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sors. Soon, however, Bisset gratified the | narchy. Born in 1918, a petty count of public, tired with the loquacious biography || Hapsburg, and inheriting liinited posses. of a Boswell, with a faithful account of a sions from his ancestors, Rhodolph spent portion of time, which death bad not per- bis yonth in the court and camp of Fre. mitted any of the preceding great his- || dcrick the Second. Taught by a valiant torians to illustrate. But it was not until || father the use of arms, he had few rivals in the author of Leo the Tenth appeared as military prowess, and soon resolved upon a candidate for well-deserved fame, that || aggrandizing bis dominions. After a series bistory awoke from its momentary slum of wars with the neighbouring barons and bers, like the sun from the sbades of night, I counts, in which, if justice was not often and glowed with renewed splendour. He on his side, fortune always was, he sucproved that many sources remained open ceeded in encreasing bis territories and his to the researches of genius; that instruc power, and his alliance was courted by tion, however frequently imported into monarchs; for taking part with Ottocar, our land, might still be conveyed through | King of Bohemia, against Bela, king of new channels, and meet with new admirers; Hungary, he greatly contributed to the and, by his noble example, probably 44- || victory woli by the former over i couraged others to unchain their native In 1215 he manied Gertrude Anne, daughactivity, and seek for new subjects upon ter of Burcard, count of Hohenburgh and, which to bend its powers.
Hageolock, whose dowry added considerThe annals of one of the most extensive ably to his possessions in Alsace. In and celebrated empires of Europe, that of 1263 the counties of Kyburgh, LentzGermany, were wrapped in darkness. The || burgh, and Baden, fell into his hands, reigns of a few princes had been related, it l and extended his influence in Alsace, is true, but mostly on account of the con- | Switzerland, and the circle of the Lower nections they had formed with other states, | Rhine. We will now let our author whose history was necessarily intermixed depict the conduct of his favourite with their own. Others, indeed, bad filled | hero. too conspicuous a station in the European wars and revolutions, to be passed over in 1
“ As inactivity was neither conformable to silence; but biography alone had recorded
the spirit or circuinstances of Rhodolph, bis
new territories furnished sufficient employtheir actions, and no general, extensive, |
ment both for negotiation and action, and in and judicious work like the present, had,
volved him in a series of long and almost unin any language, embodied the scattered
interrupted hostilities. But although at this accounts of the different reigns which fol
U period of his life war seems to have been his lowed each other in Germany. Mr. Coxe favourite and constant occupation, be did not vesolved to supply this deficiency in the follow the example of the turbulent barons, stores of knowledge, and the fruit of his who harrassed the peasants with incessant labours forms three large quarto volumes, depredations, and pillaged defenceless travelfull of information and interest. He has lers. On the contrary, he adopted a systein entitled this new production of his fertile of conduct which distinguished him with bo genius a “History of the House of Austria,”
nour in those times of misrule and confusion. but has been obliged, by the nature of his
He delivered the higbways from numerous subject, to take a review of the whole Ger
banditti, and protected the citizens and free
men from the tyranuy of the nobles; he priuman empire, and of the principal actions
cipally levelled his attacks against the turbuof the numerous members of which it was
lent barons, or the haughty prelates, who cono composed, their undertakings, their for
cealed their ambitious desigus under the sacred tunes, and the vicissitudes by which they naine of religion. Such was his reputation, were depressed, or exalted to superior au- li and such the general opinion 'entertained of his thority. His work might, therefore, be justice and prowess, that he gained the coiljustly called a history of Germany from fidence of the neighbouring republics. Many the year 1218 to 1792.
chose him arbiter of their internal disquiets; The first volume opens with a most in some confided to him the command of their teresting account of Rhodolph, of Haps- armies; and others appointed him their proo wergh, the founder of the Austrian mo. 1fect and protector." .
