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the Countess bore her husband five sons and seven daughters-among them being Edward, sixth Earl and King of Ulster; Thomas and Alexander, captured in Galloway when bringing supplies to their eldest brother, and executed at Carlisle by order of Edward I.; and Neil, a young man of exceptional comeliness, taken at Kildrummie in 1306 and also executed. Of the daughters, Lady Christian married Bruce's attached friend, Sir Christopher Seton, also put to death at Dumfries by the English in 1306.

As the career of the great King Robert belongs more to the history of Scotland generally than to Carrick in particular, two circumstances only fall to be specially mentioned. It was to Turnberry Bruce fled with his wife and children after wasting the lands of William, Lord Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale; and it was from the towers of his own paternal inheritance that a fire, accidentally kindled, became a signal for him to cross the firth from Arran for the purpose of attempting the delivery of his country. One of the earliest feats to carry out the resolve was a successful attack on Percy's English troops in Turnberry before Bruce withdrew for safety to the mountain fastnesses of Carrick, but not before he had put almost the entire garrison to the sword.

After King Robert the Earldom of Carrick was held by Edward Bruce, and in succession by three of his illegitimate sons-Robert, slain at Dupplin, 1332; Alexander, who fell at Halidon Hill, 1333; and Thomas, on whose death in 1334, without issue, the honours reverted to the Crown in the person of David II. Held for a very short time by Sir William Cunninghame, the King made a new grant to John Stewart, Lord of Kyle, great grandson of King Robert I., and son of Robert Stewart of Scotland, Earl of Strathearn. Succeeding to the throne as Robert III., the title fell to his eldest son, the unfortunate Duke of Rothesay, who became twelfth Earl of Carrick. In 1404 the King last mentioned granted in free regality to his second son, James Stewart of Scotland, afterwards James I., the whole lands of the Stewartry of Scotland, including the Earldom of Carrick. The title thus came to be hereditary in the Royal Family as Princes and Stewarts of Scotland; and since the union of the Crowns has been borne, as at present, by the Sovereign's

eldest son. The Welsh dignity is conferred from life to life by patent, but it is in virtue of the Scottish Act of Settlement of 1469 that Albert-Edward, present Prince of Wales, is by hereditary descent also Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, and Lord of the Isles. An attempt was made in the early part of the seventeenth century to get the Carrick honours revived in the person of John Stewart, second son of Robert, Earl of Orkney, a natural son of James V.; and, although King Charles did not seem disinclined to favour the suit, especially as Stewart had got possession of certain lands in the Earldom, yet, when the patent came up for discussion, Sir Thomas Hope, Lord-Advocate, had courage to remind the Council that the title of Earl of Carrick belonged to the King's eldest son, the Prince of Scotland, and was not communicable to any subject. recommended the Council to advise with His Majesty on the subject before anything "forder wer proceedit herein." The difficulty was partly got over by the elevation of Stewart to a similar title, but alleged to be taken from lands in Orkney. His Lordship died in 1652, without male issue.

He therefore

In mentioning the boundaries of the Earldom it has been judged best to treat it as making up the district known as Carrick in modern times, for purposes civil, ecclesiastical, and legal. But there is some reason for thinking that long after its separation from Galloway the Earls had jurisdiction far north of the Doon into Kyle, and probably into Cunningham. The Kyle men especially were ever valiant and faithful to the Bruce cause, and are often noticed by historians as mustering with alacrity to defend the patriot king, either when he was concealing himself among them or raised his standard elsewhere. Speaking topographically, the Carrick locality of Ayrshire, as understood in modern times, is made up of nine parishes-Ballantrae, Barr, and Colmonell; Daily, Girvan, and Kirkmichael; Kirkoswald, Maybole, and Straiton. Each of these parishes has a history. interesting in itself, apart from any connection with the old Earldom, and, if not already noticed, will come up for future illustration. Maybole and Kirkoswald are especially rich in associations with the past-the first mainly ecclesiastical as relating to its once richly endowed and beautiful Abbey, now in ruins; the other as

having Turnberry and Culzean within its bounds, and Cassillis mansion on its borders, famous in the history of the Kennedies, from the wicked Gilbert, "King of Carrick," downwards. Kirkoswald, besides its memories of the exciting smuggling days and the building of smuggling craft, is also pre-eminently a Burns portion of Ayrshire. Here, under the very shadow of Turnberry ruins, was the farm of Shanter, thrown into another in recent years, but occupied in the poet's day by that Douglas Graham, the original of the stalwart, thoughtless, and undying "Tam." In the village adjoining, too, Burns himself for some months attended Rodger's mathematical school, and is likely to have written there one of his very earliest pieces, "My Father was a Farmer upon the Carrick Border." In population the district of Carrick has rather fallen off during late years, the census for 1831 showing 25,536, and 1881 only 23,566.

