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Herdman, John M'Iver, and Archibald Macallum, merchants in Greenock, and jointly concerned in the ownership of the brigantines "Endeavour" and "New York,” were committed to the Tolbooth, charged with feloniously sinking ships at sea with intent to defraud the underwriters. Application for their imprisonment on the capital charge was made before the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, but an additional reason for the prisoners being then in Edinburgh arose from an apprehended attempt at escape, through the bad condition of the prison in Paisley, and the overcrowded state of that of Glasgow, in which jails they had been confined for some time past. The trial came on before Judge Pringle, 19th May following, when, after an argument on the statutes dealing with capital and arbitrary punishments for the offences charged, the Crown restricted the indictment, and the jury found the panels guilty. The sentence was—“That they shall stand at the pillory in Glasgow, July 28 (Wednesday), for the space of one hour with a rope about each of their necks, and bare-headed," with the following label affixed to their breasts :-"Here stands John M‘Iver and Archibald Macallum, infamous persons, who did wickedly procure holes to be bored the ship ‘Endeavour,' in order to sink the same and thereby defraud the underwriters." They were also banished Scotland for life, and, in case of their return, were to be imprisoned for one year, and to be publicly whipped on the first Wednesday of every month during such imprisonment. A Bill of Suspension was presented to the Court of Justiciary, but the Judges repelled the reasons, and, finding no just cause for mitigation of punishment, the panels were duly pilloried, agreeable to their sentence. The prisoner Herdman was tried 28th July, and being found guilty was sentenced, like his companions in guilt, to stand in the Glasgow pillory, and be thereafter banished the kingdom.
Although the “Wealth of Nations” was not published till 1776, twelve years after Adam Smith resigned his professorial chair in Glasgow University, yet his teaching had begun to exercise a strong influence in his lifetime among members of the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, as may be gathered from the proceedings at a meeting of cotton and muslin manufacturers called in August,
1784, for the purpose of protesting against the new scale of duties then imposed upon their goods. The minutes set forth that when the first class of cottons and muslins peculiar to the West Country trade were taken at a fair average, the new tax would be about 5 per cent of the value, but as the second class would chiefly include the kind of goods known as 6-4ths muslins, the tax of 2d. 6-20ths per yard would amount on an average to 7 or 8 per cent. of value. Expressing a hearty willingness to share in the general burdens of the country, the Glasgow manufacturers yet considered themselves unfairly matched against the East India Company, in so far as their home produce was selected for taxation at a time when the Company was supported at the public expense with little short of one million of money, free of interest, which would nearly equal the whole produce of the tax on cottons. The manufacturers therefore concluded by protesting against the competition as unfair, partial, and unwise, at least so long as the Company enjoyed its English monopoly and pecuniary aid from the State. Many readers still engaged in business will recollect that one of Kirkman Finlay's great services was the assistance he gave to break up this monopoly, and the example he set in opening up the extensive Indian trade. The first ship direct from the Clyde to India—the van of a vast fleet, Mr. Stewart justly remarks—was freighted by Kirkman Finlay, the “Buckinghamshire,” of 600 tons, being sent out for Calcutta direct.
Organised mainly for the purpose of serving commerce, the Chamber has occasionally unbended from its high duties and gracefully acknowledged services rendered indirectly to merchants, forgetting even for a moment that her symbols are those of peace and not of war. In the course of the great struggle for independence by the American Colonies, aided by France, a number of the more important West India Islands-Tobago and St. Christopher among the rest was seized on behalf of his Most Christian Majesty by General the Marquis Bouillé, famous in many lands before that for magnanimity no less than bravery, and destined to high command afterwards in the unhappy contest carried on by his brother nobles against the Republic. Having done all that was possible to protect property in the islands, and in much of it Glasgow merchants had a deep interest—the Chamber of Commerce in the first year of its corporate existence, agreed to present a sword to the gallant Marquis, in testimony of their appreciation of the high qualities manifested in his late command, when, in the career of victory, "he softened the horrors of war in a manner hitherto unknown, and protected the property of individuals in those moments of distress, when the vanquished were accustomed to experience devastation and ruin." The sword, made after an ancient Scottish pattern, and reputed at the time as the finest ever made in the country, was conveyed by General Melvill to the Marquis, who duly acknowledged the gift with expressions of esteem for Great Britain, and the most lively sentiments of gratitude to "the gentlemen of the Chamber of Commerce."