Having been invited by the burgesses hitherto withheld my homage for the fiefs of Zurich to fight their battles against which my uncle, Hartman, possessed, and which Lutold, baron de Regensberg, he collected form part of my just inheritance, but let every his own troops and those of Zurich, drew
man who has two powerful enemies reconcile assistance from Alsace, summoned to his
himself to one of them; if therefore you deem standard the mountaineers of Uri, Schweitz,
it more noble, as I do, to avenge injuries offered and Underwalden, and marched against the
to our friends than to pursue our own interests,
let us make peace with the abbot. In truth,' enemy.
exclaimed Rhodolph, there is no need of “In this petty warfare he displayed as much any arbitrator; the business must be settled prowess and couduct as he afterwards showed | instantly, and I will be my own mediator.' on a more conspicuous theatre. The respec- With the confidence of a great mind he monttive forces met in the vicinity of Zurich.
led his horse, and accompanied by only six Rhodolph, after drawing up his men, led | attendants, rode across the fields and bye patlis them himself to the attack with his usual ar- ll to Wyle, where the abbot was sitting at table dour, and broke tbrough the foremost ranks of | with a numerous body of knights and wobles. the adversary, when he was thrown from his ! He presented himself at the door, and requesthorse, and stunned by the violence of the faul. ed admittance. When the porter announced His troops were driven back, and the enemy,
Rbodolph, count of Hapsburgh, the abbot surrounding him, began to strip him of his conceived it to be a mistake, or a frolic of one armour. At this moment of danger, Muller, of the guests; but was soon undeceived and a citizen of Zurich, a man of great strength,
| astonished by the appearance of Rhodolph flew to his assistance, protected him with his himself, who ventured unarmed and unattend.. shield, and raising bim froin the ground, ed, amidst a body of men assembled to make mouoted him on his own horse. Rhodolph, || war against him. 'I am come,' said the gal. deriving fresh courage from the imminentlant warrior, 'to terminate our quarrel. danger wbich he had just escaped, rallied his You are my liege lord, and I am your vassal; troops, led them again to the charge, and after you are not unacquainted with the reasons a great slaughter gained a complete victory.” which have hitherto previnted me from re
ceiving my fiefs at your bands. Enough of The following passage sets forth the mag
contention; I am willing to refer the cause to panimity of this noble warrior in the most
arbitration, to acknowledge your rights, and favourable light:- .
now declare, that tliere shall be no war between “ Rhodolph had no soover taken possession
the abbot of Gallen and Rhodolph of Hapsof the inheritance of the house of Kyburgh,. burgh.' The abbot, afiected by this frank and than he was summoned by the abbot to do gallaut behaviour, received him with open homage for certain fiers held under his mo arms, and invited him to table. During the nastery. On his neglect to comply with the repast, Rhodolph related the unfortunate tersummons, the indignant prelate led a consi mination of the tournament at Basle, and dederable body of troops to Wyle, on the borders scribed the fury of the people, and the arroof Tockenburgh, with a view to invade his ter gance of the bishop in such glowing terms as ritories, and compel him to render homage. Il excited the resentment of all who were preRhodolph prepared to repulse this aggression, l1 sent. Observing the effect of his appeal, he when he received intelligence from Alsace that II still further roused their feelings by exclaimthe citizens of Basle, instigated by their bishop, ling:- The duty of knighthood compels me had risen at the conclusion of a tournament | to neglect all other considerations, that I may given by his cousin, the count of Luffenburgh, I take vengeance on the people of Basle and and massacred several nobles of his family and I their Italian bishop, for the knights and nobles party. He was roused by this act of treachery, whom they have insulted and massacred.' The yet being involved in hostilities with two company unanimously cried out, it is the powerful barons, and menaced by the abbot of cause of the whole nobility;' and the abbot St. Gallen, he could not fly to Basle to avenge of Gallen and his followers tendered their the murder of his relatives and friends. But assistance. he had learned to curb bis enterprising spirit, “Rhodolph thus converted an enemy into a and to bend to his circumstances. He sum friend, and employed against the bishop those moned his confidential followers, and thus very troops which had been assembled against addressed them :--' On one side I am drawn himself. He led these nobles, the soldiers of by my own interest, and on the other by the Zurich, the Swiss mountaineers, and his own earnest solicitations of my friends. I have faithful warriors to the gates of Busle, and
soon forced the citizens to promise satisfac- || enemy, whose homage he received, and to tion, and deliver hostages. He next turned
whom he granted the investiture of Bohis arms against the bishop himself; who consi
hemia and Moravia. But the wound which dering the Rhine as an effectual bas rier against
Ottocar's ambitious spirit had received, was the incursions of his adversary, derided his
not completely healed, and as soon as le efforts. But Rhodolph, passing this broad
was able to procure fresh allies, and thus and rapid river by a portable bridge of boats,
increase his force, he burst into Austria, an invention which he seems to have first revived since the time of the ancients, wrested
and carried several places by force of arms. from him all his territories beyond the walls
Rhodolph lost no time in collecting his of Basle, put to flight or exterminated his armies, and the weak succours which his peasants, burned his bouses and villages, and allies could afford him, and marched to laid waste his forests and corn fields. In || meet the invader. He took up a position at this deplorable situation the bishop sued for Weidendorf, after having crossed the Daand obtained a truce of twenty-four days; dur nube, and soon beheld Ottocar occupying ing which time the difference was to be settled Jedensberg, at a short distance from the by arbitration, or the war to be renewed. place of his encampment.
