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goods across the land, by carrying the former the cold, the causes of its long duration, upon the shoulders of six or eight men, and the method of travelling in winter, the the latter upon the back. A package of mer- | roads and houses of that country. I chandise forms a load for one may, and is sus

The three hundred and fifty-nine pages tained by a belt, which he places over his fore-ll that follow (the wbole volume consists of

six hundred and two) are equally rich in “ The period of engagement for the clerks

information, especially that which relates is five or seven years, during which the whole

to the Americans in general, the Iroquois, of the pay of each is no more than one hun

the Mexicans, Carabs, Brazilians, and the dred pounds, together with clothing and board. When the term of indenture is expired, a clerk

Peruvian empire. The last chapter conis either admitted to a share in the company, tains an interesting dissertation on the or has a salary of from one hupdred to three origin of language, in which our author hundred pounds per annum, until an oppor 'proves that Indian tongues may be arranged tunity of a more ample provision presents | under rules of grammar, and gives speci. itself

mens of four different languages. As we “ The guides, who perform likewise the

are compelled to pass through such a wide functions of interpreters, receive, besides a

and treming field without gathering any quantity of goods, a salary of about eighty

hty: Il portion of the wealth it contains, we may five pounds per annum. The foremen and

| be allowed, at the end of our journey to steersmen, who winter, lave about fifty

snatch the last opportunity of plucking pounds sterling ; and they who are termed the

some instruction, before we bid it'a re. middle men in the canoes, have about eighteen

luctant adieu. We will, therefore, select pounds sterling per annum, with their clothing

some of the examples from the Algonquin and maintenance. “ The number of people usually employed

language. in the north-west trade, and in pay of the com

| Abae winikan The brain. pary, amounts, exclusive of savages, to twelve

| Abipont-chen Infaut. hundred and seventy or eighty men, fifty of


A ball. whom are clerks, eleven hundred and twenty

Amik - iA beaver. are canoe men, and thirty-five are guides.

A dog. “ The beaver-skin is, among the savages,

|| Awoité . That way. the medium of barter; and teu beaver-skins

Alimouse , A little dog. are given for a gun, one for a pound of powder, Agackonet

A large batchet. and one for two pounds of glass beads. Two


A small batchet. martin-skins are equal in value to one beaver


Man. skin, and two beaver to one otter-skiu."

Ante, or Sankema Yes, yes, indeed. The following chapter is filled with mat. | Assin - A stone. ter of the highest interest; and we are

Arima . It is of consequence. sorry to be obliged to withhold the infor

Babelouchins Children.

It is done. mation which it contains from our readers,


A canoe. but want of room will not allow us to in


To build boats or canoes sert more than the heads of it. It treats

Dibic kijiss

The moon. of the former state of colonial govern Dibikat

Night. ment-the introduction of the criminal

Entayank . It is I. code of England--the Quebec bill--the


Lay hold. new constitution-gives a sketch of that Gaomink - On the other side. system of the division of Canada into Ickone, or Ickquois Woman. provinces, and of these into counties. Ickoue essens

A girl.

Trini It lays before us the advantages of Canadian

e Nation, tribe, people. settlers, the state of society, the manners .". and character of the inhabitants, or land


Man. holders, the mode of clearing lands, the | This dictionary of the Algonquin tongue acquisition of property, the seigneuries, | contains an immense number of words, the various produce of soils, and their cul. ll with their signification, to which we refer tivation. From thence it leads us to our readers. Upper Canada, and gives us an account of After perusing the foregoing extracis,

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We trust our readers will deem our sense of cient time to reap a rich harvest. Their the value of this work, founded on truth; || works may be compared to the effera and yet we have not laid before their eyes ! vescence produced by the union of an acid the most interesting parts, which were l with an earth; bis to the brilliant, regular, mostly too long to be inserted in a re- || and solid crystals, which result from that view, and too excellent to be curtailed. union when a certain period has been sufThe fear of being accused of partiality il fered to elapse, His style is florid, but not cannot actuate those who are totally unac luxuriant; simple, when describing sim. quainted with the author of the book ple objects; strong and animated, when which they praise, and who speak nothing ll painting the sublime landscapes of nature, but the real sentiments to which its merits | the wilds of North-America, the cataracts gave birth.. We, therefore, pronouace the of its majestic rivers, or the character of Travels through the Canadas, the best work its uncivilised inhabitants, and the works of this nature, in our opinion, which has of the Europeans, and of those who have for many years appeared to increase the submitted to their yoke. Mr. Heriot's re. stores of knowledge. It is far superior to marks are jus, opportone, and true; and all the tours published by our modern || the numerous and elegant engravings, with travellers; it is not a collection of notes which his book is strewed, and the designs hastily taken, upcouth, unimportant in of which he supplied, as well as the map themselves, and dressed in the most com- l of the Canadas which accompany them, mon-place language, it is a treasure of in- | do him the greatest honour as an artist. formation laboriously acquired, not super- We should siucerely rejoice, did any ficial but deep, not heaped up with a mi-l future work of Mr. Heriot give us a new serly care, but generously laid open to the opportunity of fulfilling the most pleasant public, and displayed to the greatest ad. | duty of an impartial reviewer, that of doing vantage. Our author, unlike the generality ' justice, and granting a due tribute of praise of tourists, has not skimmed over his sub- || to real merit. ject; he has allowed observation a suffi- il


