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ORIGINAL PROSE ARTICLES-(CONTINUED.)

PAGE.

form of composition-Synopsis of these two stories-Parallel between Dickens and Thackeray...499 6. Hungary. Two sides to a question: Erroneous opinions of the North American Review and other writers on the Hungarian struggle: Historical summary of the contest between Austria and Hungary from the 9th Century to the present day. By an officer of the U. S. Army......505

ORIGINAL POETRY.

7. Norman Maurice; or, The Man of the People.
An American Drama. In Five Acts. By W.
Gilmore Simms, author of "The Yemassee."
Act V. Conclusion.....

...457

469

8. Lazarus. By Rev. C. W. Everest.......

9. Stanzas. (Concluded from the July number.)..489 10. Sonnets. To Athos. To D'Artagnan..... 11. Monody. By Mrs. E. Jessup Eames..

12. The Little Saint...

RICHMOND, VA.

MACFARLANE & FERGUSSON.

499

..505 505 ..516

13. A Picture......

14. Lines in Memory of the late Mrs. H. H. L****..517

EDITOR'S TABLE.

Yankee Impudence-University Law School-M. Soyer-Summer Travel-Southern LiteratureThe Magnolia-Geo. E. Dabney, Esq......517-519 NOTICES OF NEW WORKS.

Lord Morpeth's American Travels......

..519

AGENTS.

MACFARLANE & FERGUSSON, Richmond, Va.
DEWITT & DAVENPORT, New York.
JOSEPH ROBINSON. Baltimore, Md.
C. C. CLEAVES, Memphis, Tenn.
JOHN P. WRIGHT, Lynchburg, Virginia.
J. H. COGHILL, San Francisco, California.

THIS WORK IS PUBLISHED IN MONTHLY NUMBERS AVERAGING SIXTY-FOUR PAGES EACH, AT FIVE DOLLARS, PER ANNUM, INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE.

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VOL. XVII.

SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER.

PUBLISHED MONTHLY AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM—JNO. R. THOMPSON, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

RICHMOND, AUGUST, 1851.

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.*

NO. 8. and his censure of deficiencies, as his suggestions for improvement, are naturally uttered in a more subdued and timid tone than was consonant with the genius, or compatible with the aims of his predecessor. But though the work of M. Alletz can lay claim to no very eminent

It is scarcely necessary to employ the writings of other Authors as a text for any speculations on this fertile topic, but as we shall take a very different view of the age in which we live from pretensions, his brief notices of scientific and that which has been rendered familiar and al- literary progress are perspicuous, accurate, and most nauseating by the constant repetition of consequently useful for immediate reference; loose eulogies, we have deemed it prudent to in- and the original reflections, dispersed through his augurate our remarks by reference to the essays little volume, are worthy of all attention, being of Authors, who, if they do not altogether accord usually valuable and often striking. with our opinions, are nevertheless as far as ourselves from assenting to the habitual laudations of the Nineteenth century which form the chief characteristic of this golden age.

The work of M. Chasles is a most heterogeneous mélange. It contains a little of nearly every thing from a fairy tale to a philosophical essay. It is a loose gathering from the contents of an over-stuffed portfolio-a repertory of dissimilar scraps and sketches:-yet all of them are calculated to reflect more or less light on the subject which has given name to the volume. The intellectual powers of M. Chasles are of a much higher order and larger calibre than those of M. Alletz. Everywhere he displays vivacity, strength, originality, and not unfrequently eccen

