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come very weary of doing what is tedious, if not difficult, without apparently advancing one step in the career of knowledge. But the other sysFourthly, a teacher can, in this way, best se- tem is eminently progressive, and all young men cure the attention of his pupils. All experienced of capacity and ambition, will be reconciled to teachers know that their greatest practical diffi- the labor which it involves, by a consciousness culty is inability to command the undivided at of advancement, which may be continued ad intention of their scholars. While one is reading finitum. None who have been properly trained on this plan will ever use those absurd, but not unfrequent expressions, reading through Latin, finishing Latin." Their vanity will always be checked by the reflection, that they have a boundless field before them, of which they can cultivate a part, proportioned to their capacity, leisure, and inclinations.

Sixthly, it not only renders the student conscious of progress, but it compels the teacher to make progress. We have heard it absurdly urged against instructors, that they are in the habit of preparing their lessons beforehand. When it proceeds from absolute ignorance, or from never

a passage from a classical author, the minds of the others will often be completely listless and wandering. No severity of discipline can entirely prevent this; there is need of some mode, by which a sort of animation may be imparted to the recitation, and each one be required to take a part in what is going on, at short intervals. We do not assert that nothing can be done towards this object on other plans; but we know, from experience, that much can be easily effected on this. Let a large black board, one of the greatest inventions of modern times, and equally adapted to teaching language as science, be used; let each member of the class be required, at the having learned the general principles of the subsame time, to convert an English sentence. given ject properly, it is a well-founded objection. But orally by the teacher, into Latin on the black-when it is intended to refresh and extend their board, and, when all have finished, let those sen- knowledge before ample, and to fit them better tences be corrected by the teacher in the pres- for communicating an active impulse to the minds ence of the whole class. Or, if the black-board of their pupils, it is a positive recommeudation. be too small to admit the whole class at once, let None is so well prepared to impart information, those who remain at their seats, correct the sen- as one ardently and actively engaged in enlargtences written by the others. Let an oral exam- ing his own stock. If, having learned all that ination be added, so conducted, by constantly he thinks it practicable or desirable to give his passing from one to another, as effectually to pre-pupils, he lays aside the subject, his mind ceases clude inattention. This will give a liveliness and to act in regard to it, and he cannot of course animation, utterly unknown to any recitation on impart to others an interest which he does not the ordinary system. feel himself. It would be just as reasonable to expect a stagnant pool to set machinery in motion.

Now, if an instructor combine with the exercises actually set down in the book, others consisting in the reconversion of translations from the classics into Latin, and then carefully com

Fifthly, the plan we advocate makes a student conscious of progress. None who have had opportunities of observation, can fail to have remarked, that boys, or young men, who have for years been pursuing the ancient languages on the old system, no matter how rigidly enforced, pare the Latin of his pupils with that of the origiseem to feel, as if agentes acta, going perpetu-ual, he may find sufficient occupation for a lifeally over the same things, and, in fact, not ad- time. He must also aid the pupil in combining vancing in their knowledge of the principles of the scattered fragments of information which he the languages. As stated in the passage, quoted finds in the book into one whole, by judicious from Manesca, reading and analyzing a few pages questions, adapted to point out the connexion of any standard author will give them a know-between the isolated parts. This is a duty little ledge, such as can be thus attained, of all the attended to, but rendered indispensable by the leading principles. By reading more, they become necessary deficiency of all text-books. If these more familiar with them, and acquire greater flu- ideas be carried out, teachers will be required ency in translation, but soon begin to imagine who will give themselves to the work, not relucand indeed to realize, that they are learning noth-tantly and temporarily, but heartily and permaing additional, in regard to principles and idioms.nently. At the same time, every instructor of

This want of progress, to some extent unavoid-real iutelligence, and proper sense of duty, will able, is increased by the too common practice of feel happier, when actively occupied, and seeing ceasing to make a student parse, after his prelim- his pupils always sensibly progressing, than he inary drilling. As comparatively few are interest-possibly can do in the wearisome tread-mill of ed in the narratives, discussions, or beauties of the the ordinary drilling.

classical writers, the larger portion naturally be- But it may be asked, if all this time be given

that habits of inaccuracy, in many cases, fully counterbalance any benefits accruing from derivation.

to exercises, how much will be left for reading classical authors? We frankly confess, that it must be greatly abridged, and cannot deny that much translation is necessary to complete our knowledge. But where one portion of instruction must be given up for want of time, we must of course sacrifice that which is less essential. Where particular boys have leisure, or where young men have inclination and opportunity, it will be very well for them to engage in an extensive course of reading, but it is useless to deny the fact, that as a general thing, it cannot be BY W. GILMORE SIMMS, AUTHOR OF "THE YEMASSEE," &c. done. An extensive familiarity with classical authors has already become less common, aud is certainly less important. The practice of writing the notes to the classical authors in English enables the scholar to get on much more rapidly than he could in our younger days, when the Latin notes were often more difficult than the text. Indeed we fear that some annotators have rendered the text too easy by given a free translation of almost every passage indiscriminately. Where this is the case, the learner will do little more than commit to memory these translations, which will often lead him far astray from the structure of the original. Notes should give full information on every point necessary to elucidate the original, but should, as much as possible, leave the scholar to make his own translation, an operation which is peculiarly useful and improving.

