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§ 17. The spinal cord capable of converting impressions
from without into muscular contractions.
18. Special sensations.
19. The tissues are constantly being renewed.
20. The renewal is effected by means of the alimentary
apparatus, which converts food into nutriment;
and by the
21, 22. Organs of circulation, which distribute the nutri-
ment over the body.
23. The excretory organs drain waste matters from the
24. Double function of the lungs.
25. The nervous system combines the action of the
26. Life and death.
27. Local death constantly going on in the body.
28. General death-death of the body as a whole, and
death of the tissues.
29. Modes of death.
30. Decomposition and diffusion.
THE VASCULAR SYSTEM AND THE CIRCULATION.
§ 1. The nature and arrangement of the capillaries.
2. Structure and properties of arteries and veins.
3. Differences between arteries and veins.
4. Structure and function of the valves of the veins.
5. The Lymphatics.
6. The Lacteals.
7. A general view of the way in which the vessels are
arranged in the body and are connected with the
8, 9. The Heart, its connexions and structure; the peri-
cardium and endocardium; the auricles and
10. Its valves, their structure, action, and purpose.
11. Its systole and diastole.
§ 12. The working of the heart; the mechanism by which
the heart, through its contractions, drives the blood
always in one direction, explained.
13. The working of the arteries.
14. The beat of the heart.
15. The sounds of the heart.
16. The pulse in the arteries.
17. Why blood flows in jerks from a cut artery.
18, 19. Why no pulse is present in the capillaries and veins.
20. The rate at which the blood flows in the different
21, 22. The circulation traced in its whole course.
23. The nervous system regulates the calibre of the
small arteries, and thereby controls the flow of
blood through varicus parts: blushing, &c.
24. Experimental proof of this.
25. The results of this controlling power of vaso-motor
26, 27. The movements of the heart are also under the
control of the nervous system.
28. The proofs of the circulation. Direct observation
of the circulation of the blood in the web of a
THE BLOOD AND THE LYMPH. Pp. 60-76.
§1-3. The properties of a drop of blood: corpuscles, plasma, coagulation.
4. Red corpuscles.
5, 6. Colourless corpuscles; their contractility.
7. Development of corpuscles, the red corpuscles are
probably derived from the colourless ones.
8. Red corpuscles of shed blood tend to stick together in
9. Blood-crystals, hæmoglobin.
10, 11. Coagulation of blood; fibrin, crassamentum or clot,
12. Buffy coat.
§ 13. Influence of circumstances on the rapidity of
14. Nature of the process of coagulation; globulin,
15. The physical qualities of the blood.
16. The chemical composition of the blood.
17. Influence of age, sex, food, &c. on the blood.
18. Total quantity of blood in the body.
19. The vivifying influence of blood over the tissues:
20. The Lymph.
§ 1. The blood a highly complex product derived from
all parts of the body.
2. Blood rendered venous in the capillaries.
3. Difference between arterial and venous blood.
4. Nature of the change of venous blood into arterial
and vice versâ.
5. Cause of change in colour of blood.
6. Blood is changed from arterial to venous in the
systemic, and from venous to arterial in the pul-
7. The essence of respiration.
8. Machinery of respiration. The air-passages and
9. Necessity for the renewal of the air in the lungs.
10. The respiratory act; inspiration, expiration.
11. Differences between inspired and expired air.
12. The amount of work done by the lungs.
13. The mechanism of the respiratory movements. The
elasticity of the lungs.
14. Contractility of the walls of the bronchial tubes.
15. Movements of the chest-walls.
16. The diaphragm.
§ 17. Action of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
18. Accessory muscles of respiration.
19. Sighing, coughing, &c.
20. The chest compared to a bellows. Residual, supple-
mental, complemental, tidal, and stationary air.
21. The stationary air plays the part of a middle
22. Composition of stationary air.
23. The respiratory mechanism under the control of the
24, 25. Respiration and circulation compared.
26. The respiratory murmurs.
27. Inspiration assists the circulation.
28. Effect of expiration on the circulation.
29. The activity of the respiratory process moaified by
the circumstances of life.
30, 31. Asphyxia.
32. The two influences, deprivation of oxygen and
accumulation of carbonic acid.
33. Importance of the former.
34. Necessity for an abundance of fresh air.
THE SOURCES OF LOSS AND OF GAIN TO THE BLOOD.
§ 1. Distribution of arterial blood.
2-4. The blood in various ways meets with constant
or intermittent gains and losses of material and
5. Tabular view of the sources of loss and gain.
6. The loss by the kidneys. The urinary apparatus.
7. Composition of urine.
8. Kidneys and lungs compared.
9. The structure of the kidney.
10-12. Nature of the act of secretion by the kidney.
13. The loss by the skin. Sensible and insensible per-
14. Quantity and composition of sweat.
§ 15. Perspiration by simple transudation.
17. These glands are controlled by the nervous system.
18. Variations in the quantity of matter lost by per-
19. The lungs, skin, and kidneys compared together.
20. The liver, its connexions and structure.
21. The active power of the liver-cells.
22. The bile. Its quantity and composition.
23. Bile is formed in the liver-cells.
24, 25. Other changes in the blood effected by the hepatic
cells. Experimental proof of the formation of
sugar in the liver. Glycogen.
26. Sources of gain of matter.
blood through the lungs.
Gain of oxygen to the
27. Gain by the lymphatics.
28. The spleen.
29. Gain of heat. Generation of heat by oxidation.
30. Distribution of heat by the blood current.
31. Temperature of the body regulated by means of the
32. The glands are intermittently active sources of loss.
Structure and functions of glands, nature of act
33. Gain of waste products from the muscles.
THE FUNCTION OF ALIMENTATION. Pp. 143-168.
§ 1. The alimentary canal, the chief source of gain.
2. The quantity of dry, solid, and gaseous aliment daily
taken in by a man.
3. The quantity of dry solid matter daily lost by a
4. Classification of aliments.
The chief vital food-
stuffs:--Proteids, Fats, Amyloids, Minerals.
5. Their ultimate analysis. The presence of Proteids
and Minerals in food indispensable.
6. No absolute necessity for other food-stuffs.