Art. VI.---Letters from England, by Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella. Translater!

from the Spanish. In Three vols. Pp. 1100. Longman and Co.

We have attentively perused these worthy of attention, One of these rules well-written, instructive, and amusing is :-" The critic ought to be entirely volumes, of which we shall give an impar. ll ignorant of the author who comes before tial account, with specimens selected so as || him, except so far as he is an author, or to enable the reader to judge for himself makes known his profession and designawhether the work does not merit his further | tion in his title-page, and he shonld never, consideration. No reviewing critic has any is on the strongest ground of popular report, right to give a scope to his own opinions, assign a work to a writer who has not avowed and to endeavour to appear as an original it. If he does not prefix his name, he has, writer, and nothing can more display the probably, a goud reasou for not doing it, difference between the real man of letters and the reviewer has no right to violate his and the shallow pretender, than the manner secret." in which this task is performed.

We are so'well satisfied of the truth and In the fourth number of Dr. Aikin's i propriety of all the rules for criticism given Atheneum, is a paper on Reviews, to which in the above-mentioned essay, that we shall we beg leave to refer, as containing rules always endeavour to follow them. Accord. for criticism, which appear to us well ingly we do not hesitate to assert ihat this book was not written by a Spaniard: and I having agreed upon the necessity of building a this assertion is founded on the internal || bridge, did not agree exactly as to its situa. evidence of the book itself, as well as on

| tion; each collected materials for building, a our knowledge of the slender talents for

half bridge from its respective bank, but wot such observations as are therein made, and

opposite to the other." for writing, which the Spaniards possess.

We must refer to the book for the reThe title might with more accuracy have

ll mainder of the history of this missed 'pridge, been“ Letters from an Englishman in

as well as for what our author says atout iron London to his countryman abroad." For bridges, especially of the great Sunderland we believe that none but an Englishman

bridge, of which the span is 23,6 feet, and could have made such remarks, and that

the height 100. The account ends thus: Do foreigner can perfectly understand them.

“ It is curious that this execr able improve. After saying thus much, it would be ridi- ment, as every novelty is called in England, culous to cavil at the name of Espriella,

should have been introduced by the notorious which is no wise Spanish, no more than

politician, Paine, who came ove: from America, Don Juan Bull. This work will probably

upon this speculation, and exhibited one as a be re-printed, and we shall then be pleased |

show upon the dry ground in London. to see a new title without an untruth, for

“The country on the London side of Staines

has once been a forest; but has now no other wbich there is not the smallest occasion.

wood remaining than a few gibbets, on one of We shall now commence our relation of

which, according to the barbarous custom of the contents of these volumes. The first

this country, a criminal was hanging in contains twenty-six Letters, of which six

chains.” describe the journey from Falınouth to London through Truro, Exeter, Dor.

The hint of the expression about woods, chester, and Salisbury; the remaining

lis probably taken from a circumstance that twenty are all from London.

occurred a few years ago. A house and As the style is perfectly correct, and

grounds were advertised to be sold, with a bears evident marks of being that of an

hanging wood, pompously set forth. A experienced scholar, there is no need of

person who wished to purchase them, went our making long quotations merely as spe

to view the premises, but could not find cimens of that style, so that we shall select

| the wood. On applying to the auctioneer, only such as may entertain and inform our

the answer was, “My dear Sir, be calm, readers, and inspire them with a desire to

you must have overlooked that inestimable read the whole work. These extracts are

little jewel the gallows, con the north side of course unconnected, and being, indi

of the paddock; and if that is not a hanging vidually short, may be considered as a

wood, I don't know what is."

Don Manuel arrives in London, and of small part of an argumentative index. The first letter is dated April 1802.

