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subsides into a valley between the works and I seem to have preferred strength and durathe heights of Abraham ; on the latter there bility to elegance, or a due regard to the are natural elevations, which are higher by a ' rules of their art. The cathedral church few feet than any of the grounds included within of the Catholics is more to be noticed on the fortifications.
account of its size than its grandeur ; it is “ The citadel is now constructed on the
capable of containing three thousand perhighest part of Cape Diamond, composed of a whole bastion, a curtain, and half bastion,
sons, and possesses a good organ. The whence it extends along the sunmit of the
Jesuits' college is the only remains of that banks towards the north-east, this part being
order which was established in 1635, and adapted with planks, agreeably to the situation
| died away a few years ago. The edifice is of the ground. There are towards the south
composed of three stories, forming nearly a west a ditch, counter-guard, and covered-way, square, and its extensive gardens still conwith glacis. The works bave of late years been |tain some of the original woods with which in a great measure rebuilt, and raised to a pitch the promontory was once covered. This calculated to command the high grounds in college is now converted into a barrack for the vicinity.
the troops. The seminary, founded in 1663 “ When viewed from a small distance, they || by Mr. de Petre, for the accommodation of exhibit a handsome appearance. A steep and a certain number of ecclesiastics and rugged bank, about fifty feet in height, termi- l voung students of the Roman Catholic nates the ditch and glacis on the north, to
persuasion, is still applied to the same purwards which the ground slopes downwards
pose, and since the destruction of the from Cape Diamond nearly three hundred feet,
Jesuits is become the chief establishment in a distance of about nine hundred yards.
of that kind in the province. A ProAlong the summit of the bank a strong wall of stone, nearly forty feet high, having a half and
testant metropolitan church, and a house a whole flat bastion with small planks, occupies
for the courts of law have been lately a space of two hundred yards, to Palace erected, and form the principal ornaments gate, at which there is a guard-house. From of Quebec, being built with the best ma. hence to the new works at Hope-gate, is a dis- | terials, and exccuted in a neat and hand. " tance of about three hundred yards. The rocky some style. The streets of this city are eminence increases in steepness and elevation uneven, on account of its situation, naras far as the Bishop's palace, near which there row, and few of them are paved. Stones is a strong battery of heavy cannon, extend are the materials of which the houses are ing a considerable way along the brow of the
composed; the roofs are generally made precipice, and commanding the bastion and
of boards, and the furniture and accompart of the river. Between the edifice now
modations are plain and devoid of taste. mentioned and the lower town, a steep passage
| The lower town occupies the ground partly formed by nature, intervenes, over which there is a barrier, with a gateway of
gained at the foot of the promontory by: stone, surmounted by a guard-house; and this
mining, and the construction of wharfs. communication is otherwise defended by
The breadth of the channel here is about a powerful works of stone, under the palace on
mile, its depth thirty fathoms, and the one side, and on the other stretching upwards anchorage is safe and good. The number towards the Government-house, where the of inhabitants at Quebec, and the suburbs bank becomes considerably more elevated. I of St. Johu and St. Rock, amounts to fifteen This building, which is dignified with the ap- || thousand... pellation of Chateau, or Castle of St. Louis, is The ninth chapter of this work is full of placed on the brink of a precipice inaccessible, ll the most interesting and important inforand whose altitude exceeds two hundred feet.
mation, on the commerce of Canada, the The building is supported by counter-forts,
fur trade, paper money, seigneuries, rights rising to half its height, and sustaining a
of their proprietors, mal-administration of gallery."
finance during the French government, --As the long description of this city and on the state of Canada at its conquest, would far exceed the bounds of our re-l progressive improvements, revenue, yearly views, we will rapidly mention the most equipment and transport in the fur trade, remarkable buildings which it contains, ll voyageurs, their hardiness, and mode of life, and which are but few, as the architects ||&c. This single chapter is perhaps more
Supplement- Vol. III.
