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crucifix, poured forth his petitions to the l « This succour which had so unexpectedly saviour of all, and rose with the full convic- || saved their sovereign, was a corps of only five tion of divine assistance* Notwithstanding hundred horse, which had been detached from all the remonstrances of his ministers, all the Krems, by Dampierre, and secretly descendterrors of his situation; notwithstanding the ing the Danube, had entered the only gate total failure of his hopes from human relief, which, from its situation, could rot be guardand all the entreaties of the ministers of that ed by the vigilance of the enemy. Their apreligion to which he was devoted, he persisted pearance operated like magic; their nambers in his resolution of encountering the vengeance were exaggerated by fear or exaltation; and of an eriraged multitade, and burying himself rumours were instantly spread that further under the walls of the palace which had been reinforcements were approaching. The nialthe seat of his ancestors.
contents shrupk away in silence, or fled from “ He found full employment for all his re- || the city; and those whom fear had bitherto solution; his dangers increased from day to day, | deterred, hastened to display their loyalty. from hour to hour; the walls of his palace Six hundred students flew to arms; the exwere battered by the Boheinian cannon; he ample was followed by fifteen hundred burghers, heard on every side the cries of vengeance and additional succours poured in, and in a few exclamations, _Let us shut him up in a con hours, all appearance of danger and discontent vent, bring up his children in the protestant I had subsided. Nor did the good fortune offerreligion, and put his evil counsellors to the dinand end with his deliverance; for in the sword.'
midst of his exultation news arrived that “ 'At length the crisis of his fate arrived : Bucquoy had defeated and dissipated the ariny sixteen protestant members of the states burst of Mansfeld, and Thurn was suddenly recalled into his apartment, and with threats and re by the deputies from the blockade of Vienna, proaches, clamorously demanded his permis | to secure the capital of Bohemia.” sion to join the insurgents. But at this awful
The third volume, or as the author moment a sudden sound of trumpets an
entitles it, the second, having divided nounced the arrival of succours. The depu
the first into two parts, the one contain: ties, thunder-struck with the alarm, hastened
ing 543, and the other 713 pages, comfrom the palace, and with the chiefs of their
prises a period of 107 years, from 1685 to party sought safety in concealment, or took refuge in the camp of the besiegers.
1792, or from the birth of Charles VI. to the death of Leopold II. and contains the
reigns of Charles VI. Maria Theresa, Joseph * We have seldom an opportunity of dis
| II. and Leopold II. As this part of modern covering the secret thoughts of sovereigns on
history is more familiar to our readers, we great and trying occasions, we therefore gratify
shall not extend our cxtracts further, but the reader with an account given by Ferdinand
conclude with a short examination into the himself to his confessor, Bartholomew Valerius, who entered his private cabinet at the
merits of this work. moment when he had concluded his devotions. Industry and the most indefatigable re. “ I have reflected,” he said, “ on the dangers searches are necessary to enable an author which threaten me and my family, both at to gather fame in the fields of history; they home and abroad. With an enemy in the are necessary but not sufficient; he must suburbs; sensible that the protestants are also possess a mind unshackled and unpreplotting my ruin, I implored that help from Ljudiced. Imagination, like a vain boaster, God which I cannot expect from man; I had
is apt to exaggerate the virtues and martial recourse to my Saviour, and said, Lord Jesus
deeds of her heroes, to place them in situaChrist, thou redeemer of mankind, thou to
tions in which no eyes but hers have beheld whom all hearts are opened, knowest that I
them, and to clothe them in robes which seek thy honour, not my own. If it be thy
her fairy hand has woven; her dazzling will that in this extremity I should be over
colours are too bright for the sober truth come by my enemies, and be inade the sport and contempt of the world, I will drink of the of historical pictures. Strong and acute bitter eup. Thy will be done! I had scarcely sense, capable of steering in a straight di. spoken these words, before I was inspired with || rection between the numerous and contranew hope, and felt a full conviction that God | dictory reports which deluge the memo y would frustrate the designs of my enemies." Il of a prince, or a distant event ; of diving DE LUCA, p. 33).