The first of the little works mentioned below, that by M. Alletz, is an unpretending résumé of the intellectual achievements of the Century which is now flowing by. It is introduced, like so many other specimens of our modern literature, by a needless review of the intellectual culture of humanity from the earliest ages of the world; it is accompanied by occasional remarks on the strength and weakness of the times, and tricity also. He has studied deeply, and under by passing suggestions on their wants and neces-all its shifting phases, the day in which he lives. sities; and it is concluded by some anticipations He has estimated its weakness, and appreciated with regard to the probable characteristics of our the causes of its imbecility: he has fathomed its future literature and science. If it did not sug-boasts, and detected their emptiness and vaingest a contrast, which M. Alletz is far from chal-glory: and he has to some extent apprehended lenging, and a comparison which he certainly the connection between its imminent perils and never entertained, we would say that it is an at- the elements of its supposed strength. There is tempt in an humble way to render the same ser- perhaps a morbid asperity in his judgments, and vice to the intellectual phenomena of the Nine-a reluctance or incapacity to include the sunteenth Century, which was rendered with such shine as well as the shade in his field of view; unrivalled ability by Lord Bacon's Advancement but his censure is just, though it may exclude of Learning to those of the Seventeenth. The the more favourable lights of the picture, and it same object is contemplated in both works-to is really refreshing to hearken to well-founded, illustrate at once the capacities, the triumphs, though unmitigated, blame, when our ears have and the defects of contemporary knowledge, and been so long stunned by indiscreet and undisto indicate the road to new intellectual achieve-criminating praise.

ments. The difference of the respective ages, We shall take neither M. Alletz nor M. Chasles and the difference of the men, occasion of course as our guide, or as our authority in the remarks an entire diversity of treatment. M. Alletz which we are about to make-we employ their dwells at greater length and with a just pride works merely as a text on which to hang our upon the glory than on the weakness of the times; sermon. We have not cited these authors as witnesses to be interrogated in Court, nor for the * GENIE DU DIX-NEUVIEME SIECLE, OU ESQUISSE DES PROGRES DE L'ESPRIT HUMAIN, DEPUIS 1800 JUSQU, A purpose of reading their testimony in confirmaNOS JOUrs. Par Edouard Alletz. Paulin. Editeur tion of our positions; but have summoned them

1842-3. 1 vol. 12 mo.

ETUDES SUR LES HOMMES ET LES MŒURS AU XIX. simply as friends to whom reference may be SIECLE. PORTRAITS CONTEMPORAINS, SCENES DE VOY-made by others, if any dissatisfaction is occaAGE, SOUVENIRs de Jeunesse Par M. Philarete Chas- sioned by the severity of our judgments. Leavlas, Professeur au Collège de France. Paris. Amyot. [1850.] 1 vol. 12 mo. ing them, then, with this slight introduction to

VOL. XVII-58

our readers, we proceed to discuss the important individual gain, has become so nearly the exclusubject which has arrested our attention no less sive and absorbing passion of the civilized comthan theirs. Our notice must of course be cur- munities of the earth, that it renders necessary sory, and confined to broad and general charac- the restoration of a healthier equilibrium between teristics, for, without venturing to repeat the ac- the satisfaction of man's material and his spircustomed hyperbole of declaring that the subject itual necessities. And all that we now propose is endless, we may safely say that it is too am- to do is to take such a survey of the moral and ple, too varied, and too suggestive to permit any-intellectual condition of the times as may save thing like minute treatment within the compass us from being too easily beguiled by the syren of a Magazine essay. If we were to attempt a song of unqualified praise which is the pæan of tolerably complete portraiture of the age, we the Century, and may enable us to determine in should be compelled to commence like M. Al- what modes and to what extent the higher aims letz, with a classification of the different depart of humanity have been injured or neutralized by ments of practice and knowledge, which have the incessant pursuit of inferior good. been created by the exercise of the human faculties; and, whether we adopted the scanty and insufficient table of that gentleman, or the more extended and complete, though grotesque, scheme of M. Ampère, we should find in the examina- is conducted, are exceedingly vague and unsettion of the numerous branches, material enough tled, and in need of instant and thorough revisto fill volumes instead of pages, and yet neither ion. We are fully aware that this bold declaraexhaust, nor do full justice to the subject. We tion, which we make at the outset, is directly ancontent ourselves, therefore with that more rapid, tagonistical to the current assertions of holiday

On a rigid scrutiny of the times, we shall find, that, to whatever department of human speculation or practice we direct our attention, the principles on which such practice or speculation