“ Rhodolph was encamped before the walls of Basle, waiting for the expiration of the
“ While the two armies continued in this truce. Having retired to his tent, he was
situation, some traitors repaired to the camp awakened at midnight by his nephew, Frederic
of Rhodolph, and proposed to assassinate of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, with
Ottocar ; but Rhodolph, with his characthe intelligence that he was unanimously cho
teristic magnanimity, rejected this offer, apsen King of the Romans, by the Electors of
prised Ottocar of the danger with which Germany. In the first moment of surprise,
he was threatened, and made overtures of reRhodolph could not give credit to this unex
conciliation. The King of Bohemia, confipected intelligence, and even expressed his
dent in the superiority of his force, deemed indignation against the burgrave for attempt the intelligence a fabrication, and the proing to deceive and insult him. Convinced, posals of Rhodolph a proof of weakness, and huwever, by his solemn protestations, and by
disdainfully refused to listen to any negotialetters, froin the electors, he recovered from
tion. his surprise, and joyfully accepted the prof. “ fiuding all hopes of accommodation frus, fered dignity. The news of his election being trated, Rhodolph prepared for a conflict, in quickly disseminated, the citizens of Basle which, like Cæsar, he was not to fight for opened their gates, notwithstanding the re victory alone, but for life. At the dawn of day inonstrances of the bishop. “We have taken his army was drawn up, crossed the rivulet arms,'they said, 'against Rhodolph, count of which gives name to Weidendorf, and apa Hansburgh, and not against the King of the proached the camp of Ottocar. He ordered Romans. The bishop acceded to terms of his troops to advance in a crescent, and attack peace, the prisoners on both sides .were re at the same time both flanks and the front of leased, and Rhodolph's followers admitted in the enemy; and turning to his soldiers, extriumph. The new sovereign was received horting them to avenge the violation of the aniidst general acclamations; and the citizens most solemn compacts, and the insulted matook the oath of fidelity, and presented him jesty of the empire; and by the efforts of that with a considerable largess towards defraying day, to put an end to the tyranny, the horrors, the expences of his corouation. The bishop, and the massacres to which they had been $0 chagrined at the success and elevation of his long exposed. He had scarcely finished before rival, struck his forehead with vexation, and the troops rushed to the charge, and a bloody prufanely exclaimed:-Sit fast, great God, conflict ensued, in which both parties fought or Rbodolpb will occupy thy throne.”
with all the fury that the presence and exer. Afier describing the events that followed
tions of their sovereigns, or the magnitude the election of Rhodolph, ourauthor gives
the cause in which they were engaged coul
spire. At length the imperial troops gaine an interesting account of his first war with
the advantage, but in the very moment of Ottocar, King of Bohemia, his rival to the
victory the life of him on whom all depended Roman crown, who was then in possession
was exposed to the most imminent danger. of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola.