ll into the annals of former times, not in
search of what is uncommon and romantic, The difficulty of writing history, inbut of what is probable; of comparing the creases, strange as it may appear, with the testimony of writers of different nations and abundance of the materials collected for different ages, and educing light from the that purpose. For an author may be over. chaos of dark and confused anpals, is, or laden with matter, and find as much difought to be, the chief characteristic of anficulty in disposing v. to advantage as a historian. But there is still another re- general at the head of a large army, whoso quisite, deprived of which his talents must divisions become unwieldy from numbers, wither away in a barren inactivity, and || in ranging them on the field of battle. Mr. which is not the gift of nature, but the Coxe has overcome this difficulty; his nareffect of favouring circumstances. Hell ration flows uninterrupted, and the order must have it in his power to make the deep ll of events is clear and easily followed; his researches necessary to compass his end ; il descriptions are neither too long por too the sources whence abundant information episodical; his portraits seem accurate may flow, must be opened to him, he mustl copies from the characters whose actions have access to libraries “ rich with the and principal features bave been laid be. spoils of time,"and to manuscripts treasured fore us by the course of events; his refleć. up by curiosity, pride, or learning, and tions are few, but judicious, not calculated but too often destined to moulder away to exhaust the subject but to create new in useless obscurity. This requisite, Mr. thoughts and considerations in the miod of Coxe informs us, was put into his posses the reader; and his style is in general sion by the kindness and public spirit of simple, unaffected, and pure, in some inseveral distinguished persons. His authori-stances strong and rich, but its chief defect ties, he tells us, “ are printed, manuscript, consists in a frequent repetition of the same and oral," The printed authorities are ge- words at too inconsiderable a distance from nerally quoted at the end of every chapter, ll each other. Such repetitions may someand often in every page; he gives us a list ll times be elegant, but when too closely of some of the manuscripts with a perusall strewed over a page become unpleasant not of which he was favoured; part of his oral, only to the ear, but give an idea of poverty authorities he derived from the Prussian of language, a vice in au author with whichi minister, Count Kertsberg, and some con- || Mr. Coxe cannot justly be accused. fidential friends of Prince Kaunitz. Deli- Il The utility of an undertaking insures it cacy forbids his disclosing the other per- Il praise, but the care and talents with which sons to whom he is indebted for informa. ll it is executed win admiration and grati. tion, but after reading his work, we are stude; to both Mr. Coxe has proved fully disposed to give him credit for that || himself fully entitled by this original, va. integrity and good faith which he has al. || luable, and laborious publication. ways maintained.
A TOUR IN IRELAND.
ART. IV.-Journal of a Tour in Ireland, in 1806. By Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Baronci.
W. Miller. 8vo. Pp. 336. 1807.
This work is ushered in with a preface, Captain Skinner ; and after a rough and of twenty-one pages, followed by an histo || ous passage of twenty-three hours, lauded at rical introduction of a hundred and nine the Pigeon-house; front whence a vehicle, pages. We shall begin our task by select very appropriately called the long coachy ing a few extracts which will give the reader
* “ A most daring attack was made a some idea of the present state of Ireland.
Il time ago upon this couch by a large gang “ Monday, 23d June, in the evening, 1 robbers, who ordered the passengers sailed from Holyhead, in the Union packet, Il mount, and plundered them one by ow
(holding sixteen inside passengers, and as || them left in ruins since the rebellion in 1799; many outside, with all their luggage) conveyed roads excellent and flat (eight or nine miles us to Dublin, distant about two miles from froin Dublin, on the road to Trim), lands cul. the place of landing. Passengers are allowed tivated with corn, potatoes, and pastures, but to take their parcels, &c. with them, but car slovenly farming. riages and trunks are obliged to go to the cus “Saw writteo on several houses the words tom-house, and undergo a tedions and imposing !! “Good dry Lodgings;' by which dry is not search. The proprietor must value his car- | meant in contradistinction to wet or damp, riage as he thinks reasonable; and he is il but implies lodgings without board, as the same charged on that valuation, four and a half per word is applied in a higher sense to a ball cent. But here the matter does not end; for without a supper. Miserable hovels still conbesides the duty to government, I paid no tinue to hurt the feelings of the compassionate less than twelve different officers of the cus- | traveller.” toms. * “ We had scarcely got rid of a most im- !!