To understand Greek and Latin thoroughly, some knowledge of the manners, history and antiquities of the nations which used them, is indispensable. Information on these topics has been greatly extended, and the text-books much improved. The study of them is a recreation both agreeable and useful, as being intimately connected with the philosophy of history.

We therefore maintain that the foundation should be laid deep and strong, and each individual allowed to erect such superstructure on it, as may suit his own taste and convenience; we are utterly against raising the superstructure first. It is plain that the time devoted to the classics must perforce be shortened, to satisfy American impatience, and make room for something considered more practical; but we deny that the evil ought to be aggravated by encouraging a habit of superficial study. We think that the Oral mode, combined, as it always is, and must be with constant writing, soonest familiarizes us with the great principles of the language, best trains the mental powers, and fits the learner for acquiring other languages. We therefore recommend it to teachers, as that which, if it does not lessen, will greatly lighten their labor, by making them feel that it is far more useful and honorable.

G. E. D.








A chamber in the dwelling of Harry Matthews, in
street, St. Louis. Robert Warren and Richard Os-
borne discovered.


I warn'd you of the peril.
Had scarcely fancied that his glance could fathom
Yet your wisdom
Disguise so good as mine!


I said his eye

Was like an eagle's. It were hard to say,
What, with his mind once roused into suspicion,
It could not penetrate!


Disgraced me as he still has done before
In peaceful strife. The mask is thrown aside,
He knows me, here, his enemy; and now-
open conflict!

What is now the game?
The open conflict he would never shrink from!
Why, when his hand was fix'd upon your throat,
Did you forbear the weapon?


Ask me rather,

Why one is still superior to his fellow;
Why one is brave; another impotent;
Why I am feeble just where he is strong;-
And why with will to compass his destruction,
My heart still fails me in the final effort!

Such still hath been the sequel of our issues;
He still hath mastered me with such a will,
My spirit droops before him, and I shudder,
To feel, that with a hate so fixed and fearful,
lack the heart to drive the weapon home!—
But I shall do it yet!


Osborne. And why the conflict,
Thus ever urged with fate also much peril'd↑

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Warren. "Twould better please me,
If one, that should be in my service only,
Could find my foe less perfect.
And, to do so,
Should prove himself less true.
Oh! your truth,
Were better shown in service than opinion!
My habit was good; and I had been secure,
But that, to sound him, I unseal'd myself;
And, like a witling, answered all his questions,
Of persons that we once had known together.

Osborne. Be sure, he first suspected ere he question'd.
Warren. 'Tis like enough! At all events he floor'd

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[Enter Harry Matthews.
Art ready, Warren?

Will be in a moment!
You'll go with us.

And face the shame, with which he threatens me,
Yet, with a tyranny so terrible,

That plies me with its torture day by day,
'Twere better throw increase of weight on conscience,
And, by embrace with deeds of deadlier aspect,
At least secure escape from sway like this!
Had I the heart for it! Could I find the courage!
'Twere but a blow!-a blow! I'll ponder it.

[Exit Osborne.

No faltering when the moment comes to speak;
The rod that does not yield to me, I break!

[Exit Matthews and Warren. Osborne. And no escape! I dare not run on ruin,

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Matthews. He did not know his customer, I fancy.
Blasinghame. I think not; and to lesson him a little,
One of my lambs was sent to him this morning,
Joe Savage!

Ferguson. Joe's a rough teacher, Colonel.
Blasinghame. As God has made him, Joe. He'll do
our business

As tenderly as if it were his own.

Ferguson. But was there not some whisper of a secret
Touching this Norman Maurice, which if true,
Would render any messages of honor,

Impossible to him!

I did not hear!


Unfold your budget.
Ferguson. Harry Matthews, there,
Speaks of a secret in his friend's possession,
That's fatal to this man!



Matthews, [to Osborne.]


Excuse me.
Warren, [aside to Osborne.] And why not?
Osborne, [aside to W.] Sufficient, as they tell us, for And I confess to you I have my fears,

the day,

Its evil; when I can no longer 'scape it,
I'll mix in this conspiracy;-till then,
Let me go idle.

Ha! out with it!
'Twill save a monstrous trouble in our wigwam,
For, to say truth, this man is popular,
Grows every day in strength in the assembly,

Touching the play before us. Our new members,
Are not what I would have them; and old Mercer,
Catesby and Brooks, gain daily influence,
Under the cunning counsel of this Maurice.