instructive than half the common books of ll whose number was not to exceed the value of travels that are every day intruded upon || a hundred thousand francs, and whose use in
a hundred thousand franca the public. The causes of the deplorable any other country was prohibited. But diffistate of this valuable country, whilst under
culties arising from the vant of specie, the the Fiench dominion, are well explained;
council published a decree, by which it was it was neglected on account of the report
ordained, that this coin, and all other money which spread itself at an early period over
which was in circulation in France, should the parent kingdom, that it contained no
not only be used in the islands, but also in the
provinces on the continent, on augmenting the mines, and the sole objects for commerce
value one-fourth. The decree enjoined that became fish and furs. New France there all notes of hand, accounts, purchases, and fore fell into disrepute before the qualities payments, should be made by every person of its soil, and the production which it without exception, at the rate of exchauge might bring forth were known, and a co11 - || thus settled. siderable time elapsed before a proper spot
“ This regulation tended, in its execution, was chosen for settling. The thoughtless
to occasion many difficulties. The intendant ness of the new comers led them to clear
of Canada found at that period inexpressible lands; and plant them with grain without
embarrassment, not only in the payment of having previously ascertained whether they
the troops, but for all other expences of guvern. would repay their toils with barvests.
ment. The funds remitted for this purpose When disappointed in their expectations,
from France, generally arrived too late; and it they forsook the buildings they had erected,
was necessary, on the first of January, to pay and removed to another spot.— The pro.
the officers and soldiers, and to satisfy other
charges not less indispensable. To obviate vince of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was the most urgent occasions, the inteudaut, shared among adventurers who soon ex- ll with the concurrence of the council, issued hausted the treasures which its extensive notes, instead of money, observing always the forests contained, by destroying their wild proportional augmentation of the value of the inbabitants, for no other design but that I coin. A proces-verbal was accordingly framed, of amusement, and of exercising address in and by virtue of an ordinance of the governor. the chace.
general and intendant, there was stamped on The colonists in Canada were men driven each piece of this paper money, which was a by poverty from their native land, and I card, its value, the siguature of the treasurer, desirous of acquiring fortunes which would
an impression of the arms of France, and va enable them to re-appear in affluence
sealing wax, those of the governor and intell
dant. among those who had witnessed their indigence. The produce of the chace supplied
“This species of money did not long remain them with the means of becoming quickly
in circulation, and cards were again resorted
to, on which new impressions were engraved, rich; it is not astonishing therefore that
ng therefore that || Those of the value of four livres and upwards, their improvident avidity should have soon were signed by the intendant, who was satisfied exhausted that source of wealth, and with distinguishing the others by a particular taught the Indians the real value of their mark. Those which were six livres and upfurs ; thus in the words of our author, wards, the governor-general formerly signed. “ Considerable fortunes were made with
In the beginning of autumn all the cards were rapidity; but they were alınost as quickly dissi
brought to the treasurer, who gave for their pated as they had been acquired; like those
value bills of exchange on the treasurer-genemoving bills, which in the sandy deserts of||
ral of the marine, or on his deputy at RocheAsia, or of Africa, are drifted and deposited by
fort, on account of the expences of the ensuing the whirlwinds, and which possessing no con
year. Such cards as were spoiled were not sistency, or solidity, are by the same cause
again used in circulation, and were burul again as suddenly dispersed."
agreeably to a proces-verbal for that pur.
pose. Among the chief causes of the languish
“Whilst the bills of exchange continued to ing state of trade in this colony, the follow
Il be faithfully paid, the cards were preferred to ing is enumerated:
money; but when that punctuality was dis« The company of the West Indies, to whom
continued, they were no longer brought to the was conceded the domain of the French islands, ll treasurer, and the intendant had much fronto was perinitted to circulate there a small coin, Il less trouble in endeavouring to recall those
which he bad issued. His successors, in order change of freehold tenant, the new pur. to defray the necessary expences of the govern- | chaser was bound to pay a sum egital to a ment, were obliged to issue new cards every fifth part of the purchase money to the year, by wbich means they became so multi- seigneur, or to the king, lut if this five was plied that their value was annihilated, and no paid immediately. it isas reduced to one person would receive them in payment. Com- ||
eight. When an estate fell hy inheritance merce, by this injudicious system of finance, | was entirely deranged; and the inconvenience
to a new possessor, he was by law exempted arose to such a height,, that in 1713, the in
from the fine. The revenues of the seig. habitants proposed to lose one half, provided || neurs were derived from the yearly rent the government would pay them the other in of their lands, from lots and ventes, or a fine money.
