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Learning to Labour,* and the lecture on Teach-bound the human family to labour was the coners and Teaching.t viction that bread was only to be obtained by the The general subject of the education of the sweat of the brow: we might have learnt from poor has occupied so fully the attention of states- the study of the society around us, that man was men, philosophers, and stump orators of late retained at labour only by the original impulse of years, that it can be in no respect attributed pe- this necessity, by his solicitude for his children's culiarly to Mr. Greeley, and as it cannot form welfare, and by the stimulus of the artificial deany subject of disagreement with him, we may sires which sprung up beneath his feet at every be dispensed from noticing it. Even the edu- step of his social advancement. But Mr. Greecation of the poor for specific occupations and ley throws all this evidence aside. What has he trades is no new proposal, and has been frequently to do with history? Why should his chimerical made, with varying success, the subject of direct projects of reform be cramped and restricted by experiment. Most occupations and trades are the teachings of experience and the lessons of indeed best acquired in the offices or under the the past, when the unfettered imagination can superintendence of the masters similarly enga- so lightly surmount all difficulties, and exercise ged; but the agricultural colleges of the conti- so much more freely its wings in the buoyant air nent, the College of Mines at St. Petersburg, of an ideal atmosphere? A visionary, who sees the Polytechnic School at Paris, the English "no reason why the wildest dreams of the familitary, naval, and engineering schools, and the natical believer in Human Progress and PerfectiWest Point Academy, which are all institutes bility may not ultimately be realized,” (p. 45,)— for the preparation of young men for special em- who thinks that "there is no habitable portion ployments, have been eminently successful. We of our globe where a thoroughly virtuous populahave deemed it unnecessary to refer to the Medi- tion might not reconstitute the Garden of Eden," cal and Law Schools which have been in exist- (p. 60,) and is a believer in not one, but many ence from the days of Constantine. But we be- such populations:-who asserts that "half a lieve the Socialists are entitled to the credit of century will suffice" to render "food as abunfirst proposing to educate in such a way as to dant and accessible as the common elements," render hard work attractive. Yet if the labour- (p. 66 :)—who hopes that Sahara shall rejoice ing classes are to be emancipated from all the once more in verdure and fragrance. (p. 73) :— circumstances of their position which render la- who fancies that each human life might be a bour a necessity, they will certainly be deprived triumph, which angels would lean from the skies of any adequate stimulus to labour, unless labour delighted to witness and admire," (p. 77) :—and be rendered attractive. There is an unbroken who dreams of "a new and benignant Social coherence between all the parts of truth, and Order, from which want and wo, fraud and wrong, there is frequently an instinctive and unperceiv-discord and antagonism, shall be banished, and the ed dependence between the separate branches of highest attainable good of each member striven error. Such is the case in the present instance. for and secured," (p. 384):-any one who puts The emancipation of labour necessitates its con- all these Utopian reveries in his easy creed may version into an attractive occupation. But is believe that the poor can be so educated as to this transmutation possible? We think not render labour less a duty and a necessity than an All men, or nearly all, labour now in one form attraction, but to such must the church be limited. or another, whether they belong to the so-called We cannot join the new faith: we do not live in labouring classes or not, but they labour in con- Utopia, neither is our daily walk amid the clouds: sequence of the urgent necessities of their con- we cannot shake off our conviction of the imperdition. The lawyer or physcian frequently la- fection, the frailty, the folly, the frequent iniquity bours more assiduously than any mechanic or of men; we have seen no prospect of the realiday labourer. The work of the intellect is not|zation of such bright visions either in the vicinity lighter, less difficult, less exacting, harassing, or of the Tribune Office, or in any other part of the exhausting than the work of the hands, but more world; and we leave the dreamers of wild dreams so. We have no doubt that Mr. Greeley led an to hope for attractive labour, while we painfully easier and quieter life when he was a journeyman prosecute our own; they may assist Mr. Greeley printer, than he does now when he is the Editor to build castles in the air, and believe in the subof that Abolition print, the New-York Tribune. stantial nothings of his dream, while we pass to Without the light of revelation we might have the consideration of topics which are not directly suspected that labour was in itself a curse, though refuted by their own absurdity. the parent of many blessings; we might have discovered from history that the only tie which

Mr. Greeley misconceives entirely the nature and requirements of learning and science, when he expects them to be sufficiently pursued by a labouring class, whether agricultural or not: To

* Hints toward Reforms, iv. pp. 112-148 Hints toward Reforms, vii. pp. 206-231.

