my future support, the more promising The edict against the deer-stealers required a were my expectations of satisting my thirst for solemn and striking example; and Wolf was revenge. My heart beat more licentiously as I condemned, with the sign of the gallows burnt descried at a distance the steeple arise from 03 bis back, to work three years in the fortress. amongst the woods. It was no more that heart

This period also elapsed, and he went from felt pleasure and satisfaction which I had expethe fortress; but quite a different creature from rienced on my first pilgrimage. The memory of what he was when he came there. This forms || all the hardships, of all the persecutions I had the commencement of a new epoch in his life ; once undergone there, awoke at once from a but let us hear his own words, as he afterwards terrible death-like sleep, alt my wounds bled made a confession to the clergy man who attended afresh, and every scar to my honou was again him, and to the courts of justice :

unripped I redoubled my pace, for I anticipated “I entered the fortress," said he, “ as a strayed in my mind the pleasure of overwhelming my sheep, and left it as a finished villain. I had still enemies with consternation by my sudden apsomething in the world that was dear to me, and pearance, and I now thirsted as much for humimy pride revolted at ignominy. As I was brought liation as I formerly trembled for it. to the fortress, I was confined to the same apart

“ The bell tolled to evening service as I stood ment with three and twenty prisoners, amongst | in the midst of the market-place. The people whom were two murderers, the rest were all thronged to church. They soon recollected me, Doted thieves and vagabonds. They made a and every one that stumbled on me seemed shy game of me, when I talked of God; they urged l and retreated. I liad always been particularly me on to utter the most dreadful imprecations fond of little children, and even now this attachagainst our blessed Saviour; they sung obscene ment involuntarily got the better of me, and I songs, which I, a professed libertine, could not offered a little boy that hopped by me a penny. hear without disgust and horror; but what The boy looked at me a few moments with a shocked my modesty most was, what I saw them fixed stare, and then threw the money in my face, practise. No day passed without the repetition | Had my blood been a little more cool, I should of some scandalous scene of their lives, without have remembered, that the long beard which I the contrivance of some wicked scheme. At first wore, since my release from the fortress, had I Aed from these wicked miscreants, and avoided, disfigured the trails of my face, and had rendered as much as possible, their intercourse ; but I then horrid—but my bad heart bad infected my needed some creature to sympathise with me, reason. Tears such as I had never shed rolled and the barbarity of my keepers had even refused over my cheeks. me my dog. The labour was hard and tyranni “ The boy knows not who I am, nor whence cal; my constitution was sickly; I required help; I come, said I, half audibly lo myself, and and, if I must candidly confess it, I required com 1 yet he avoids me like a bugbear. Am I then passion. So I habituated myself to the most de marked any where on the forehead, or have I no testable ideas, and in the last three months I longer the appearance of a mortal, because I feel became a greater proficient than my teacher.

that I can no longer love one? The contempt “ From this moment I thirsted for my liberty,

of this boy pained me more sensibly than three as I thirsted for revenge. All mankind had in.

years labour as a convict, for I had done him jured me, for every one was better and happier

good, and could accuse him of no personal than I. I looked upon myself as a martyr to

hatred the rights of man, and a sacrifice to the laws.

“I seated myself in a carpenter's yard opposite Gnashing my teeth, I impatiently bit my chains

the church; for what reason, I know not; but when the sun set on the hill of my prison; an

I well reinenıber that I arose irrita ed to the extensive prospect is a double hell for one that | highest pitch, as none of all iny acquaintance, is confined. The fresh draught of wind that || who passed by, not even one, deigned to take whistled through the air holes of my tower, and the least notice of me. With reluctauce, I left the swallow, that harboured on the iron bar of my station to seek for an inn; as I was turning my grated crevice, seemed to mock me with their the corner of a street I ran full against my

U 1 2 .