“ Several knights of superior strength and These provinces were conquered by Rho- | courage, animated by the rewards and promise dolphi, and ceded to ķim by his vanquished of Ottocar, kad confederated either to kill
take the King of the Romans. They rushed || until he was unhorsed, and mortally wounded forward to the place where Rhodolph, riding || by some of our soldiers. Then that magnaniamong the foremost ranks, was encouraging mous monarch lost his life at the same time and leading his troops, and Herbot, of Fullen with the victory, and was overthrown, pot by stein, a Polish knight, giving spars to his our power and strength, but by the right hand horse made the first charge. Rhodolph ac-ll of the Most High.' customed to this species of combat, eluded Successful in all the wars he undertook, the stroke, and piercing his antagonist Rhodolph did not abuse the power he had under his beaver, threw him dead to the acquired. His most ardent wish was to secure
ground. The rest followed the example of the the imperial crown to his only surviving son .Polish warrior, but were all slain, except Albert. For this view he summoned the diet Valens, a Thuringian knight, of gigantic | of Frankfort, but the Electors declined comstature and strength, who reaching the person plying with his request, and referred th: nomiof Rhodolph, pierced his horse in the shoulder, | nation to a future diet. In order to dispel the and threw him wounded to the ground. The grief which he felt at their refusal, he visited helmet of the King was beaten off by the his hereditary dominions, and then prepared shock, and being unable to rise under the to proceed into Austria and see his son, but weight of his armour, he covered his head with his strength was exhausted. Seveuty-three his shield, till he was rescued by Berchtold years weighed down his head, and he replied Capiller, the commander of the corps of re to the physicians who exhorted hiin to remain serve, wbo cutting his way through the enemy, tranquil, 'Let me go to Spire, and see the flew to his assistance. Rhodolph mounted Kings my predecessors. He accordingly another horse, and leading the corps of re descended the Rhine, but had not sufficient serve, renewed the charge with fresh courage; strenth to proceed beyond Germesheim. He and his troops, animated by his presence and prepared for his end with marks of the most exertions, completed the victory.
ardent devotion, and died on the 15th of July, “ Ottocar himself fought with no less in the seventy third year of his age, 1991, and intrepidity than his great competitor. On in the nineteenth of his glorious reign. His the total rout of bis troops, he disdained to body was conveyed to Spire, and interred with quit the field; and after perforining incredible those of the former Emperors. feats of valour, was overpowered by numbers, “ Rhodolph was above the ordinary stature, dismounted, and taken prisoner. He was in being nearly seven feet in height, but exstantly stripped of his armour and killed by tremely slender; his head was small and almost some Austrian and Styrian nobles, whose bald, his complexion pale, his nose large and relations be had put to death. The discom aqniline. His natural aspect was grave and comfited remains of his army, pursued by the posed; but be no sooner began to speak thau victors, were either taken prisoners, cut to his countenance brightened into animation. pieces, or drowned iu their attempt to pass the His manners were so captivating, and he marsh, and above fourteen thousand perished possessed the art of persuasion in so eminent in this decisive engagement.
a degree, that, to use the expression of Dor“ Rhodolph continued on the field till the
navius, one of his panegyrists, he fascinated enemy were totally routed and dispersed. He
persons of all ranks, as if with a love poendeavoured to restrain the carnage, and sent || tion.' He was plain, unaffected, and simple messengers to save the life of Ottocar, but his ) in his dress; and was accustomed to say that orders arrived too late; and when he received he considered the majesty of a sovereign as an account of his death, he generously lament consisting rather in princely virtues than in ed his fate. He did ample jastice to the valour magnificence of apparel. and spirit of Ottocar; in his letter to the “In an age of superstition, the picty of Pope, after having described the contest, and Rhodolph was pure and ardent; and he was the resolution displayed by both parties, either punctual and devout in attending the services to conquer or die, he adds : 'At length our of the church. He esteemed and honoured troops prevailing, drove the Bohemians into the humble minister of religion, but chastised the neighbouring river, and almost all were the insolence of the baughty prelates, who either cut to pieces, drowned, or taken pri forgot the meekness of the gospel in the soners. Ottocar, however, after seeing his splendor and exercise of temporal dominion. arıny discomtited, and himself left alone, still || Although he recovered estates and advocacies would not submit to our conquering standards, which the hierarchy bad usurped from the but fighting with the strength and spirit of all empire, and resisted all claims of exemption giant, defended himself with wonderful courage ! from the public charges, whicb religious esta,
blishments arrogated to themselves, yet he not only by subjugating the Austrian domisupported the dignity and privileges of the i nions, but by carrying his arms into the beart. sacerdotal order, and enforced by his own of Germany. To avert or suspend the proexample, respect and deference for every mem- gress of the enemy, Ferdinand sent embassadors ber of the church."