The above incident, taken almost at random from the first year in the history of the Chamber, may indicate to Mr. Stewart in what manner, if not to what extent, he might have usefully shown, with more minuteness than he has done, the more important questions taken up from time to time by the Chamber, as well as the influence it may be presumed to have exercised in their settlement. With this exception, no words except words of praise need be used in describing his labour. The merchant, the historian, the genealogist, will all find it full of excellent matter fitly arranged. Even those curious on the subject of street nomenclature will find it of much use, for many an important thoroughfare, many a street, lane, and square owes its name to members of the Chamber described by Mr. Stewart
OLD GLASGOW HOUSES.
SOME years since there was issued a handsome folio volume filled with 100 highly-finished photographs of mansions in and around Glasgow, historically interesting, as being associated with the names of old City merchants, or with the families of landed proprietors. In addition to the excellent pictures by Annan, each mansion had devoted to it a few pages of letterpress, descriptive of its age and history, with some account of the families, past and present, reared within its walls. When it is mentioned that many of these sketches came from the pen of our amiable and accomplished friend, the late John Buchanan, LL.D., assurance was given that the duty of preparing the text had been committed to most competent writers, familiar alike with the details of burghal life and property, as well as trained in the somewhat special pursuit of genealogical investigation. The impression was limited to a little over 100 copies, almost instantly taken up by subscribers. Since the date of publication the chance of obtaining the volume has only rarely been afforded by sales when libraries were being broken up, and when nobody thought of grudging a very large advance on the original cost. The book was a rarity, and it was besides—what is not always the case with book rarities—a substantial and valuable addition to local historical literature. There was room at any time for a new impression. Under these circumstances, and as applications for the work were much increased of late (1882), Mr. Maclehose issued a new edition of 225 copies, fully subscribed for, in like manner to the first. It is, indeed, in some respects rather a preferable volume, the opportunity of reprinting the sheets having been taken advantage of to correct a few unavoidable slips in names and dates, as well as to bring in a general way the family records to a point nearer the present day. Annan's photographs are still perfectly fresh and lustrous. They have been taken in almost every instance from such a point of view as gives a fair notion of the fabric, with the exception probably of Garscube, where we miss the fine old English manor front, designed with so much taste by Mr. Burn. In a book otherwise handsome, entertaining, and useful—a book, besides, which hardly makes any appeal to the general public for patronage, it may appear ungracious even to refer to apparent defects; but one or two will be noticed in turning over the leaves. The photographs, though strictly speaking correct and bright, are yet cold and stiff-a result largely due to the fact of many of them having been taken in the winter season, when trees stand bare of foliage, and produce startling pictorial effects with their skeleton branches. In many cases the bleak aspect outside contrasts strongly with the comfort and good cheer which it may be presumed was enjoyed within Then the two maps of Glasgow, showing the City at different dates, are on much too small a scale to permit of tracing out streets or properties referred to in the text. A full-page, or even a double-page, map of the dates given would have been of considerable service to the reader. Lastly, we miss one or two mansions interesting on their own account, or as being associated with Glasgow merchants. There is Cordale, with its memories of the elder Stirlings, Campbell, Sir William Hamilton, and “Cyril Thornton;" there is the stately pile of Tillichewan, acquired by one who was in many respects a typical merchant of the early years of the present century; and there is the fine old house of Gartshore, now absorbed in the artsherrie connection.
The rise of the great industries of Glasgow not dating much beyond the latter quarter of last century, the history of these old merchants comes to be really a history of the commercial enterprise of the period read in the light of their daily experience and domestic usages. Would we know the facts about the tobacco or wine trade, about coal or iron, about spinning or weaving, where need we look with more confidence than in the family records of citizens so prominent as the Buchanans, the Bogles, and the Glassfords, the Hamiltons, Douglasses, and Dunlops? It is only a pity the labour was not undertaken earlier. Between improvement schemes and railway operations the City has become a new place to citizens who might be offended if they were called elderly. The Cathedral, to be sure, St. Andrew's, and the Tron Steeple still remain; there is a Gallowgate and a High Street in name, though the first is changed to a broad and well-built thoroughfare, and the last pulled down in many quarters beyond hope of identification with old land-marks, but no assurance can be given for the preservation even in name of old buildings in the outskirts. Of the 100 mansions figured in the work, ten have gone since it was first issued. North Woodside and Camplefield