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increase the amount and character of the educa- | from teachers, to which the demands on all other
tion communicated to all is certainly desirable, labourers are trifling. The interests of our coun-
but it does not dispense with the necessity of a try, as of every country, require that the stand-
more highly educated class, who shall devote ing of the great body of teachers should be raised,
themselves exclusively to intellectual pursuits and their profits increased; then a strict scrutiny
for without such exclusive study both science and into their competency might be instituted, and
learning must decline, and even their practical the capacity, the knowledge, the zeal of the
fruits must slowly wither away and die. There class of instructors might be gradually elevated
are indeed notable exceptions: the elder Her- to the very highest point which could be required
schel supported himself as an organist and teach- for the fullest efficiency. But Mr. Greeley has a
er of music; Benedict Spinoza by grinding opti- crotchet in his head he has conceived a vague
cal glasses: but the exception cannot be con- distinction, which he fancies to be valid, between
verted into the rule. The demands of modern the classes which work almost exclusively with
science are so great as to require a long life for their hands, and those which employ principally
the mastery of a single department, and any intellectual labour; and while he would monop-
considerable advancement of its frontiers. The olize, if he could, every advantage for the former,
ramifications of science are so various and ex- he would war upon the latter as not belonging to
tensive as to exact the whole time of the most what he supposes to be the great body of labour-
diligent student. If his time is to be occupied ers. He probably underrates the value of in-
with attention to agriculture, or the provision of struction and overrates the sufficiency of self
a maintenance by other bodily labour, he could education:-it is the common error of men so
never preserve nor increase his stores of know- unfortunate as not to have had the benefits of
ledge-nor, indeed, except in rare cases, could regular literary training. Mr. Greeley indulges
he accumulate them. "The wisdom of a in the vulgar hostility to Classical studies, like
learned man cometh by opportunity of leisure: most persons who know nothing about them, and
and he that hath little business shall become wise. gives as a reason for his opposition to classical
How can he get wisdom that holdeth the plough, antiquity, that History "has borne down to us
and that glorieth in the goad, that driveth oxen, only or mainly its bloody aspect." (p. 70.) We
and is occupied in their labours, and whose talk have no very high opinion of Hamilton College,
is of bullocks? He giveth his mind to make where this Address was delivered, but such a
furrows; and is diligent to give the kine fodder," speech was peculiarly unfortunate in the pres-
&c., &c. The accomplishment of Mr. Gree-ence of the Faculty and Students of any Col-
ley's aims would necessarily result in the rapid
decline and ultimate overthrow of all learning
and science, and the certain decay of that large
portion of our modern civilization which is due
to the advancement already made and daily con-
tinued in the intellectual cultivation of the world.
Instead of building up and diffusing knowledge,
he is undermining it.

lege, for they must have remembered, if he had
forgotten or been ignorant of it, that from that
same classical antiquity had come down to us
Grammar, Philosophy, Science, Oratory, Poetry,
Politics, Law, Art and Architecture. It is only
a very minute portion of the remains of Aucient
learning that is in any respect concerned with
the bloody aspect of the ancient nations. But
Mr. Greeley's ostentation of learning in regard
to things modern, is equally unlucky. He says,
"we know well who first compounded Gunpow-
der, where Cannon were first used, and when
the Bayonet was invented." (p. 71.) The lat-
ter is indeed conjectured with probable truth;

It is an inconsistency not altogether surprising to us, that Mr. Greeley, who is anxious to extend the benefits of education to all classes as a means of improving their condition, should nevertheless propose to render still less favourable than it is at present, the condition of that body which is to be the instrument in communicating these ad.but all the researches of Mediæval antiquarians vantages. Many of our teachers may be incom- have not been able to determine either of the petent and imperfectly educated, but their re two former facts. Gunpowder was in use two wards, whether as regards their pecuniary profits hundred years before the time of Berthold or their social advantages, are certainly scanty Schwarz, to whom it is vulgarly attributed,* and enough. It will not tend to increase their prep- the first use of Cannon in Europe, is still a disaration for their holy office, to exact of them puted and undiscovered question. A person who labours beyond those required of any other la- talks so rashly, and with such pretence to knowbourers, and yet reduce the profits already too ledge about matters with which he is wholly unlow. Besides the painful acquisition, and still acquainted, is not entitled to be our guide in critimore painful communication of knowledge to cizing present modes of education or devising unwilling recipients, a steady moral excellence, * Humboldt. Cosmos. Vol. ii., p. 221. Seventh auand through intellectual training are required thorized English Edition.

