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The presumed inferiority of the early burgesses became so intolerable that in 1226 Alexander II. granted a charter prohibiting the people of Rutherglen from taking toll or custom in the town of Glasgow, or nearer than the Cross of Schetelston. Dumbarton was also unwearied in its opposition, so far especially as Clyde trade was concerned; and even so late as the period embraced by the new record volume, scores of entries are taken up with the contention of the two burghs. In 1242, twenty years after Dumbarton had been erected into a Royal burgh, Alexander II. granted a charter declaring that the burgesses of Glasgow, Argyll, and Lennox, and throughout the whole kingdom, might go and buy or sell all kinds of merchandise as freely, quietly, fully, and honourably, without any impediment from the Bailie of Dumbarton, as the burgesses and men of Glasgow were able to do before any town or burgh was erected at Dumbarton. The charter of regality in favour of Glasgow was obtained by Bishop Turnbull from James II. In the exercise of their high prerogative the Bishops continued for about a century to nominate the Provost and Magistrates. This came to be modified in 1554 by the introduction of a leet of names suggested to the Bishop apparently by the burgesses as a whole; and for a year or two at the Reformation they exercised the privilege of electing their own Magistrates. Shortly before the abdication of the See by Archbishop James Beaton in 1559, he had appointed the Earl of Arran and his heirs to be bailies of the regality, they, on the other hand, becoming bound to protect the See in all its rights and privileges; but, in spite of this precaution, the opportunity was seized by the citizens of electing their own Magistrates, and the contending rights of the See and the burgh can hardly be said to have been adjusted till the abolition of Episcopacy under the Revolution Settlement. The system of leets is in operation at the commencement of Mr. Marwick's volume, the first Provost mentioned being Robert, Lord Boyd, elected October, 1574, on the recommendation of Archbishop James Boyd. Robert, Earl of Lennox, Lord Darnley, was nominated and appointed in like manner in 1579.

Another event of more than local interest, illustrated by this Record volume, is the famous Assembly of 1638, presided over by Alexander Henderson, and commonly described by Presbyterians as the Second Reformation. Buchanan's pupil - Andrew Melville—had clamoured among others for the instant destruction of the Cathedral as a monument of idolatry, whither superstitious people resorted for devotion, but which by its vastness was all unsuited for the simplicity of orthodox rites. But large as the building was, it was too small for the crowd described as surging round it in December of that year, “while within Covenanted Ministers and nobles gorged with Church plunder were defying their King and excommunicating their Bishops.” Burnet says, “It was perhaps the greatest confluence of people which ever met in these parts of Europe—yet a sad sight to see, for not a gown was among them all, but many had swords and daggers." Great excitement is said to have been manifested as the “ Jericho of Prelacy was smitten down, and the curse of Hiel the Bethelite pronounced against all who should attempt to rebuild it.” The High Church was put in order for the occasion, and, as appears from a minute of date November 3, a special guard was appointed to watch the town night and day. Acting on instructions received from the Council, Commissioner Provost Bell was among those who voted for continuing to sit in judgment on the Bishops after the formal dissolution of the Assembly, and for repealing the Five Articles of Perth as "unfree, unlawful, and null.” During the sittings the poor were kept off the street and maintained in their own houses. There is much also in the volume concerning the arming and maintenance of the men sent from the West to support the cause of the Covenant under General Alexander Leslie at Dunse Law; and about all local institutions and topography-college, schools, churches, and hospitals—wells, streets, and marchesold customs and old trade regulations—unfailing information will be found. The volume concludes with about forty pages of extracts from the Burgh Accounts, extending over a period similar to that embraced by the Minutes of Council. There is here room for only a sample of the "Items." The sums must be understood in each case as of Scots currency :

“1575, Jan. 6. Item on Fastrinis ewin, to ane fule with the treyn suerd xviijd. --Item to the pyper callit Ryall Dayis for playing xviijd.—Sept. 8. Item to Malcolm Hammiltoun, for scurgeing of ane wod hussy throw the toune vs.1576, Jan. 3. Item to ane boy to rin in the nicht to Dumbartan to caus the baillies and thair clerk cum on the morniijs.-- June 16. Item to Eufame Campbell, spous to Andro Baillie, for xvj quartis wyne propynit to my Lord Böyd, prouest, sen Vitsondaye last iiij lb. xvjs.—July 24. Gewin to David Kaye for the price of the knok and vpsetting of hir in the tolbuyth quhilk wes borrowit fra Thomas Garne jc lib.-1582, June 2. Item for ane lok to put on the theif that brunt the wyfe of the Cowcadennis, xxs.-1583, June 18. Item gewin to James Lyoun for denneris, afternoonis drink to the proveist, bailleis, counsell and deacones the tyme the proveist remanit in this town for pacifeing of thee trublis betuix the merchandis and craftismen, xlviij. li. iiijs.- 1584, Oct. 9. Item, gewin to Barbara Ramsaye, ane pure wowman with mony barnis, in almous, xxs. - 1610, Sept. 27. Item to Margret Young for candill furnist be hir that nycht the fyre was in Salt Mercat, xxs.-1612, Feb. 15. Item gifin to ane young man quha was rubbit of his pak xls.-1628. Item to Johne Clydsdaill for carying of ane crippill mane to Pasley xxvjs.-1638. Item, debursit for particularis when his Majesties commissioner the Marqueis of Hamiltoun was in the tolbuithe xxxiiij. li. xvijs. iiijd.—Item to Quintein Muir for instructing of the young men to handill thair armes xl. li.-1640. Item for outreiking of xj sojoris that went in the commoun caus with Colonell Monro lxxxxv. li. ixs. jd. Item to maister Zacharias Boyd for ane termes annuall of 3 markis, lxxx. li.1641. Item to ane blind minister xxvij. li.-Item to George Andersone, prenter, for his yeirs pensioune, lxvj. li. xiijs. iiijd.”