to Solyman, with rich presents and proposals Having given longer extracts than we
1 of peace. This measure, instead of conciliatintended from the first part of this
i ing, increased the presumption of the Sultan; work, the history of the founder of the
| he arrogantly commanded the Austriau em
bassadors to follow his camp, and attend his illustrious house of Austria, we shall be further pleasure. After embarking his artillery compelled to leave untouched many in
nea many in- ll on the Danube, in a fotilla of 3000 vessels, be teresting passages, wbich seem equally de- ! crossed the Save, and leaving the Danube on serving of notice. But unsatisfied, like the right, led his numerous hordes through the generality of men, with admiring the the western provinces, as if to penetrate over elevation and outward magnificence of a the mountains into Styria. He found po obsuperb edifice, we have examined its foun. stacles till he approached the frontiers of dations and the means through which it l, Styria, when his progress was checked before was erected.
the petty and obscure town of Guntz, which The first volume embraces a period of
ind ofl has obtained an anfading name by its resistance three hundred and forty years, from 1218
on this memorable occasion. The place was to 1558, from the birth of Rhodolph, King
baldly fortified, and provided with only eight
hundred troops, but it was commanded by of the Romans, to the abdication and death
'Nicholas Turissitz, aud defended by an intreof Charles V. The irruption of the Turks
pid garrison, whose memory deserves the apinto Servia, in 1439, under the command
plause of christendom, for their unexampled reof Amurath II. supplied our author with ||
sistance against the whole Turkish army. The an opportunity of giving an account of the town was assailed on every side by this stuTurkish nation, which he has not neglected. pendous multitude. After in vain attempting His sketch of the rise of that people, the to undermine the walls, they planted their conquests, defeat, and captivity of Bajazet, artillery on the neighbouring hills, and even by the Mongol Tamerlane, is rapid, faith-ll on mounds of earth, which were raised above ful and interesting. The 20th chapter pre the highest buildings of the place. Breach sents a general picture of Europe in the after breach was effected, and assault after year 1499, the relative strength of the
assault was made, but all these efforts were states of which it was composed, and re
baffed by the skill, the vigilance, and the heroic cords the invention of gunpowder, and
bravery of the governor, aided by the intrepi. the art of printing, with the changes which
dity of his garrison. He equally resisted
hribes, promises, and threats; and after a siege they occasioned in the art of war and the
of twenty-eight days, the Sultan was comsystem of European policy, and by the
pelled to accept a feigned submission, and importance of the matter which it contains,
suffer him to continue in possession of a and the manner in which it is treated, de- fortress which he had so gallantly defended." serves peculiar attention. The second volume embraces a period of l. 1
The situation of Ferdinand II. when two hundred and eight years, from 1503 toll besieged in Vienna by the protestant insur1711, from the birth of Ferdinand, founder
gents in 1719, and his astonishing escape, of the German branch of the house of
are too remarkable to be passed over in Austria, to the deposition of Joseph I.
silence. The second invasion of Austria by Soly « Ferdinand was sensible that the surrender man, in 1539, with an army composed of
of Vienna would occasion the loss of Austria, several hundred thousand men, and the
and with it the loss of the imperial crown. noble resistance of the sinall, obscure, and
He therefore sent his family into the Tyrol, weakly fortified town of Guntz, forms one
and prepared to maintain his capital, and meet
his impending fate with a firmness from which of the most interesting events contained in
it is impossible to withhold our admiration. this volume.
The Jesuits had implanted their maxims in the « Solyman, galled at his recent dizgrace be heart of a hero, and he found a support in fore Vienna, spent two years in making prepa- || that religious fervour with which he was anitions, and resolved to avenge his failure, ll mated. He tbrew himself at the foot of the