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new ones. Yet even from Mr. Greeley's errors or impelled them into false and purely mercenary in regard to this subject, from his vague and channels. It is true, indeed, that at this time there are manifested the first signs of a healthy reaction in Europe; and that this blighting tendency, so far as it exists in this country, is almost entirely confined to the Northern and Western States of the Union. The sparse population, the agricultural life, and the distinction of races in the South liberate them in great measure from such grievous and imminent perils.

chaotic glimpses of truth, perhaps valuable truths may be suggested to those who are willing to winnow the wheat from the chaff, and are able to discover the practical good which may be attainable through the dense mists of misconception and confusion by which it is surrounded and obscured. We are willing to admit that by such something may be learnt even from Mr. Greeley.

The objections to the Phalanx are innumerable, but we are not disposed to occupy the pages more especially devoted to Mr. Greeley with a description of the general subject of Fourierism.

In connection with this subject, Mr. Greeley The Three Reforms, with their dependent topmakes a remark which is too important to be ics, to which we have devoted so much space, passed by altogether without notice, yet we can- embrace the sum and substance of nearly all not give to it that consideration to which it is that is important or has any impress of originalentitled. He says: "The simple truth is that ity in Mr. Greeley's speculations. From them the Intellectual Culture of our age has outgrown he passes to the advocacy of a scheme by which its Physical and Social Progress, creating anar- he thinks they can be most effectually carried chy and confusion." (p. 82.) This is not the out, and many other incidental advantages sefirst time that the doctrine has been presented, cured. This is Fourierite Association, “in which nor is it altogether true as here expressed, yet it rests his hope of a better day at hand, for the may afford material for much and valuable re-down-trodden millions," (p. 40.) and is followflection. It is stated with much greater accura-ed by an imaginary sketch of a hopeful Phacy and fuluess by both Comte and Wronski, and lanx in Wisconsin or Michigan, which surmounts is acutely analyzed by them in its causes and or avoids all difficulties as easily as an Amadis consequences, and to them we would refer Mr. de Gaul. Greeley for many new views eveu in regard to his own supposed originalities. The error of the age is not so much the excess of intellectual culture as its improper character and direction. Our Physical and Social, or rather our Social We would only refer with cordial approbation to and Political necessities have certainly outgrown the concluding sentences of the first paper which the limits within which our Intellectual culture has detained us so long. is available for the ministration of adequate sat- The Lecture on the Actual and the Ideal con isfaction. The undue admiration for intellectual tains several sensible suggestions, and many nopower and achievements is no less a character- ble sentiments floating in an immense wash of istic disease of the Nineteenth Century, than the fustian rhetoric. The same remark may be apinordinate appetite for pecuniary gain; and one plied to the Lecture on Human Life-but for this of the most significant symptoms of the times is the Author has offered his apologies. To the the complete conversion of nearly all science and Lecture on the Formation of Character, we learning into the mere tools of pecuniary aggran- cheerfully accord our unqualified approbation:— dizement. Mr. Greeley complains that Capital there is indeed but one word in the whole to which has monopolized Land, Labour and Machinery, we would object, and that relates to a subject but a much more fatal calamity is that it has suc-which we are glad to exclude from the present ceeded in monopolizing and debasing literary notice. This Lecture urges such high and holy and scientific pursuits also. There would not be truths, in a manner so manly and so sensibleso much reason for complaining of this, if it with such an elevated tone of lofty feeling, that were only attended with the improvement of the we pass it by without question, commending it condition of the masses. But it is not so: Capi- to the thoughtful study of those who refuse as tal has obtained already, or is daily obtaining well as of those who espouse Mr. Greeley's theomore and more the possession of all the instru- ries. We can forgive much, and overlook much ments of pecuniary gain: daily the facilities of in the heretic who has prominently asserted in a improving their condition are more and more self-seeking, Mammon-worshipping age the pricewithdrawn from the poorer classes: and this less truth, that "the true deduction of far seeing double movement, if not checked and controlled, wisdom, imports that virtue in itself and for must ultimately result in the complete disrupture itself, is the most desirable thing, above all conof society, and the ruin of that very capital sequences, aside from all results, spurning all which, in its selfish blindness, has been the main-mercenary calculations of profit and loss." (p. spring of disaster, and has paralysed the ener-101.) It is an old truth, old as the Hebrew progies of all the higher and nobler faculties of men, phets, and heathen sages, but it has been very