Warren, [aside to Osborne.] Hark you, Richard Os- If we can crush this fellow, who has talents,


And shows more stubbornness than I could relish,
'Twere better done before we lose our headway,
This man disposed of, they can find no other
To take the field with Ferguson.
Speak, Warren!


Warren. There is a secret, gentlemen; a dark one; | Glides with the midnight to the sleepless pillow;
Which told, were fatal to this Norman Maurice;
I will not tell it now; but wait the moment,
When, over all, conspicuous most, he stands,
With triumph in his prospect, and his spirit,
Exulting in the state he deems secure!
Then will I come between his hope and prospect,
Then show the guilty secret that degrades him,
Confound him with the proofs which now are ready,
And hurl him down to ruin, the more fatal,
For that I suffer'd him to rise so high.

And, with the laurel wreath that crowns the triumph,
Sows thick the thorns that make the brow to ache!
Did the emolument not imply the service;
Were we not each enjoin'd with a commission;
The task decreed, the struggle thrust upon us;
Making it manhood to comply with duty;
How better far the treasure in our keeping,
Love at our bosom-peace upon our threshold,-
When bliss can never hope increase of rapture,
And fear begins to dream of unknown danger,-

Blasinghame. But why not now? The man is high To fly the world—the conflict,-nay, the triumph!
And bearing off the trophy we have won,


Warren. The secret's mine, sir. When I'm done Hush the ambitious spirit in our hearts

with it,

I'll bury it as did the Phrygian Barber,
Where every reed that whistles in the wind
Shall make it into music for his ear.

Be sure of this, I'll yield it you in season,
Ere Maurice sits a Senator in Congress!
Matthews. Well-that's sufficient!

He'll not fight!
If he would-

Yes! Let him do that!
Meanwhile, there is a way to save himself,
This Maurice has my message-
Matthews. His honor would be rescued by his death?
Warren. Scarcely; since 'tis for me to keep the secret,
Or free it if I please! But let me tell you,
That Maurice will not shrink from any combat:
I know him well. He is mine enemy,

But let me do him justice. He will fight,

Though all the devils of hell stood up against him.
Look to it, sir, [to Blasing.,] your reputation's great,
But Maurice is no common opponent;

A wing as swift, an eye as vigilant,

An instinct that, as still they keep it sleepless,
Prompt the keen search, when rapture stops for rest!
A sad presentiment of coming evil
Stifles each generous impulse at my heart,

Blasinghame. Well, that's good news! My lamb is That ever spoke in confidence. This Warren,
Is here for mischief; with what hope to prosper-
That single proof destroy'd-I now divine not.
This woman, coming close upon his footsteps,
Confirms my apprehensions. They are allies-
She false as he, but feeble-his mere creature-
To beat the bush, while he secures the game!
Well! I must watch them with a vigilance,
Due to the precious treasure in my trust,
And swift as justice in avenging mission,
With the first show of evil in their purpose,
Crush them to earth, and———————Well?

And you will need your utmost excellence,
To conquer him when once he takes the field!

with him now;

Will hear from him by noon.


Before we part,-
'Tis understood we put our troops in motion;
The strife will be a close one! Blasinghame,
Has truly spoken of this new assembly;-

It puzzles me to fathom it. This Maurice,
Is, questionless, a man of wondrous power;
And, though I much prefer that we should beat him
In a fair wrestle, with the usual agents;
Yet this is not so certainly our prospect,
As that we should forego this fatal secret,
That makes our game secure.

You shall have it.
Blasinghame. We meet to-night at Baylor's.
Matthews, [to Warren.] You'll be with us?
It may be that your fruit will then be ripe.
Blasinghame. Ay, come, sir, with your friend.
Warren, [to Matthews.] Perhaps! We'll see;-
There may be other fruits upon that tree.

[Exeunt several ways.



An apartment in the house of Norman Maurice. appears seated at a table with books and papers before him. After a pause, he closes his book, folds and ties the papers in a bundle, pushes them from before him and


Maurice, [solus.] It is the curse of insecurity! That cruel doubt that hangs upon possession;

That whispers, "Life has more!" Have I won nothing,
That I should toil, as unrequited labor

Still hoping yet to win? Am I a beggar,

Who perilling nothing in each fearful venture,

Stakes all his hopes on change? With goods so precious,
Should I still venture in the common market,

Where malice stands, with gibe of cruel slander,
And envy lurks in readiness to steal,
When still the shelter of the wilderness,
The depth of shadow, the great solitudes,
Beckon the heart with promise of their own,
Still singing, "here is refuge!"
Wretched folly!-

As if the serpent could not find the garden;
As if the malicious hate, by hell engendered,
Had not an equal instinct how to fathom
The secret haunt where rapture hopes to hide!
Hate bears a will as resolute as love,

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You have need to do so;
He does not use such courtesy in common,
But usually the blow before the word!

