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Berwick. Montrose himself entered Glasgow in triumph, while young Napier, pushing forward to Linlithgow and Edinburgh, had the delight of freeing from captivity his father, wife, sisters, and uncle, Stirling of Keir. John Lord Graham, only surviving son of the Marquis, was still held a prisoner by the chiefs of the Covenant. After these brilliant victories, Montrose was surprised and defeated in September, 1645, by General David Leslie. Detention at Oxford appearing irksome to the King, he adopted the foolish plan of entrusting his person to the Scots army at Newark, then negotiating with the leaders of the English Parliament for their arrears of pay. The Scots in turn delivered their Sovereign up to his English adversaries at Newcastle. Royal instructions were thereafter issued that Montrose should lay down his arms and leave Scotland. He was absent about two years. On the execution of the King, in 1649, the Marquis tendered his allegiance to Charles II., and took an early opportunity of presenting himself in the midst of the exiled Court at The Hague. There is still extant in the charter-chest at Buchanan House Montrose's key for secret correspondence with friends at home at this time. The Earl of Roxburghe, whom the Marquis suspected of double-dealing with David Leslie, is designated "The Fox;" David Leslie himself is "The Executioner," from his cruelties after the day of Philiphaugh; the Marquis of Huntly is "The Moor Game," from his having lurked so long in the northern hills; Argyll is "Ruling Elder," and sometimes "The Merchant of Middleburgh." In an unfortunate attempt to draw the Highlanders once more to the Royal standard during the spring of 1650, Montrose was taken prisoner by MacLeod of Assynt, and conveyed under secure guard to Edinburgh. Exposed to many insults by the way, it was only when he reached Dundee -where great suffering was yet felt from his army-that clothing and other necessaries suited to his rank were provided. At Edinburgh the Covenanting magistrates received him in mock solemnity, and with all the indignity which triumphant malice might be supposed to suggest, conveyed him from the Watergate to the Tolbooth.

"By sorry steeds in servile cart

A high-backed chair is borne-
The sitter he has turned his face-
Why start you, young Lord Lorne?

"Good sooth in yon poor captive dies
The dreadest of your foes;

But chained and tied to hangman's cart

Ye dare not meet Montrose!"

From the Tolbooth Montrose was taken on Monday to the Parliament House, and there, "in the place of delinquents, on his knees, received sentence to be hanged on a gibbet at the Cross of Edinburgh, with his book and Declaration tied on a rope about his neck, there to hang for the space of three hours until he be dead; and thereafter to be cut down by the hangman, his head, hands, and legs to be cut off and distributed as follows:-viz., his head to be affixed on an iron pin, and set on the pinnacle of the west gavel of the new prison of Edinburgh; one hand to be set on the port of Perth, the other on the port of Stirling; one leg and foot on the port of Aberdeen, the other on the port of Glasgow. If at his death penitent, and relaxed from excommunication, then the trunk of his body to be interred by pioneers in the Greyfriars: otherwise, to be interred in the boroughmoor, by the hangman's men under the gallows." The sentence was carried out in all its revolting details, the head remaining for ten years a ghastly spectacle on the top of the Tolbooth. By the adventurous spirit of Lady Napier the heart was recovered, embalmed in the most costly manner, and was last heard of in India. Thus died James, first Marquis of Montrose, a nobleman described as the only person in modern times who recalled the heroes described by Plutarch. This was said by Cardinal de Retz, and he knew Turenne and Conde. Being an only son, he appears to have married early, as he had by his wife Margaret Carnegie, daughter of the Earl of Southesk, two sons when twenty-one years of age.

James, second Marquis, recovered the family estates on the Restoration of

Charles II., and was made a Privy Councillor. By his wife, Isabel, daughter of William, second Earl of Morton, and widow of Robert, first Earl of Roxburghe, he had a son, James, who succeeded as third Marquis of Montrose, and married Christian, daughter of John, Duke of Rothes. Their son, James, fourth Marquis, filled the office of Lord-President of the Council previous to the Union, and on the accession of George I. was appointed one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State. He was installed as Knight of the Garter in 1706, and on 24th April, 1707, created Duke of Montrose. By his wife, Christian, daughter of the Earl of Northesk, he had David created a Peer of Great Britian, with the title Earl Graham of Belford, Northumberland, but who died unmarried during the lifetime of his father; William, who succeeded as second Duke, and George, a Captain in the Royal Navy, who died unmarried, 1747. Duke William married Lucy, daughter of second Duke of Rutland, and had issue, James, who succeeded, and Lucy, married to Archibald, Lord Douglas. James, third Duke, married first JemimaElizabeth, daughter of Earl Ashburnham, by whom he had an only son who died in infancy, and second Caroline-Maria, daughter of fourth Duke of Manchester, by whom he had issue :-James, who succeeded; Montague William, M.P., Captain in the Coldstream Guards; Georgiana-Charlotte Caroline Lucy, married Edward Earl Powis, with issue; and Emily, married to E. T. Foley, Hereford. James, third Duke of Montrose, was a K.G., Lord-Justice General of Scotland, and Chancellor of the University of Glasgow. He died 30th December, 1836, and was succeeded by his elder son, James, the late Duke. Born 16th July, 1790, he married, 15th October, 1836, Caroline Agnes, youngest daughter of John, second Lord Decies, and had issue, James, Marquis of Graham, born 7th Feb., 1845, died 31st January, 1846; James, also Marquis of Graham, Lieutenant First Life Guards, born 22nd June, 1847, died unmarried, 3rd April, 1872; Douglas Beresford Malise Ronald, present Duke, born 7th November, 1852; Agnes Caroline, married, 1859, Lieut.-Col. Murray Polmaise; Beatrice-Violet, married, 1863, Algernon W. F. Greville, son of Lord Greville, with issue; and Alma-Carlotta, married, 1872, to Earl of Breadalbane. The late Duke succeeded his father as