on the disposal of property held under * The commerce of the colony was, in 1706, !| them, and from grist-mills. That rent carried on with a fund of six hundred and fifty l was inconsiderable, each person paying in thousand livres, 26,000l. sterling, which for money, grain, or other produce, only from several years afterwards did not much aug. || five to twelve livres per annum. meut. This' sam distributed among thirty! Had the estates of the seigneurs remaidthousand inhabitants, conld not place iuem in
mini ed entire, they might have risen to a state affluent circumstances, nor afford them the
of comparative opulence; but being diineans of purchasing the merchandise of Trance. The greatest part of them were there
vided between the different children of a fore almost in a state of nature; particularly
family, they dwindled away almost imperthey whose residence was in the remote set
ceptibly. The portion of the eldest son tlements. Even the surplus of their produce
retained the name of seigneuries, and the and stock they were unable to sell to the in rights attached to it, and the other partitihabitants of the towns, because in order to | ons were denominated ficfs. Their tenants subsist, the latter were necessitated to cultivate follow the example of their superiors, parcel farms of their own.
out their sınall tracts of land, and it is not « Thus fell the credit of the colony; and uncommon to find a house belonging to in falling, it occasioned the ruin of commerce, | several proprietors. , which in 1706, consisted only of furs of an in- The number of seigneuries now existing ferior quality."
1 in Canada rises above a hundred, and that The account our author gives of the at Montreal, is the richest and most pro. division of lands among the first settlers in ductive; it belongs to the seminary of St. Canada, and of the rights granted to the Sulpicius. The next in value is that of owners of these portions conveys a consider | the Jesuits; and some of the domiciliated able share of inforination, the principal || savages hold in the province lands in the heads of which we will select for the im- || right of seigneurs. The power of patronage provement of our readers. As the passage to the church was not attached to any of would be too long for an extract, we will the seigneuries, it was confined to the explain the meaning of the original in as || bishop alone. few words as we possibly can.
The salaries granted to the officers in Canada, on the arrival of the French, the civil department, were so low as not to was loaded with unbounded forests, and enable them to support the dignity of their property was granted in extensive lots, stations. That of the Marquis de Vaudreuil called seigneuries. Each of these con- || Governor and Lieutenant-gen cral of Ca. tained from one hundred to five hundred nada, in 1758, amounted only to the small square miles, and was divided into smaller || sum of 2721. 1s. 8d. sterling; out of which tracts, on a freehold lease to the inhabitants. he was to clothe, maintain, and pay a guard These tracts, or portions, consisted of three for himself, consisting of two sergeants and acres in breadth, and from seventy to eighty | twenty-five soldiers; 5141. lls. sterling in depth. The proprietors of the seigneu-| sufficed to pay the whole of the officers of ries were authorized to hold courts, and justice and police, and the total sum dedisit as judges in what is termed haute and ) cated to the various branches of civil power basse justice; in which all crimes comunitted did not exceed 38091. 84. sterling. within their jurisdiction, murder and trea- | The cupidity and imprudence of the BODS excepted, were included. At every ) Canadians is strongly illustrated by the
following instance of their mistaken po- of Montreal, formed an association of licy.