Between Mitchelstown and Mullingar portunate host of boatmen, porters, &c. de (forty-five miles from Dublin), our author manding loudly their fees, than we were de- remarked, sired to dismount from our vebicle, as appre “ A line of most miserable hovels with bensions were entertained for the safety of smoke issuing from a hole in the thatched roof. the bridge over which we were obliged to '; This country bears but a ragged appearance pass.”+
from the general want of trees, hedge-rows, La Having mentioned the principal buildings and the slovenly state of its cultivation. that arrest the stranger's attention during his, « The post-horses met us at the entrance walk through Dublin, I shall say a few words to the town, where the bostler harnessed the respecting the churches. Of these St. Patrick's riding horse on the off-side, and did not percathedral, and Christ-church, are the most receive his mistake till asked by us, if that was markable for their antiquity, and I may addd; the custom of his country. only on that account; for their state is very ! « See crowds of females, and many of them bad and precarious; and the approach to each otherwise well dressed, flocking barefooted to of them filthy beyond measure, and through the fair; and near the town a large group perthe very worst part of the city. I Miserable forming ablutions in a pond, preparatory to cottages made of mud and thatched; many of putting on their stockings.
“Enter the village of Brust through a most mail carrier was also fired at by the same miserable street of thatched hovels. See a people. When this vehicle is known to carry ruined castle and church on the left. The $0 many of the principal nobility, gentry, and I same kind of uninteresting country still conmerchants from Dublin to the packet-boat, a tinues; the soil evidently richer, but the inregular horse-patrole to attend the coach from l habitants more wretched in appearance than the office, could be attended with no inconve any I have yet seen; such habitations, teeming nience to government, and would ensure the with a numerous population of children, pigs, property of many individuals."
and poultry, present a truly deplorable and *“ So ncar án alliance having taken place affecting sight to every man of feeling and between England and Ireland, it is to be hoped
humanity that this vexatious ceremony will shortly be
“ From the cathedral (at Limerick) I waded dispersed with, or at least its abrises re
through the old town, and the dirtiest streets formed."
I ever bebeld, to tbe castle. +“When such large sums are annually ex-! “ Strangers also, on coming to Killarney, pended in Dublin on less useful buildings aud | experience a great mortification in finding that improvements, it surely reflects no credit on the object of their atteution is so far removed the government of a country, that the bridge from the place of their residence; and that the of communication between England has re
shores of the lake are not within the distance mained so long a time in a dangerous state.”
of a moderate walk. Neither do I think that 1“Let the reader who wishes to know the the regulations respecting boats, though at dreadful and disgraceful state of this quarter first sight vrey plausible, tend to the comfort of the city, refer to Mr. Whitelaw's admir-11
of the tourist. Their prices are fixed, 9 their able “ Essay on the Population of Dublin, and Observations on the state of the poorer parts) 8 « The prices are thus regulated, and a of that city.”
written account is fixed up over the chimney Supplement.--Yo!. III.
