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'acquainted with the affairs of the Persian empire. 'And their countryman Josephus, in the account ' which he gives us of those times, seems to have 'been very little better informed concerning 'them.' (Prideaux.) They confound Darius Hystaspes with Darius Codomannus; though Xerxes, Artaxerxes Longimanus, Darius Nothus, and Artaxerxes Mnemon reigned between them. The Persian empire, from the accession of Darius the Mede, to the death of Darius Codomannus, continued for about 207 years. This occasions the great difference in chronology between Jewish and Christian writers, as to the times between the captivity and the coming of our Lord. But Mr. C. varies even from this, and is repeatedly inconsistent with himself. It is generally computed that David died 1015 years before Christ, and consequently was born 1085 before him; but this is of little consequence.
P. 67. 1. 30. The placing of Adam in the garden of Eden.' As far as this passage agrees with the narrative of Moses, it is entitled to firm credence: (p. 67, 68 :) but it is intermixed with ' a few traditions' (p. 69. l. 3.) I do not indeed believe these traditions, yet they are not of sufficient importance to require any remarks. But the familiar, colloquial manner, in which the events recorded in the word of God, and inseparably connected with the present and eternal interests of the human species, are mentioned, cannot satisfy any serious mind, Christian, Jewish, or gentile.
P. 67. 1. 33. No angel could,' &c. This the scripture does not say. And God taught Adam
"the names even all of them. Then he proposed them to the angels, and said, Declare unto 'me the names of these things, if ye be true. They answered: Praise is thine; we have not 'knowledge, except as much as thou hast taught ( us. Truly thou art knowing and wise. And 'God said, O Adam, Declare to them the names ' of these things. And, when he had declared to 'them their names; he (God) said, Did not I say ' to you that I know the secret of the heavens and 'the earth; and I know what ye do openly and 'what ye conceal? And, when we said to the angels, Adore Adam; they even adored: but Eblis (the devil) refused, and was lifted up in pride.' 'And Satan caused them to fall from paradise, and we said, Go down, the one an enemy to the other.' (Koran, 2d chap.) Probably Mohammed derived his information from Jewish tradition; and he has added absurdity to it: but the coincidence is remarkable.
P. 68. 1. 33. ' Overcame Satan.' It is well that Satan, the grand enemy of all, is at all mentioned as to be overcome by man: but is this victory to be obtained by the power of Adam, or any of his fallen and sinful posterity? or by that of "the "Seed of the woman, who shall bruise the ser66 pent's head?" "The second Adam is the Lord "from heaven."
P. 69. 1. 9. THE LAW OF NOAH.' It may be proper here to make a few remarks on this supposed law of Noah: because many writers, Christians as well as Jews, have mentioned it, as an existing rule of duty: but where it is to be found in scripture they do not state. In fact, it belongs
others, he will fight against the adversaries of converted Israel, when the time of their restoration shall come. "And the breath of his lips "shall slay the wicked" at the day of judgment.
The prophecies produced, (p. 62, 63.) prove nothing in this argument; because when compared with the context of each, they evidently appear to refer to different parts of the same general subject.
The first promise of a Messiah, "Her Seed" (that of the woman)" shall bruise thy head," (the head of the serpent, the devil,) leads us to consider other victories of the Messiah, and over very different enemies, than those mentioned by Mr. C., as of by far the greatest importance in this holy warfare. Satan, sin, the world, and death are especially those enemies, which Zacharias meant, when he said; "that, being delivered out of the "hand of our enemies, we might serve him "without fear, in holiness and righteousness "before him all the days of our life." Thus it is said in Micah, "He will turn again, he will "have compassion upon us: he will subdue our iniquities:" and by Ezekiel, "I will also save you from all your uncleannesses."2 These are enemies and victories which Mr. C. seems not to have a thought of.
It is indeed frequently predicted that the Messiah will terribly destroy his enemies, and graciously protect his people: but it is by no means so prominent in prophecy, that he will - exalt his people to dominion over the rest of the
'Luke i. 71-75.
'Ezek. xxxvi. 29. Mic. vii. 19.
world. In the millennium "the kingdom and "dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom "under the whole heaven, shall be given to the "people of the saints of the most High." In and with their King, they shall have the prëeminence. But where is the prediction, that Israel as a nation shall have dominion over other nations? Little is spoken upon this part of the subject. Even the result of their restoration is generally represented as their dwelling in peace and security, and none making them afraid. 2
P. 64. 1. 27. A particular observation,' &c. Every man knows that whatever has a beginning has also an end.'-According to this, there are no created immortal spirits, either angels or men. If Mr. C. did not mean (as I should not suppose he did,) to deny the immortality of the human soul, and of holy angels, here is an exception to his universal rule. Plato seems to have held a similar opinion; for he grounds many of his arguments for the soul's continuing to live after the death of the body, on the supposition that it had a previous existence, to which he assigns no beginning.
P. 65. 1. 11. ́ A drawing,' &c.—That "known "unto God are all his works from the beginning " of the world," yea from eternity; that he formed, so to speak, a plan of his grand designs in his own infinite mind; that he revealed, in the way of prophecy, some particulars of this plan; and that he invariably and without any change of purpose,
• Dan. vii. 14, 27. 2 Jer. xxiii. 5-7. xxxii. 37. xxxiii. 16. Ezek. xxxiv. 25-28. Amos ix. 14, 15.
is accomplishing his great object, through successive generations; I firmly believe. But, when 'the drawing' of this plan is said to be contained in the law of Moses,' (p. 65. 1. 26.) further proof is needful. The tabernacle, and all connected with it, was made " after the pattern, which was "shewed Moses in the mount; "1 for they were intended, as "a shadow of good things to come." And in like manner David had " the pattern of "all-by the Spirit," respecting Solomon's temple. "The Lord made me to understand in writing,
by his hand upon me, even all the works of the 66 pattern." 2 Moses also seems to have had something of a drawing, or delineation, shewn him of the promised land: 3 but where do we meet with any intimation, that God gave him a 'drawing' of all the particulars here mentioned? or indeed how was it possible? Can mortal man receive and comprehend all the plans and designs of the infinite God? Some intimation is given concerning a few of the particulars in this catalogue; but very little: and, in most cases, that little is intimated with considerable and intended obscurity.—' In this drawing is also to be found, 'how long this world shall exist.' (p. 65. 1. 25.) I ask, Where? Conjectures have been made, some of them sufficiently presumptuous; and conclusions drawn from inadequate premises: but I believe, that neither man nor angel knows the exact time when the world shall come to an end. 4 -As Mr. C. means to build a great deal indeed
Exod. xxv. 40.
" Num. xxxiv.
1 Chr. xxviii. 11, 19.
* Matt. xxiv. 36.