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P. 1, line 1. kyng Edwarde...the fowrth. His reign commenced (see Nicolas' Chronology of History, p. 305) 4th March, 1461. He was crowned 28th or 29th June following and died 9th April, 1483,

7. that is to witte. The phrase is more full than usual, “ that is meaning exactly the same as "to witte.” So that the meaning is doubly expressed. It="that is to say” or “namely."

8. Edwarde the Prynce, afterwards Edward V.

9. Elizabeth, affianced during her father's lifetime to the dauphin, but afterwards married to Henry VII.

11. Cecily, the promised bride of the King of Scots, afterwards married to Viscount Welles. Halle adds after “fayre: “firste wedded to the Vicounte Welles, after to one Kyne, and lived not in great wealthe."

See below, 115. 16. 12. Brigette became a nun in a convent at Dartford. The convent at Dartford was founded, in honour of St Mary and St Margaret, by King, Edward III. See Dugdale, Monasticon, 11. 357. Halle has “ Sion” before “in Dertforde.

13. her whose name she bare. St Bridget was the daughter of Dubtach, a man of Leinster, and niece on her mother's side of St Ultan, who collected the accounts of her virtues and had them put into poetry. She took the veil in order to escape marriage, and became abbess of Kildare.

15. Anne, contracted firs to Philip of Burgundy and afterwards married to Thomas Howard who became Duke of Norfolk.

16. Katheryne, affianced first to the infant of Spain, but married William Courtenay, Earl of Devon. Halle says “Katheryne, the youngest daughter was maried to Lorde William Courtney, sonne to therle of Devonshire, whiche, &c.".

23. greate funerall honoure. The account of King Edward's funeral is given in Sandford's Genealogical History, pp. 391–392. " The manner of this King's interment was thus; first, the corpse was covered from the Navel to the knees and so laid upon a board all naked, and so continued ten or twelve hours, that all the Lords both Spiritual and Temporal then being in London or about might look on him, and the Lord Mayor and his brethren saw him so lying, and then he was seared (i.e. embalmed). Then, on the morrow after, he was brought into the Chapel of St Stephen (now the House of Commons)




where there were three masses sung, the first of our Lady, the second of the Trinity, the third of Requiem; and in the afternoon there was sung Dirige and Commendam, and at night well watched with his nobles and

He rested in this order eight days, and on Wednesday being the 17th day of the month of April above said, the body was conveyed into the Abbey of Westminster, borne by several Knights and Esquires that were for his body, having upon the corpse a rich and large black cloth of gold with a cross of cloth of silver, and above that a rich canopy of cloth imperial, fringed with gold and black silk, borne by four Knights, having at the corners four banners, also borne by four Knights, the first of the Trinity, the second of our Lady, the third of St George, and the fourth of St Edward. My Lord Howard bare the King's banner before the body, the Officers of Arms about him on every side.

In the Herse in Westminster Abbey above the body and Cloth of Gold aforesaid was a personage like to the similitude of a king, in habit Royal, crowned with a crown Royal on his head, holding in one hand a Sceptre and in the other hand a ball of Silver gilt with a cross patee.

When the mass and all other solemnities were performed the body was placed in a chariot drawn by six horses, and so with that pomp that was required went to Charing Cross, where the Chariot was censed, and from thence to Syon, where it was received that night with the usual ceremonies; from henc on the next morning they departed in good order to Eton where they were received by the procession of Windsor, and at the Castle gate the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Winchester censed the corpse; and from thence they passed to the new Church where in the quire was ordained a marvellous well-wrought Herse being that night watched with a good company of Nobles and Esquires of the body, and was there buried with all solemnities befitting so great and so victorious a King, and had this rhiming Epitaph composed for him registred in a Book in the College of Arms. (Then follow 26 Latin hexameters in praise of the King.)

P. 2, line 5. beloued with. We now use by after beloued. In Shakespeare the phrase is always beloved of (never by).

in effecte. We should now say in fact, cf. 4. 19. 13. in that that. The modern use would omit one "that” but cf. for the repetition 21. 33.

15. growen, old past part. of to grow, now contracted into grown. Cf. Gascoigne's Steel Glas, Yet now I stand prinking me in the glasse, when the crowes foote is growen under mine eye."

16. straunge, i.e. reserved, distant, shy about exhibiting. Cf. Shaks. Com. of Err. II. 2. 112, “Look strange and frown.” So Troil. 11. 3. 250, “ If he were proud, or covetous of praise, or strange, or selfaffected."

17. parsonage, i.e. personage, Lat. persona, whence we get our word parson=clergyman, who was the representative person of the parish.

23. consyder. This seems to be a sort of conditional tense=If any one should consider; the relative who so being equivalent to if any.


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24. voyded. Halle reads here “advoided them.” Cf. Shaks. Coriolanus, IV. 5. 88,

I had feared death, of all the men i' the world.