Johanna. Mine host of the Sun!' exciaimed powder and shot. My devastation in the prince's she quite loud, and advanced to embrace me; forests became the subject of common talk; but 'you here again, dear landlord of the Sun ! no longer did suspicion fall on me. My appear. thank God, that you are returned!' Famine ance extinguished it; my name was forgoiten. and exireme wretchedness were visible in her “ This sort of life I led for several months. dress, art opprobrious malady in her face, her One morning, as usual, I traversed the wood, to whole appearance bespoke the most abandoned follow the trace of a stag. Two hours I had of creatures to which she was sunk. I soon con fatigued myself to no purpose ; and I then began ceived what must have happened. Several dra to give up iny booty as lost, when I at length goons whom I had met led me to believe that discovered it within my shot. I was on the eve there were soldiers quartered in the town Sol of putiing the piece to my shoulder and of firing, dier's trull! cried I, and in a fit of laughter, but suddenly the appearance of a hal, that lay a turned my back upon her. It give me pleasure few paces from me on the ground, affrighied ine. to think that there was a creature in the scale of “I cast my eyes around me on every side, and mankind more despicable than myself. I never || immedialely discovered the huntsman, Robert, loved her.

who, from behind the trunk of an aged oak, “My mother was dead; my creditors had paid || levelled at the saine slag for which I designed themselves with my small house; I had nobody my shot. A deadly damp pervadeil all my limbs and nothing more to interest me; the whole as I saw him, He, of all living, was exactly the world Aed from me as from a viper; but I had, mortal whom I most abhorred, and he was within at last, lost all sense of shame. Formerly I had the reach of my ball. In this moment it seemed avoided he eyes of mankind, because I could to me as if the whole world lay in my shot, and not brook contempt. At present I obtruded the hatred of my whole life concentrated itself myself upon them, and took delight to scare in the single point of the finger with which I was them; I felt myself at my ease, since I had no to press the murderous trigger. An invincible thing more to lose, and nothing more to care dreadful hand hovered over me; the regulator of for; I stood in no further need of any good my fate pointed irrecoverably to this black mi. quality, as no one supposed me capable of any." nute; my arm trembled as I left my gun the

" The wide world lay before me, I might horrid choice; my teeth chaltered as if in a have, perhaps, passed for an honest inn in feverish cold; and the breath, which had conanother province, but I had lost the courage fined itself to my lungs, almost suffocated me. even to appear as one. Despair and shame had, For a whole minute the muzzle of my gun reat last, obliged me to adopt this mode of think mained doubtfully directed between the man and ing; it was the last sub'erfuge that remained | the stag—a minute and still a minute-athird ! to me, to reconcile myself to the want of honour, || Revenge and conscience contended obstinately since I could no longer lay clim to anv. Had U and doubtfully, but revenge- got the better, and my vanity and pride survived my degradation, Ill the huntsman lay stretched a corpse on the must have committed suicide.

earth. " What my resolutions then were, I knew not “My arm diopt with the shot.-Murderer! properly myself; so much I recollected ob Il stultered I slowly-The forest was still as a scurely, I determined to deserve my fate; the church-yard I heard distinctly that I had said laws, I thought, were a benefit to the world; I murderer. As I slipt nearer, the man died. resolved therefore to infringe them. Formerly, Long did I stand speechless before the deceased; I transgressed from necessity and levily; at pre- || a loud fit of laughter, at lengih, gave me respira. sent, I did it from free choice and for pleasure. |tion Will you now hold your longue, my

« The first thing I did was to continue deer friend? said I, and stepping boldly up to the stealing. Hunting, in general, grew upon me body, turned the face outwards. The eyes stood to a passion; and, besides, it was also necessary wide open; I grew serious, and became again for me to subsist But this was not the only I quite silent. I began to feel strange. motive that actu :ted me; it was highly gratify. “The judgment of God never once occurred ing for me, to set le prince's edict at defiance, to me ; but a judgment, I do not well know and do my sovereign ev-ry possible injury. I 1 which, a confused remembrance of the halter and was no wise afraid of being apprehended, for I Il sword, and the execution of a woman for child had a ball rearly for him who should derecí me; murder which I had witnessed when a school. and I knew well hat I did not miss my man, I boy. There was something extremely frightful killed all the game ihat came in my way; what for me in the idea, that my life, from the present I converted into mony on the frontiers was but moment was forfeited. The other particulars of lit:le; the most I suffered in rot; I led a very what I then felt I cannot now recollect. I miserable life in order to defray the expence of wislied immodiately after the perpetration of the murder, that the huntsman hd still lived. I did || perceptibly the track of a small foot path, which myself violence to recall in a lively manner to led me through the thickest recesses of the wood, my remembrance all the evil he had done me when suddenly a harsh commanding voice before during his life, but strange! my memory seemed me called, hall! The voice was quite near me; as if it had died within me; I could not retrace my distraction and the flapped hat had prevented a single circumstance of all that, but a quarter ny looking around me. I raised my eyes, and u an boor before, had driven me mad; I could saw a wild man, who bore a great kno'ty club, not at all conceive how I could have been guilty | advancing towards me His figure bordered on of this murder!