Chancellor of Glasgow University, and was made a K.T.
He acted as a
Commissioner of the Board of Control from February, 1828, to December, 1830;
Lord Steward of Her Majesty's Household, from February to December, 1852;
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, from Feb., 1858, to June, 1859; and
Postmaster-General in Earl Derby's second Ministry, 1858, and again 1866-68.
Some incidents, arising out of his famous contest with the Earl of Crawford and
Balcarres, concerning the Dukedom of Montrose, may be more appropriately
mentioned in another page.
The late Duke was known to be a considerate

yet improving landlord, courteous and easy of access with all whom his varied relations brought him into contact, and his death, 30th December, 1874, was regretted all the more that a little over two years previously he had the affliction to see his son and heir, then a young man of high promise, laid before him in the burying place of his house. The present Duke married Violet Hermoine, daughter of Sir Frederick Ulric Graham, of Netherby, by Lady Jane Hermoine St. Maur, eldest daughter of Edward Adolphus, Duke of Somerset, K.G. The father of the present Baronet of Netherby, the second in descent, was Sir James Graham, the eminent statesman and Cabinet minister, and his mother Fanny, daughter of Colonel Callander, Craigforth.

The lands of the Montrose family lie principally within the counties of Stirling and the adjacent borders of the neighbouring counties, Dumbarton and Lanark. The lands of Buchanan parish surrounding the family mansion were purchased from the trustees of the last Buchanan of that Ilk in 1682, and the lands of the Dukedom and Regality of Lennox from Charles Duke of Lennox and Richmond in 1702. Among other Lochlomond islands now included within these lands are Inchmurren and Inchcalleoch. The former, now used as the Montrose deer park, is full of historical associations connected with the Lennox family, here being the old stronghold of the house to which the Duchess Isabella repaired to spend the close of her days in acts of piety and munificence, after the cruel wrath of James I. had sent her father with her husband and two sons to the scaffold at Stirling. In this lonely retreat the Duchess lived long enough to hear the

dreadful fate of a king who had cut her off from all living kindred. It was to her piety and munificence Dumbarton was indebted for its old Collegiate Church, of which only a solitary arch now remains, and among the last of her kind deeds was the gift of certain lands in Kilmaronock parish to the Preaching Friars of Glasgow to secure prayers for the welfare of her soul and the souls of her kindred. This island was repeatedly visited by James VI. for hunting purposes. "These are to give you notice (it was written on one occasion) that His Majesty has concluded to dine at Inchmurren, where his dinner shall be sent, and there are tents to be provided for that effect, and you must expect a good number of sharp stomachs." Inchcalleoch, or "Old Woman's Isle," was the site of the parish church, and in an adjoining graveyard lie the remains of several members of the clan Gregor:

"And answering Lomond's breezes deep,
Soothe many a chieftain's endless sleep."

As is shown by a report of the Historical Commission, the Lennox papers at Buchanan House are numerous and curious, one among others of extreme interest being a grant by King Robert Bruce to Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, of a right of girth or sanctuary for three miles round the Church of Luss, in honour of the blessed Saint Kessog. Other lands of the Montrose family are situated within the parish of Strathblane, where they had as a residence the old Castle of Mugdock, from which many Lennox and Graham charters are dated. On the forfeiture of the great Marquis, in 1644, Mugdock barony fell in the way of compensation to Archibald, Earl of Argyll, but it was restored to the Graham family in 1656. Mugdock appears to have been their first residence in the west, after disposing of the original Kincardine property. From an inventory of "stuffe," preserved at Buchanan House, the removal would appear to have taken place in 1666. Arras hangings are described as being brought from Kincardine, and other furnishings from Angus and Strathern. At Catter, now the factor's seat, are the remains of a

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