Mr. Marwick's volume is illustrated by a Plan of the City in 1773; and, better still, has a Table of Contents and Index so minute as to allow of the book being easily consulted by the most inexperienced reader. For much of its completeness in this respect a graceful and appropriate reference is made to Mr. Renwick, who copied the records for press, collated the proof-sheets, and prepared the Index of this interesting City volume.

Dry as record study may appear at first sight to the student who knows how to work in the mine and how to employ the discoveries certain to reward patient, intelligent labour, it is not only an informing but a delightful pursuit. Portions of what may be called history, touching at one point or other almost the entire domain of human knowledge, no historical research worthy of the name can be conducted without a careful study of the records pertaining to the period, or the subject, it may be, under investigation. This is true of all history, but true in an especial manner of local or municipal history. In this way books like Dr. Marwick's “ Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Glasgow" come to have a double value—they suggest and they authenticate ; they suggest new lines of inquiry, and authenticate what may have been only imperfectly known before. Even more than this often happens. Attention in the study of known records leads to the discovery of kindred records not known to exist, or which may have been removed from their proper restingplace. In rewards of this kind Dr. Marwick has been more than usually lucky. While directing the preparation of the first Glasgow record volume the TownClerk was fortunate enough to bring to light four MS. volumes of Council minutes unknown to predecessors in office, one extending from May, 1581, to April, 1586; a second from October, 1594, to May, 1597; a third from Nov., 1598, to October, 1601; and the fourth from June, 1605, to June, 1610. This first volume, printed for the Scottish Burgh Record Society about seven years since (see p. 193), embraced the period between Jan., 1573, and Sept., 1642 ; but, even with Dr. Marwick's good fortune in bringing the four lost volumes to light, there were still five provoking breaks within the period, one of them extending from December, 1630, till May, 1636. But this MS. was also found after the first was printed, and is now included in the new volume, which other. wise covers the period between May, 1641, and December, 1662. Like the first volume, the second contains everything to be found in the Council records within that period illustrative of the constitution of the burgh, its municipal government, its relation to other local bodies, and many glimpses, to be had nowhere else, of the social life of the people in those days. This arises, no doubt, partly from the meddlesome over-legislation by local Magistrates in the sixteenth century—a meddlesomeness which would be now felt as intolerablebut which yet permits the present generation to see ancestors in the manner as they lived. The reader may learn from these records “how offences against the law were created and how they were dealt with ; how civil war originated and how it was conducted; how property was acquired and how it was protected; he may see the people worshipping in the church and trading in the market-place; how they dressed, how they lived, and how they talked; and he may learn if he pleases what calamities saddened and what festivals rejoiced the hearts of the old burgesses who live again in the pages of their own records.” When not otherwise mentioned money value is to be calculated in Scots currency, or one twelfth sterling. The first entry in the volume (December 18, 1630) is suggestive enough of the motto, “Let Glasgow Flourish by the Preaching of the Word,” the treasurer on that date receiving "ane warrand for fourtie pund gevin be him to Maister Andro Stewart for preitching Godis Word, as helper to Maister John Maxwell quhill he transportit his wyff, bairns, and familie to this burghe, and that be the space of fyftein weikis or thairby, as was promeist to the said Maister John for his supplie.” The second entry, on the same date, has reference to the building of the now familiar Tron steeple, five pounds (Scots) being then paid to Gabriel Smith “for scharping of the measoun irnes for the wark.” Many following entries relate to this erection, one in May, 1630, ordaining the treasurer to “have ane warrand for fourtie pund gevin be him to Mungo Huitschaw for gilting of the cok, glob, and vaines of the stipill in the Trongait, as the Proveist and Deacone of Gild agreit with him.” A laudable desire for the repair and preservation of the Cathedral, or “ Metropolitane Kirk," as it is called, is shown by many entries relating to payments for lead, woodwork, and painting. On 4th July, 1635, Matthew Colquhoun undertakes the glass windows of Outer Kirk and Quire, and “to sweip and keip clein the haill battilingis and spoutis, and to sweip and keip clein the haill turnpykis and pillar

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