diligently shuffled aside in our day and genera- time, the place, and the occasion, those revolu-
tion, and we applaud the political speculator tionary and disorganizing measures, which, if
who again presses it into notice, and endeavours adopted in the manner proposed by him, could
to stamp it once more upon the hearts of the only inflame still more the social fever of Europe,
people. Such sentiments may counterbalance and force our condition unnecessarily into a state
in a great measure even the social delusions with of evil approximating to the present misery
which they are mingled.
abroad. Slow and gradual reform may be ex-
pedient and requisite, but such a dissolution of
modern society and upturning of the whole edi-
fice, could only be productive of inestimable ca-
lamity. We take our leave of Mr. Greeley by
commending to him the words of a great poet,
who had lived through, and witnessed the afflic-
tions of a revolution:

We will here end our examination. We have extended our remarks much beyond what we designed, and far beyond what is appropriate to the pages of a monthly periodical. Yet we have left the greater part of Mr. Greeley's work unnoticed, and have touched lightly only on the more prominent topics. These are, however, so immediately connected with the well-being of society, and the practical concerns of daily life, that we hope the importance of correcting plausible and proselyting delnsions on such subjects, will atone for the length of our criticism. We have found much to blame and condemn, but we have cheerfully praised where we could. We have endeavoured to treat Mr. Greeley's errors with a kindly impartiality, suffering ourselves not to be seduced by the numerous temptations presented by his many rash, loose, and superficial statements. We have purposely refrained from dwelling on his Abolitionism, and his repetition of old errors in regard to other parts of Political Economy we have passed by almost without allusion. The great fundamental delusion of Fourierism, which invited a caustic refutation, we have barely alluded to notwithstanding Mr. Greeley owns his proclivity to its errors to be so great that he says, "if I were to attempt a love-story, I have no doubt it would insensibly grow into a socialist harangue or a dissertation on the causes and cure of human destitution." (p. 385.) But we were anxious to meet and check specific, plausible schemes of error, and were unwilling to impair the force of our criticism by yielding to any thing which might seem to spring merely from prejudice. Nor could we refuse altogether charity and indulgence to one who had recalled the attention of men to "an unexplored continent of duty," (p. 389.) and urged its assiduous cultivation. Still we cannot but renew the expression of our regret that Mr. Greeley should have thought it necessary to agitate prematurely and without sufficient study and preparation these great social problems which are convulsing Europe; and that instead of patiently availing himself of the favoured condition of our land to pursue the diligent investigation of the phenomena of society and the applicability of remedies, he should

In midst of health imagine a disease; Take pains contingent mischiefs to foresee; and press with an urgency wholly unbefitting the

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Maurice. Ah! this is nothing, Dear heart, to the sweet peace that crowns our dwelling, And tells us, though the tempest growls afar,

Its thunders strike not here. The fame I covet

Is still in tribute subject to your joys;
And these, secure-you, happy in my bosom,
My pride forgets its aim! Ambition slumbers
Nor makes me once forgetful of the rapture,
That follows your embrace.
[Knock without.
Clarice.
The widow Pressley.
Maurice. Quick, welcome her.-Poor woman, we will
save her.

Clarice. I joy to hear you say so.-Come in, madam. [Enter Widow Pressley and Kate. Maurice. Welcome, dear madam; you must needs be anxious,

But still be hopeful. I have brought the action,
And doubt not, from my study of your case,
That we shall gain it-put the usurper out,
And win you back some portion of your wealth.
The truth is on our side,—the evidence

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