several merchants of that place, for the “ Ginseng was first discovered in the woods purpose of deriving from this branch of of Canada in 1718. It was from this country commerce greater advantagrs than had exported to Canton, where its quality was pro- ! hitherto been reaped. The account of the nounced to be equal to that of the ginseng Company's voyageurs, and their canoes, is procured in Corea, or in Tartary; and a pound too curious to be passed over in silence. of this plant, which before sold in Quebec for
« The company trading to the porth-west twenty pence, became, when its value was once
sends every year to the posts on Lake Supeascertained, worth one pound and tenpence
rior, about fifty canges loaded with merchausterling. The export of this article alone is l dise. These are dispatched aboat the beginsaid to have amounted, in 1752, to twenty
| ning of May, from La Chine, a distance ofniae thousand pounds sterling. But the Canadians,
miles above Montreal. The canoes are formed eager suddenly to enrich themselves, reaped
of the bark of the birch tree, and closely lined this plant in May, when it should not have
with thip ribs, made of a tough wood. The been gathered until September; and dried it in
seams are sewed with radical fibres called overs, when its moisture should have incent gradually evaporated in the shade.
watape, and they are alterwards a grefully
This fatal mistake, arising from cupidity, and in some
covered over with gum, to exclude the water. measure from ignorance, ruined the sale of
The bottom of the vessel is nearly flat, the their ginseng among the only people upon
sides are rounded, and either end terminates earth who are partial to its use, and at an early
in a sharp edge. The price of one of these is period cut off from the colony a new branch of
about twelve pounds sterling; and it is calculattrade which under proper regulations, might
ed to contain, on the perilous voyage for which
it is destined, a weight equal to that which have been essentially productive."
follows ; sixty-five pieces of merchandise, of The flourishing state of Canada since it ninety pounds each ; eight men, each weighing became part of the British empire in North at least one hundred and sixty pounds; bag. America, will appear in the most satisfac gage allowed to these wen, at forty pounds tory light from the following estimate:
each, together with the weight of their provisi“The quantity of grain exported from Ca
Il ons. The whole cargo of a canoe is, therefore, nada in 1802, was one million and ten thousand
not less than eight thousand three hundred bushels of wheat, of flour thirty-eight thous
and ninety pounds, exclusive of two oil-cloths and barrels, and of biscuit thirty-two thousand
to cover the goods, a sail and an axe, a towing cwts. The puraber of vessels engaged in the
line to drag the canoe up the rapids, a kettle, export of these and other productions of the
spunge to bail out the water imbibed by leakcolony, was two hundred and eleven; the quan
age; with gum, bark, watape, and utensils for tity of tonpage was near thirty-six thousand,
repairing any injury which may be sustained and the namber of sailors was one thousand
on the voyage. The men are engaged at Moncight hundred and fi.ty.
treal four or five months before they set out on “The exports from Canada consist of wheat,
|| their journey, and receive in advance their and ot her grain, flax-seed, beef and pork,
equipment, and one-third oftheir wages. Each butter and lard, soap and candles, grease and
man holds in his hand a large paddle; and the tallow, balsam, ale, porter, essence of spruce,
| canoe, although loaded within six inches of salmon dry and pickled, fish-oil, timber, plank,
the gunwale, is made to move along with boards, bemp, horses, cattle, sheep, pot and
wonderful expedition. The voyageurs or navipearl-ashes, utensils of cast iron, furs of vari
gators, are of constitutions the strongest and ous descriptions, castoreum and ginseng. The
most robust, and they are at an early period articles amounted in value, in the year men
inured to the enconuter of hardships. The tioned above, to five hundred and sixty-three
fare on which they subsist is penurious and thousand four Irundred pounds sterling..
coarse (chiefly the grease of the bear, and a “ The iniports were, wine of various kinds,
meal, or coarse flour, made from ludian cora). rum, sugar, melasses, coffee, tobacco, salt,
Fortified hy babit agaiost apprehension from coals, and different articles of the manufacture
the species of difficulties and perils with which
they are about to struggle, they enter on their of Great Britain."