Maurice. I'm lucky in his newborn courtesy. Savage. You are, sir! He's a rough colt, Blasinghame.


Savage. Maurice.

Kicks, does he?

Kicks, sir! Why do you say kicks? Surely, no act more proper to a colt.

Savage. You are something literal, sir. I'm glad of it,
Since 'twill be easier to be understood!
Well, sir, I come to you from Blasinghame.
You know not, sir, in taking up this case

Of mother Pressley's sir, that you were doing
That which, until your coming, not a lawyer
Had done here in Missouri.


More shame on them.

Savage. Shame, say you? Wherefore, when the right of it

Was all with Blasinghame!


Or with his cudgel! Savage, [laughs.] Something in that too: Well, I say!Maurice. Well, sir! Savage. Now, as you something seem to know already

Of my friend's mode of managing his case,

I need not dwell upon the policy

Of stopping all proceedings ere the trial,

In which event I'm authorized to tell you

That Blasinghame forgives your insolent letter,
And spares you as a stranger.


As he is powerful! But what if, having
No such afflicting terror of this person,
So terrible to his neighbors, in mine eyes,
I do reject this liberal grant of mercy.

Savage. Then, sir, I bear his peremptory challenge-
Which leaves you, sir, without alternatives,
Takes no apology, no explanation,

And only seeks atonement in your blood. [giving chal-
Or his!


Savage. Or his! But that's no easy matter, sir, He's fought some thirty duels in his time, Wing'd nineteen combatants, and slew the rest, Nor had a scratch himself.


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Her error,sir-She pleads, was but in a mistaken fondness To find a suitor, for her favorite niece, With better hope of fortune than yourself.

I marvel only, after hearing you,

That still I have the courage to resist.

You will not, sir.
Maurice. I fear me that I shall!
Savage. What! you accept the challenge then?
Maurice. I'll keep it, sir, until this trial's over ;-
Savage. Beware, sir, of evasion.

You in turn, sir,
Beware of insolence. You have my answer;
When I have gain'd this suit of Widow Pressley,
I'll see to that of Colonel Blasinghame.

Savage. I must have your answer now, or
The door, sir,-
Unless, indeed, you should prefer the window.
Savage. Well! You're a man, that's certain!
us your hand.

I'm a rough beast, and like you not the less,
Because you keep a muzzle for the bear;-
I feel that you will meet with Blasinghame,
And I shall see it. [Shakes hands.

Maurice. Very like, you will! [Exit Savage. The game becomes of interest! [tap within. Clarice! [Opens to her, she enters.


Clarice. Art busy, Norman ? Maurice. Have been. But, this lady?— Clarice. Will you not see her? Maurice. Not if I can help it. Clarice. She is my only kinswoman, my husbandYou will not drive her from me?


Your only!-
You are my only, Clarice-I your only,
Until her coming! Only to each other,

Was the o'erprecious bond that most endear'd you
To my affections, wife. I cannot suffer
That she should pass between your heart and mine.
She who loves neither.
Nay, Clarice!
This cold, coarse, selfish, this dishonest woman,
Who strove to keep us separate—

Nay, Norman!

Maurice. Who broke the sacred seal upon our letters, Mine read,-yours hurried to the flames. unsent, And would have sold you to this Robert Warren, My enemy


She confesses all, and weeps!

Maurice. Tears of the crocodile! Believe them not. Plead for her nothing more! I tell you, Clarice,

I cannot hold my table sure and sacred,
With one so false beside me at the board;

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She urges abject poverty!

More falsehold still!
But we'll provide her;-she shall never suffer,
From cold, or thirst, or hunger, my Clarice.
I will to-day seek lodgings in St. Louis ;


But, should her pride ?—
She has no right
To nurse her pride at peril of our peace!
No more! I will not mock her poverty,
Offend her pride, reproach her evil doing-
Will speak her kindly, and will care for her,
So long as I have strength for any cure ;-
But will not suffer for a single moment,
Her shadow on the sunshine of my house.
Come in!

[Knock without. Enter Cols. Mercer and Brooks. Friends welcome!

[Clarice curtsies as they bow, and is about to retire. Mercer. If we be welcome,

Your lady need not leave us.


That which brings us, Is business of your own, no less than ours,A grateful business still, we trust to you, Which, doing honor to your worth and virtue, It may be grateful to your wife to hear.

Clarice. If such its burden, I were glad to linger. Maurice. Do so, Clarice!-we, gentlemen, are one! Marriage, with us, fulfils its ample mission, Making a mutual need for both our hearts, Whose sweet dependence knows no other refuge, Than that which each bestows. It is our fortune

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