number limited, and at the command of one 11 At Ballyshannon, our author says:individual; whereas if a general license was “A more dirty inn, and worse attendance, 1. given to keep boats on the lake, I am convinced
never met with either abroad or at home; the that the public would be better and more rea
rooms and beds teemed with every kind of versonably served. The true enthusiast, the
min, and a dirty barefooted wench acted as our lover of nature, and the artist, would wish,
femme de chambre and waiter; good humour, after having had a general introduction to the
however, and willingness to oblige (those conlakes, to revisit them at bis ease, and survey
stant good qualities of the common Irish', their manifold beauties in detail; but this,
were not wanting on the part of our landlady; from want of small boats, he cannot do; he
but more essential comforts were necessary to cannot at his pleasure ramble down to the
to the restore our spirits after a long and tedious lakes, and take his boat and amuse himself for
day's journey. Ballyshannon, however, with a few hours on its enchanting banks; the
all its desagremens, is worthy a visit, for, close scheme and arrangement of each day must be
to the town, the river falling precipitately over pre-concerted, the boats bespoken, the dinner a ridge of black rocks, forms a grand cataract ordered, &c. &c. In short, difficulties and
at the spot where it discharges its waters into expense will ultimately exbaust the patience
the sea. The salmon fishery at this place is and the purse of even the most sanguine ad
very productive, and according to the late mirer of nature."*
Survey of Donegall,' when last rented, proSir Richard pursues his journey to duced annually 10831. 6s. ed. and at this preYoughall, thirty miles from Cork.
sent time still more: the eel fishery also lets “The town of Youghall is situated under ||
for 325l. 10s. 6d. yearly. These fisheries are the eastern declivity of a steep hill. It con
very numerous throughout Ireland, and the sists chiefly of one long street running north
breed of salmon is considered of such high and south; it is distant about a mile from the
national importance, that all weirs are ordered sea, and is a bustling cheerful town, being
to be opened, and the fishery discontinued after
the 12th of August, that the salmon may hare much resorted to during the summer months as a bathing place. The public rooms on the
a free passage up the river to deposit their Mall are pleasantly situated near the banks of
spawn.” the river (Blackwater). There is also a neat It appears to us unaccountable not to little theatre at the back of Campbell's hotel.”+ 1 find the least notice taken of the salmon
leaping up the above-mentioned cascade, of the hotel, for the information of travellers.
darting themselves near fourteen feet perBoats 58. per day, and as much more to the steersman as you please; 58. to the bugle;
pendicularly out of the water; and allow 25. 2d. to each boatman on the upper lake,
ing for the curvature, they leap at least and is. 7d. on the lower lake, with their
twenty. In 1775, this fishery was rente dinner and liquor each day." • .
for Gool. per annum, and at that time the **The plan mentioned by Mr. Arthur Young ||
fish was sold at a penny per pound, and sir in his Irish tour is admirable, and I am sur-11 shillings per hundred weiga
1 shillings per hundred weight. We are not prised it never has been adopted.” This plan
informed of the present prices. was first suggested by Twiss, who visited Kil | A particular account of the Giants larney in 1775. He says in bis Tour,-“Were Il Causeway and its basaltes, is given from an Englishman, to build a large and elegant || the Rev. William Hamilton's “ Letters coninn, with stables there, such as those at many | cerning the Northern Coast of Antrim. of the watering-places in England, well pro- | The author's Southern Itinerary is iro vided with every necessary both for lodging and food, with musicians residing irrthe house,
| Dublin to Trim, Limerick, Killarney, a library, a billiard-table, fishing-tackle, guns,
Cork, Youghall, Mallow, Tipperary, kila &c. I do not know any place iu Great Britain
commenced the night's entertainment with the or Ireland, where a considerable fortune inight
popular air of God save the King. The Gode be acquired in so short a time, or with so little
afterwards ordered their own favourite airs to risk or trouble."
played; amongst which the Grinder and Black. op " This playhouse was built by the land
Joke, were received with great applause. My Jord of the botel, and is at the end of his stable- !
antiquated female Cicerone of the morning me yard. I found both house and players better
sexton's wife), performed the office of 0.1mg Than I could have expected in so small a town. I girl, and the clerk that of Manager The orchestra consisted of two fiddlers, who Theatre.”
