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PREFACE.

The period comprised within the present volume, although somewhat less than a hundred years, can hardly but be regarded as the most important in Cambridge university history prior to the present century. It was the time when the code by which, with little modification, the university was governed for nearly three centuries, was, notwithstanding strenuous opposition, first introduced, and the ancient constitution of the academic community thereby almost subverted. It was the time of the foundation of four of the colleges, among them the most considerable of the entire number. And it was the time when those trammels were thrown over our higher national education from which it has but lately been set free.

While such was the internal history of the university, the influence which it exercised on the nation at large was not less notable,-far greater, indeed, than most writers on this period seem to be aware. In a former volume I have attempted to shew the extent to which the Reformation in England derived its inspiration from Cambridge; in the following pages it has been no small portion of my task to endeavour to shew the manner in which the great Puritan party was here formed and educated. In dealing with the career and influence of some of the chief leaders of that party,—Thomas Cartwright, Walter Travers, Whitaker, Laurence Chaderton, and Preston, I have sought to be strictly impartial; a matter of some difficulty where the motives and the actions of the characters under consideration often excite very different sentiments. I would fain hope, on the other hand, that I have done something towards bringing out more clearly the real character of Whitgift and the services which he unquestionably rendered to the university. The slur cast upon his memory by one of the most distinguished ornaments of that society which he ruled so ably, must always be a matter of regret to those who have at heart the cause of historic truth.

The difficulty in dealing with my whole subject has certainly not diminished as the materials have multiplied. It has been truly observed by a very careful investigator of university history, that an adequate treatment of the subject postulates not merely due attention to the organisation and the code, the general discipline and the privileges, of an academic corporation, but also frequent reference to contemporary events and to the influences, whether favorable or restrictive, resulting from the policy of the civil and ecclesiastical powers; while the developement of the intellectual and scientific life of the whole university and the corresponding achievements of its most conspicuous members, are obviously of primary importance? If I admit that it has been my endeavour to realise, in some degree, the high ideal indicated by professor Aschbach, it will be conceded that the labour involved has been considerably beyond that of a mere registration of facts; in no respect, perhaps, have I been more conscious of the difficulties of my task than when endeavouring to discriminate (as I bave continually been under the necessity of doing) between the incidents and features in college history which properly belong to such a treatment of the subject, and those which must be considered as appertaining rather to the special history of each separate foundation.

1 'Eine alle Beziehungen erschöpfende Universitäts-Geschichte welche den gegenwärtigen Anforderungen an eine wissenschaftliche Darstellung ganz entsprechen soll, darf das auf die Organisation, die Statuten, die sonstigen Einrichtungen und Privilegien Bezügliche nicht übergehen; sie kann auch die äusseren Ereignisse der Zeit und die fördernden oder hemmenden Verhältnisse zur Landesregierung und zur Kirche nicht unbeachtet lassen; sie muss aber vor allen Dingen die Entwicklung des wissenschaftlichen Lebens in seinen manchfachen Richtungen verfolgen, und die Ergebnisse der vorzüglichsten Leistungen der namhaftesten UniversitätsMitglieder in eingehender Weise darlegen.' Gesch. d. Wiener Universität im Ersten Jahrhunderte ihres Bestehens. Von Joseph Aschbach. Introd.

p. viii.

For the encouragement and practical aid which I have received in every quarter, I here take the opportunity of expressing my sincere thanks. To the Masters of Magdalene, Trinity, Emmanuel, and Sidney Colleges, my acknowledgements are especially due for access to documents, and for advice and corrections in my accounts of those several foundations. To the Rev. John E. B. Mayor, M.A., professor of Latin and senior fellow of St John's College,—to J. E. Sandys, esquire, M.A., fellow and tutor of St John's College and public orator to the university,—and to the Rev. Christopher Wordsworth, M.A., formerly fellow of Peterhouse, I am, as in connexion with my former volume, under no small measure of obligation for continuous help in the revision of my proof-sheets and other valuable assistance. To no one, however, is my indebtedness in this respect greater than to the late E. R. Horton, esquire, M.A., fellow of Peterhouse and vicemaster of University College School, London, who, until within a few weeks of his lamented death, aided me with a careful and suggestive criticism which I shall always gratefully remember. To the Rev. H. R. Luard, D.D., senior fellow of Trinity College and registrar of the university, I am indebted for access to the original documents in the registry; to Henry Bradshaw, esquire, M.A., senior fellow of King's College and university librarian, for information relating to the history of the Library and other matters of literary interest; to J. Willis Clark, esquire, M.A., auditor and late fellow of Trinity College, for the loan of transcripts of the original statutes of the college and other help; to W. Aldis Wright, esquire, M.A., fellow of Trinity College, for information and valuable guidance on points connected with the history of the college; to the Rev. Robert Siuker, B.D., librarian of Trinity College, for like assistance and for access to the library of the foundation. I have also to thank E. J. L. Scott, esquire, of the manuscript department of the British Museum, for the loan of his transcript of Gabriel Harvey's Note Book, prior to its publication by the Camden Society; and Robert Bowes, esquire, of the firm of Macmillan and Bowes, for the loan of his copy of Cooper's Additions and Corrections to the Annals (a volume now of great rarity), and also for permission to consult the manuscript of his paper read before the Cambridge Antiquarian Society on the printers to the university. To the trustees of the Williams Library, Grafton Street, London, my thanks are due for frequent access to the library, a collection of special value for students of our seventeenth century history.

For information and assistance on various points, I would venture to express my obligations to H. Maxwell Lyte, esquire, M.A., of Christchurch, Oxford; to T. W. Jackson, esquire, M.A., tutor and dean of Worcester College, Oxford ; to the Rev. J. W. Hicks, M.A., fellow and librarian of Sidney College; to the Rev. W. A. Cox, M.A., fellow and junior dean, to W. F. Smith, esquire, M.A., fellow and lecturer, and to R. F. Scott, esquire, M.A., fellow and bursar,--of St John's College.

Lastly my acknowledgements are due to the Syndics of the University Press, during the last seven years, for the assistance rendered me in the production of this volume and their kind consideration of the delay which has attended its publication.

St John's COLLEGE,

Sept. 1884.

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