| the gig otic-consternation, with which I was “Su did I continue standing before the at first seized, at less', made me believe so; and corps I could hardly tear myself from it. The the color of his skin was of a las ny mulattocracking of whips and the creeking sound of black, which the white of a squinting eye rencarriers waggons, as they drove through the wood, dered truly horrible. He had, instead of a beti, a brought me to myself. For it was scartely a thick rope lied twice round a green woollen cout, mie from the road, where the crime was com- in which he wore a large slaughtering knife, with mitted. I was forced to think of my safety., a pistol. He repeated his orders, and a sturdy

* Witbout following any proper course, larm held me fast. The voice of a mortal had strased deeper into the wood. On the way I frightened me, but the appearance of a ruffian recollected that the inurdered huntsman used tu l gave me courage. In the situation in which I vear a watch. I needed money to regain the at present was I harl cause to tremble for every frontiers; and yet I had not the courage to honest man, but none to dread a villain. return to the place where the deceased lay. Here “Who are you ?" said this apparition, the thoughts of the devil, and the omnipresence “ Your equal, was my answer,-if you are of the Almighty startled me. I mustered all my really that which you appear to be! courage; resolved to put all hell at dehance, I! “That is not the right way out of the forest. Teturned to the place; I found what I expected, What is your business here?" and, in a green parse, a litile more than a dollar " Who gave you right to ask ?" answered I in money. Just as I was going to put both of obstinately. them up, I suddenly stopt short and deliberated. “The man viewed me twice from head to foot. It was no fit of shame, nor yet of fear to aggra- It seemed as if he was comparing my figure wilh vate my crime by robbery-spite it was, I believe, his own, and my answer with my figure. You that made me throw the watch from me, and speak in a brutal manner; much like a beggar,' retain but half the money. I wished to pass for said he, at last. a personal enemy of him I had shot, but not for “That may be; it is what I was but yester. his robber.

day." "Now I led to the interior of the forest. 11 “ The man laughed. One might take an knew that the wood extended sixteen miles to | oath on it,' cried he, that you still wished to the northward, and then touched the frontier. I pass for nothing better to day.' san quite breathless until it was high noun. The “Perhaps, then, for something worse. I wish precipitation of my fight had dispersed my re- || to get on ” morse of conscience, but it returned more dread. “Sofily, my friend! what is all your hurry?" folly as my strength became more exhausted. I recollected myself for a moment; I know not A thousand frightful forms passed before me, how the word came on my tongue. Life is and pierced my breast like daggers. Betwixt a short, said I slowly, and hell endures for ever.' life constantly disquieted by the fears of death, || “He stared me full in the face. I'll be and a violent exit from it by my own hands, there d d ,' said he, al last, if you have not made was now a dreadful alternative left me, and choose l) an hair-breadth escape fron; some gallows.' I must. I had not courage to rid myself of the Il “That may, perhaps, still happen; so, to our world by suicide, and felt such horror at the next meeting, comrade” prospect of remaining in it. Racked in my “ Here's to you, comrade !" cried he, as he choice betwixt the certain torments of this life, I drew from his wallet a tio flask; from which, he and the uncertain terrors of eternity, alike inca I took an hearty draught, and reached it to ine. pable to live and to die, I spent the sixth hour of || My flight and anxiety had exhausted my strength, my fight; an hour replete with tortures of || and, during the whole terrible day, nothing as which no mortal, as yet, can form an idea l yet passed my lips. I feared, indee:), to have

" Retired within myself and slow, having un- | perished with faintness in this forest, where, in a consciously drawn my hat over my face, as if || circumference of twelve miles, I could not hope this could have rendered me undistinguishable to l to find the least refreshment. You inay judge the eye of inanimate nature, I had followed im- | how gladly I pledged him in this proffered health.

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