t of Manager of the dare, and back to Dublin ; and the l'except a stately hollow pillar, without a Nortbern Tour, to Trim, Cavan, En- ll stair-case, so that when I entered within, niskillen, Ballyshannon, Donegal, Cole- | and looked upward, I could scarce forbear raine, Giant's Causeway, Antrim, Belfast, imagining myself at the bottom of a deep Hillsborough, Newry, Dundalk, Navan, draw-well." and Dublin, about 1100 English miles, l! The same author in describing the other and his stay in Ireland was ten weeks. | round tower at Brechin, says, “ upon
In the Preface to this book the author it are evidences sufficient to demonstrate says,
that it was a Christian work, for over the “ The spirit and even the power of foreign top of the door is the figure of our Saviour travel is checked; we can no longer trace on on the cross." This is no demonstration at the spot, those classical scenes described to us | all ; any stone may be interpolated in a by the ancient poets and historians, and which building, with inscriptions or basso-rein our younger days of study, we even read | lievos at pleasure: on the Trajan column with enthusiasm ; we can no longer in safety at Rome, a statue of St. Peter, and on ascend the steps of the capitol, nor wander the Antonine colunin, in the same city, peacefully along the luxuriant shores of Baix
another of St. Paul, were placed by Sixtus or Misenum ; even tbe frozen regions of Mont
V. and these Saints have hitherto preBlanc are juterdicted to us by the ferocious
served their pedestals from mutilation, but decrees of a Corsican despot.”
nevertheless do not demonstrate that the We shall conclude our account of this columns are of Christian workmanship. work with some extracts from the general After having recapitulated the religious remarks which are contained in the last buildings, of which a minute detail bad been sixty-two pages of the volume.
given during the progress of the tour, Sir “ Though the suhterrancous temple cannot Richard says, be said to be exclusively peculiar to this
“But I should ill perform the duty I owe to country, yet the sister kingdoin cannot boast
my own feelings as a man of humanity, and as of any one either so large, or in such perfect
a citizen of that community wbich has so lately preservation, as the one at New Grange, near
united each nation under the general appellaSlane, which I have described in my jour
tion of Briton, were I to quit this subject with. nal, and which is one of the most curious
out noticing more strongly than I have hitherto monuments of antiquity remaining within the
done during my journal, the disgraceful state limits of the united kingdom.”
in which several of the cemeteries are suffered Fifty-eight round towers are enumerat to remaiu. ed, from the best accounts which could be “ From the earliest ages, and even by the collected from the various authors who most savage nations, the greatest respect has have recorded them.
ever been paid to the bones and ashes of the
deceased; but in Ireland, their sad relics, after “If Iam allowed to hazard a conjecture about
a short abode in the clay-cold mansion, are these singular buildings, I should suppose
again restored to light, and the floors of the thein to have been erected about the ninth
once hallowed abbey become white with their century. They seem, however, to have been
thickly mouldering fragments. * peculiar to Ireland, as there are none in England or Wales, and ouly two in Scotland; these are situated at Abernethy, in the county of
* « The ruined abbies of Lislaghtin, Ardfert, Murray; and at Brechin, in the county of
Mucrus, and Buttevant, have come inmediAngus; each on the eastern coast of Scotland,
ately under my own observation; and doubtless and far remote from Ireland.”
many others in Ireland present the same dis
gusting appearance. The round towers in Scotland are on an
“In a note on Mucrus (Journal), I presented average a hundred feet in height, sixteen
to my readers Sir John Carr's warning to those in diameter, and the thickness of the walls
strangers whose curiosity might lead them to is three feet and a ball; thus the inside is examine the interior of this ruined abbey; and only nine feet in diameter. Mr. Gordon | that I may endeavour to impress the reverend in his “ Stenerarium Septentrionalis" de- prelates to whom I have addressed myself with scribes the towers in Scotland, and says, ll an idea of the disgraceful aud revolting state “ At Abernethy I could discover nothing in which its cemetery is suffered to remain,