St. Paul's church, says,

The heath which extends, with casual interrup

“ The sight of this truly noble building tions, from Bagshot to Egham, not less

rather provoked than pleased me unless

another conflagration sliould lay London in than fourteen miles, is crossed.

ashes, the Londoners will never fairly see their “ Nothing but wild sheep, that run as own cathedral. Except St. Peter's (at Rome, Acetly as hounds, are scattered over this dreary here is beyond comparison the finest temple in desert ; flesh there is none on these wretched Christendom, and it is even more ridiculously creatures ; but those who are only half-starved | misplaced than the bridge of Segovia on the heath, produce good meat when fatted; || Madrid) appears, when the mules have are all the flesh, and all the fat being laid ou, as | up the Mançanares." graziers speak, anew, it is equivalent in tender

This is an unbecoming remark for a ness to lamb, and in Aavour to mutton, and

Spaniard; he must have known that the has fame accordingly in the metropolis. “ At Stainės we crossed the Thames, not by

little river above-mentioned, is in summer a new bridge, now for the third time built, but

| almost dry, but in winter is very much over a crazy wooden one above a century old. || swollen by the melting of the shows,The river here divides the two counties of '| by the almost unceasing rains during Middlesex and Surrey; and the magistrates / six weeks in the months of November in

December. He has omitted the standing beheld them, from enjoying the twįukling light joke about selling the bridge to buy water. of halfpenny candles scattered in the windows On the proclamation of the peace in

of London, or the crowns and regal cyphers April, 1802, the Don observes,

which here and there manifest the zeal, the

interest, or the emulation of individuals.” “The theory of the ceremony, for this

On extraordinary occasions not only the ceremony, like an English suit at law, is

cupola of St. Peter's, but also the whole front, founded on a fiction, is, that the Lord Mayor

and the colonade are illuminated. Thousands of London, and the people of London, good

of rockets are let off from the castle of Saint people! being wholly ignorant of what has

Angelo, and towards the conclusion, the whole been going on, the King sends officially to

area of the castle casts forth fountains of fire, acquaint them that he has made peace; ac

as if from the mouth of a volcano, and the cordingly the gates at Temple-bar, which di

reflection of these fire-works on the river vide London and Westminster, and which stand

Tiber, on the banks of which the castle is open day and night, are on this occasion

situated, is inexpressibly beautiful, especially closed; and Garter, king at arms, with all his

to the spectators on the bridge. heraldic peers, rides up to them, aud knocks

The whole of the ninth letter is an acloudly for admittance. The Lord Mayor,

count of the execution of Governor Wall; mounted on a charger, is ready on the other side to demand why is there. King Garter

from which we shall only mention that then announces bimself and his errand, and || “The joy of the mob at seeing him appear requires permission to pass and proclaim the on the scaffold was so great, that they set up good news; upon which the gates are thrown three huzzas,- an instance of ferocity which open. The poorest brotherhood in Spain || had never occurred before. The miserable makes a better procession on its festival. man, quite overcome by this, begged the bang

“A very remarkable accident took place in man to hasten his work. When he was turned our sight. A man on the top of a church was off, they began their huzzas again; but inleaning against one of the stone urns which stead of proceeding to three distinct shouts, ornament the balustrade; it fell, and crushed they stopped at the first. The feeling which a person below. A Turk night relate this at one moment struck so many thousands, restory in proof of predestination.”

pressed their acclamations at once, and awed

them into a dead silence when they saw the This was the New Church, in the Strand;

object of their hatred in the act and agony of the young man who was killed had, in com

death, is surely as honourable to the popular pliance with the request of his mother,

character as any trait which has been recorded promised her he would not enter into the

of any people, in any age or country.” crowd, and accordingly took his station in

A Turk might relate several circumthe church-yard. The story might probably

stances mentioned in this letter as additional have been told by other species of religion

proofs of fate. ists besides Turks.'