I would have voided thee." The style of this History is somewhat Euphuistic, i.e. it has numerous instances of sentences, nicely balanced in order and number of words, and with occasional instances (as here in voyded, vainquisshed) of alliteration, after the manner of Lyly's Euphues, and other works of the Elizabethan times. Cf. 4. 14, 15; 8. 28, 29, &c.

28. boorelye=burly. From boor=rustic, hence stout, strong, large.
3, line 2. lessyd=lessened. Cf. Chaucer, Frankeleines Tale, 1169,

“And on his way than is he forth y-fare

In hope to ben lessyd of his care. wel, in the sense of quite, entirely. Cf. Shaks. Two Gentlemen, 1. 1. 81, “A silly answer and fitting well a sheep."

lefte, left off, ceased. Cf. Lyly's Euphues, 73, “As the dry beech kindled at the roote, never leaveth untill it come to the toppe.”

5. towarde, in expectation. Cf. Shaks. As You Like It, V. 4. 35, “There is, sure, another flood toward."

such as no manne looked for=expected. Cf. Matt. xi, 13.

14. trybute oute of Fraunce. This was the annual pension of 50,000 crowns settled to be paid to Edward IV. by Louis XI. after their treaty at Picquigny. See Lingard, iv. 100.

16. Barwycké, i.e. Berwick-upon-Tweed, yielded to Edward by the Scotch in 1482.

19. Halle adds after estemed" " then those highe humilitees.”

21. porte, mien, carriage. Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie, 306, port of state. Shaks. 2 Hen. VI. IV. I. 19, port of gentleman."

debonayre=kindly, Fr. de bon air. Cf. Troilus and Cressida, 1. 3. 235,

“Courtiers as free, as debonair, unarmed,

As bending angels." 24. Wyndesore. Here Halle reads " Haverynge at the Bower.

in, used with the pres. part. as we often find on or a, to give more fulness to the expression. Cf. 1 Sam. ii. 13, “While the flesh was in seething."

28. chere meant originally face, then it was applied to that which had an effect on the face, which gladdened or enlivened; to mirth and spirit, then to the entertainment which caused them. Cf. Lever's Ser. mons, p. 79, “ They rose up by rebellion and have lost all the chere of that feast. 30.

Cf. Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie, 55, “mo and more excellent examples.”

P. line 6. towardenesse, docility, capability of being taught. Cf. Grindal, Remains, 450, " This kind of dispensation...seemeth not convenient to be used, but where there is good proof of great towardness in learning.”

moe, more.



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10. kinde, kin, relationship. Cf. Shaks. Pericles, V. 1. 68, “Came of a gentle kind, and noble stock.”

hadde holden place, i.e. had had any effect, had had their proper influence. Cf. for a like phrase Burton's Anatomy, p. 352, They were both cured by reading when no prescribed physic would take place" (i.e. have any effect). And p. 359, “When this last engine would take no place (have no influence) they left him to his own ways.

15. binden. This is the Old English form of the plural number.

17. bereue. For the use of this verb not followed as it commonly is by the preposition of, cf. Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Prologue, 475,

“But Age allas that al wole envenyme

Hath me biraft my beautee and my pith.” 20. entreate, treat of. Cf. Lyly's Euphues, p. 53, “For me to intreat of the one, being a novise, I may well make you weary. 24

a noble manne and a mightie. This order of adjectives was not uncommon in Old English. Cf. Luke xxiii. 50, “A good man and a just.

28. kinge Henrye his bloode, i.e. King Henry's blood. A common mistake in Elizabethan English. See 5. 2.

29. a goodlye Prince, i.e. Edward the Lancastrian Prince of Wales, murdered by the retainers of Edward IV. after the battle of Tewkesbury.

P. 5, line 1. preuente=to anticipate. Cf. Bacon's Advancement (W. Aldis Wright), p. 261, “ Man is not to prevent his time.”

3. Wakefielde. The battle was fought 31 Dec. 1460. 5. states=princes. Shaks. King John, II. I. 395,

“How like you this wild counsel, mighty states ?6. stomacke, temper, courage. Cf. Bp Pilkington's Works, p. 59, “With such words of fear and power must all stubborn stomachs be pulled down.”

18. at the lest wise. We should now say at least.

19. fautye, guilty, in fault. Cf. Golden Boke, Let. 6, “O how sorowfuli am i, for in all these am I fautye.This pronunciation is common enough in some parts of England still.

23. wist, past tense of an Old English verb, witan=to know, connected with both wise and wit. Cf. Bp Pilkington's Works, p. 443, “A wise man should not say, Had I wist this or that, I would have provided for this and that.”

26. egall, equal, Fr. égal, Lat. acqualis. See Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie, p. 57, “Vertue itselfe is not in every respect of egall value and estimation.”

27. vnder=inferior to. Cf. Sir Thomas More's Utopia (Pitt Press Series), 97. 17, where speaking of gold he says, “And then who doeth not playnelye se howe farre it is under iron?”

28. ill fetured, ill made or formed. Feature is Lat. factura from facio, to make, fashion. We should only now use it of the face. See Shaks. Sonnet xxix. 6,

Featured like him, like him with friends possessed."

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