Certain other minute particulars concerning the Earldom of Carrickespecially touching the legitimacy in succession of the three sons of Edward Bruce -will be found in a small volume issued at Edinburgh, 1857 (T. G. Stevenson), entitled "Some Account of the Ancient Earldom of Carric," by Andrew Carrick, M.D. Edited by James Maidment.


WITH a pedigree reaching as far back as Stephen of Cleghorn, armour-bearer to James III. (1460-88), the family of Milton-Lockhart may be looked upon as among the oldest, if not the very oldest, offshoot of the house of Lee. Another Stephen, great-grandson of the founder, married Grizel, daughter of Walter Carmichael of Hyndford, and had a family of three sons-(1) William, who fell at Rullion Green, supporting the cause of the Covenant, and whose line became extinct in 1776 on the death without issue of his grandson, Sir Wm. Lockhart

Denham, Bart.; (2) Robert, of Birkhill, who also supported the Covenant, and having first had a horse shot under him at Bothwell Bridge, afterwards died from exposure, a fugitive, in the wastes of his own parish of Lesmahagow; and (3) Walter of Kirkton and Wicketshaw, who, after espousing, like his brothers, the cause of the Covenant, entered the Royal army, in which he rose to the rank of captain, became paymaster of Forces in Scotland, and died in Edinburgh Castle, 1743, aged eighty-seven. William, a successor in Birkhill, married Violet Inglis, niece and heiress of James Somerville of Corehouse, and left among other sons and daughters, Major-General William Lockhart, who died 1817; and John, who studied for the Church and became a D.D. of Edinburgh University.

Licensed by the Presbytery of Stirling, 1785, the Rev. John Lockhart was ordained minister of Cam'nethan parish the following year, in succession to Alexander Ranken, translated to Ramshorn (now St. David's), Glasgow. In 1796, about ten years after his ordination, Dr. Lockhart was presented by the Town Council of Glasgow to the church of Blackfriars or "College Kirk," vacant by the death of John Gillies, who had ministered there for the long period of fifty four years. Dr. Lockhart himself may be also classed among the aged ministers of his day, surviving, as he did, till December, 1842, when he had reached the eightysecond year of his age and the fifty-seventh of his ministry. He published "The Covenant of God, the Hope of Man," and one of many sermons preached on the death of the Princess Charlotte. Twice married, Dr. Lockhart had by his first wife, Elizabeth Dinwoodie of Germiston, William, his heir, born 1787, who acquired part of the old family estates adjoining the barony of Milton-Lockhart, and represented the county of Lanark in Parliament from 1841 till his death in 1856, when he was succeeded for a brief period by A. D. Baillie-Cochrane of Lamington. William Lockhart, esteemed in his day as one of the most useful public men in the county, was Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the Lanarkshire Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry, and Dean of Faculties of the University of Glasgow. Dr. Lockhart married secondly Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. John Gibson, of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh. By this marriage there was issue, with other sons

and daughters, John Gibson Lockhart, born in 1793, to be afterwards referred to; Lawrence, born 1796, who succeeded to Milton-Lockhart, and Robert, who entered upon a mercantile career.

Lawrence Lockhart, second son, as above-mentioned, studied, like his father, for the Church, and like him also came to be honoured with the degree of D.D. He was licensed by the Presbytery of Glasgow, 1822, and ordained to the charge of Inchinnan, in succession to William Richardson, D.D., in August of same year. Dr. Lawrence Lockhart filled the charge of Inchinnan from 1822 till 1860, when he resigned the living and took up his residence at Milton-Lockhart, to which he had succeeded on the death of his half-brother, William. Dr. Gillan,

of St. John's, Glasgow, succeeded to the charge of Inchinnan. Like his father in many other respects, Dr. Lawrence Lockhart was also twice married, his first wife being Louisa, daughter of David Blair. Dr. Lawrence married secondly, 1849, Marion, eldest daughter of William Maxwell of Dargavel, and on his death in 1876 left issue David Blair, now of Wicketshaw and Milton-Lockhart, referred to below. Dr. Lockhart's second son was the well-known Colonel Lawrence William Maxwell, of the 92nd Highlanders, who served with distinction in the Crimea, and, like his uncle, John Gibson, occupied an honourable position in the literature of his day. He acted as correspondent for the "Times" in the Franco-Prussian war, wrote various popular novels, "Fair to See" among the rest, and was a contributor to "Blackwood," highly appreciated by readers, and most sincerely respected by the publisher. Colonel Lockhart died at Mentone in March, 1882, leaving issue by his marriage with Katherine, younger daughter of Sir James Russell of Ashestiel, Selkirkshire, one son, Lawrence Archibald Somerville.

The eldest son of Dr. John Lockhart, Blackfriar's Church, by his second marriage with Miss Gibson, was the eminent critic and novelist, John Gibson Lockhart, biographer of his illustrious father-in-law, Sir Walter Scott. Born in the manse of Cam'nethan, 1795, he was educated at the University of Glasgow, and passed on a Snell Exhibition to Baliol College, Oxford. Selecting law as a

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