toils with confidence and hope. Whilst morThe establishment of the Company of ing along the surface of the stream, they sing the Nortli-west for the fur trade, is not of l, in alternate strains the songs and music of older date than 1787, when Mr. Mactavish their country, and cause the desolate wilds op
the banks of the Outaonais, to resound with || sixty miles further, that of Defen; and at the voice of cheerfulness. They adapt (n | a distance of two hundred and seventyrowing) their strokes to the cadence of their | two miles from the latter, Point au Bapstrains, and redouble their efforts by making
tême, where such persons as have never them in time. In dragging the canoes up the
travelled thus far are plunged into the rapids, great care is necessary to prevent them
waters of the Outaouais,' an ordeal from from striking against rocks, the materials of which they are composed being slight and
which they may be exempted by paying a easily damaged. When a canoe receives an
fine. About one hundred and twenty injury, the aperture is stopped with gum,
miles from Point au Baptême, they leave melted by the heat of a piece of burning char
on their right the great branch of the Oucoal. Fibres of bark, bruised, and moistened
taouais, Aowing from Lake Tamiscaming, with gum in a liquid state, are applied to and proceed through the smaller branch, larger apertures; a linen rag is put over the the distance of thirty-six miles, when the whole, and its edges cemented with gum. fall of Paresseux opens on their sight
“ The total number of men contained in Twenty-five miles further, they walk along the canoes, amounts usually to about three
a carrying place of eight hundred paces, hundred and seventy-three, of which three
named Premier Portage Musique, cross a hundred and fifty are navigators, eighteen
lake of nearly the same extent, and enter are guides, and five are clerks. When arrived
on the second Portage Musique, of twelve at the grand depôt, on Lake Superior, part of these ascend as far as the Rainy Lake, and they
hundred paces. From hence to the source are usually absent from Montreal about five
of the smaller branch of the Outaouais, months. The guides are paid for this service
the distance is thirty miles. On quitting thirty-seveu pounds sterling, and are allowed this river, they proceed by a portage of besides a suitable equipment. The wages of twenty acres to the winding stream, named the person who sits in the front of the canoe, Chaussée de Castor, some of whose sinuand of him whose office it is to steer, are about osities are avoided by two other portages twenty-one pounds sterling each; those of the of five hundred paces each. They then other men, about twelve pounds ten shillingsenter Lake Nipissing, fifty miles long, and of the s:ime money.
whose discharge into Lake Huron, thiough " To ach man a blanket, sbirt, and pair of a course of a hundred and eight miles, is trowsers au*e'supplied; and all are maintained called French River, on which there is a by their employers during the period of their
carrying place. They then navigate their engagement. The advantage of trafficking with
canoes along the northern coast of Lake the savages, is likewise permitted; and some
Huron, and pursue their route to the casindividuals procure, by this means, a protit
"I cades of St. Mary. amounting to more ban double their pay.”
« In travelling to the north-west, by the We will now give a short sketch of their
Outaouais river, the distance from Montreal voyage, without including the descriptions to the upper end of Lake Huron, is nine hunof the different parts which they visit, /' dred miles; the journey may be performed, in though teeming with interest, and elegantly a light canoe, in the space of about twelve written, as they would pass the bounds of days; and in heavy canoes, in less than three a review.
From La Chine the voyagers repair, with “ About one-third of the men winter in the their feet of canoes, to St. Ann's, where ren ote territories, durjng which they are occuthe course of the river is so interrupted piea' in the chase, and for this service their that they are compelled to unload. While wage s and allowance are doubled. The other ascending the Outaouais, they meet with
two-thirds are engaged for one or two years, the rapids, and draw their canoes to the
and halve attached to them about seven hun
dred Iu dian women and cbildren, maintained shore, except one, which they join in drag.
| at the <?xpence of the company. The chief ging up, and lodge in a place of security. |
occupati on of the latter, is to scrape and clean At night they encamp on the islands upon
the parch ments, and to make up and arrange the borders of the river. On the north- | the packaj res of peltry. east shore, about sixty miles higher up. “At the portages, where waterfalls and cathan the falls called Les Chats, they reach taracts oblig 'e them to unload, the men unite the ruins of the old French fort, Coulogne; in aiding each other to convey the canoes and