The tenth letter is on martial law, where. “ The inscription on the transparencies at || in the author says: M. Otto's house in Portman-square, on the | “The martial laws of England are the most illamination night, was at first, Peace and Con- ll barbarous which at this day exist in Europe. cord; but a party of sailors in the morning, The offender is sometimes sentenced to receive whose honest patriotismi did not regard trilling || a thousand lashes ;-2 surgeon stands by to differences of orthography, insisted upon it feet his pulse during the execution, and dethat they were not conquered, and that no termine bow long the flogging can be continued Frenchman should say so; and số thé word without killing him. When human nature Amity, which can hardly be regarded as Eng I can sustain no more, he is remanded to prilish, was substituted in its stead. '.

son; his wound, for from the sboulders to the “ Illuminations are better managed at Rome. || loins it leaves hiin one wound, is dressed, and Imagine the vast dome of St. Peter's covered as soon as it is snfficiently healed to be laid with large lamps, so arranged as to display its || open again in the same manner, he is brought fine form; those lamps all kindled at the same out to undergo the remainder of his sentence. minute, and the whole doine energiug, as it And this is repeatedly and openly practised in Were from total darkness, in one blaze of light. a country, where they rcad in their churches, This, and the fire-works from St. Angelo, which and in their houses, that Bible, in their own from their grandeur, admit of no adequate language, which saith,' forty stripes may the description, prevent those persons who have | judge inflict on the offender and not exceed."

Supplement. Vol. III.

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We hope and believe this account is situation he would not be able to turn him. exaggerated. Saint Pauls says, “ of the self in bed where he probably laid several Jews five times received I forty stripes save months on his belly. one.” At Berlin, Dresden, the Hague, and After all these tortures, if he survived other parts of the continent, one of the mi- || them, he was to be chained by the leg to a litary punishments used to be, for the wheelbarrow for six years, and work at the offender to run the gantlet. Weshall give || fortifications. some account of an execution of this sort | The twelfth letter is on the ministry, and inflicted in one of the capitals of the l on Catholic emancipation. The thirteenth northern continent, on a soldier who had l on dress. deserted three times. After he had heard « The clergy are generally known by a huge bis sentence, it was left to his option to and hideous wig, once considered to be as ne. undergo it, or to be shot. He preferred | cessary a covering for a learned head as an ivy. the former; accordingly he was brought | bush is for an owl, but which even physicians into the field, where three hundred and

have now discarded, and left only to schoolfifty soldiers were placed in two ranks | masters and doctors in divinity. facing each other. A man then walked

« The dress of English women is perfect, as between them from one end to the other, |

| far as it goes; it leaves nothing to be wished, with a bundle of osier twigs under each

except that there might be a little more of arm, from which every soldier drew one;

| The sixteenth letter contains somecurious these switches were as thick as a goosequill, tapering to a point, and two feet in length;

anecdotes about informers. The eighteenth nono longer, lest they might cut into the is about Drury-lave theatre, and “their belly of the criminal. The deserter was

Il two most celebrated performers, Kemble, to walk six times up, and six times down

| and his sister Mis. Siddons." An analysis of between the ranks, which would make the

ll the Winter's Tale is also given. number of stripes 4200; behind every ten

The nineteenth and twentieth relate to men, an officer attended to see that every

the church service. We recommend them man did his duty, and the commander, on

Il both to the reader's perusal, and shall only horseback, superintended the whole.

ll make two short extracts. The first is: At starting the criminal bad a small

“ The church festivals, however, are not glass of brandy given him, which he drank,

entirely unobserved; though the English will and three or four leaden bullets were put I have particular dainties for all the great boly

not pray, they will cat; and accordingly they into his mouth to chew, that he might not lla bite off his tongue; an armed soldier

1 days. On Shrove-Tuesday they eat what they

call pan-cakes. For mid-lent Sunday they marched before him. After having walked | have large plum-cakes, crusted with sugar three times up and down the ranks, which

like snow. For Good-Friday, hot buns marked he did in eight minutes, his shoulder with a cross, for breakfast; the only relic of blades and back-bone were quite barc, he li religion remaining among all their customs. had then received two thousand one | These buns will keep for ever without becoming hundred lashes ; he did not utter the least mouldy, by virtue of the holy sign impressed cry; brandy and fresh bullets were given

upon them. On the feast of St. Michael the bim at the end of each walk, as he had

archangel, every body must eat goose for dinground the first lead to pieces, which kept

ner; and on the nativity, turkey, with what dropping from his foaming mouth. He

they call Christmas pies. They have the cakes bore the whole with the firmness of a savage

again on the festival of the kings." under torture.

The other extracts now follow. His face was as horribly expressive as can be imagined. He was

“ During the last generation, it was the then unable to proceed, and what became

ambition of those persons in the lower ranks

of society who were just above the peasantry, of him we know not, he had only suffered

to make one of their sons a clergyman, if they half his first day's sentence, and was to re

fancied he had a talent for learning. But ceive the same mumber of stripes the next times have changed, and the situation of a day, which it would appear could not have clergyman who has no family interest is too been inflicted, because in such a terrible | unpromising to be any longer an object of cuvy.

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