A

if less satisfactory, method of procedure, which will enable us to compress our observations within such limits as will not fatigue even the listless attention of a lazy reader.

orators, to the self-complacent vanity of superficial convictions, and to the habitual arrogance of the self-belauding Nineteenth Century; but it is fully confirmed by the actual condition

In portraying the characteristics of the Nine-of the times. The world has suffered itself to teenth Century, there is one side of the picture be dazzled and misled by the multiplicity of brilon which we deem it wholly unnecessary for us liant details which daily demand its attention. to dwell at this time. Every one can enumerate The results of modern science have been numerand magnify for himself, or has heard unceasingly ous, curious, and of immediate practical applienumerated and magnified by others, the me- cation to the common purposes of life;-but, like chanical glories and the material distinctions of the golden apples of Hippomanes, they have withthe age; and, while we neither deny nor under-drawn our attention from the race set before us, rate these, we are not disposed to occupy our so that we have forgotten the true goal, and have time with the repetition of praises incessantly wandered, without our cognizance, out of the repeated before, when much is to be learnt from true path. While referring so habitually to the confining our attention to those unfavorable symp- teachings of Bacon, as promulgating the maxtoms, which are usually treated either as non-ex-ims by which our science is governed, it is sinistent, or as scarcely meriting consideration in any gular, or, at any rate, it is disgraceful, that we general picture of the times. We will leave it to should so far have neglected both the spirit of the Great Industrial Exhibition to proclaim the his philosophy and the constant tenor of his adglories of cotton and iron manufactures and ma- vice, as to have mistaken the pecuniary fruits of chinery-and will examine whether other and science for valid indications of the healthy conhigher elements of social and individual great-dition of the tree from which they spring. His ness have not been sacrified or impaired in at-warnings against this delusion are continual, and taining this dearly-bought excellence in things couched in the strongest terms: "for," says he, material and mechanical. Let it be distinctly" there is not any one art or science, which conunderstood, however, that we decry no form of stantly perseveres in a true and lawful course, excellence; that we entertain the highest admi- till it come to the proposed end or mark, but ever ration of the useful arts, and earnest anticipa- and anon makes steps after good beginnings, tions of their further development; that we un-leaves the race, and turns aside to profit and dervalue none of their triumphs, nor willingly commodity, like Atalanta. overlook any of the multifarious ways in which

"Declinat cursus, aurumque volubile tollit."

they may be made to minister to the increase of

human happiness, and the larger satisfaction of This occurs in his Essays on the Wisdom of the human wants. All that we object to is that the Ancients; but the same doctrine is continually pursuit of material improvements for the sake of repeated and urgently enforced in all his principal

writings. In the Treatise De Augmentis Scientia- | and systems, and intellectual schemes? What rum he says: "Atque illud semper in animo te- is the harvest which we have reaped from our alleged intellectual greatness in Religion, in Morals, in Politics, in Society, and in Private Life? Growing discords and dissensions in Reli

nendum, quod perpetuo inculcamus, experimenta lucifera etiam adhuc magis quam fructifera ambienda esse;" Again in the Preface to the Novum Organon: "Postremo omnes in universum gion:-the abandonment of old doctrines and monitos volumus, ut scientiæ veros fines cogitent; the substitution of new ones in accordance with nec eam aut animi caussa petant, aut ad conten- the dictates of a vague, unreasoning fantasy :-a tionem, aut ut alios despiciant, aut ad commodum, fretful restlessness and a feverish lust of change: aut ad famam, aut ad potentiam, aut hujusmodi understanding subordinated to inconsiderate zeal, inferiora, sed ad meritum et usus vitæ, eamque and the meek performance of duty exchanged in charitaté perficiant et regant?” for an ignorant and verbose faith—a general indifference to every thing but the lifeless shell of the various creeds-the soulless formulæ which

We might also quote numerous passages to the same effect from the Novum Organon itself, from the advancement of Learning, and the other do not so much serve to embody truth as they works of Lord Bacon, but the repetition is need-suffice for a mystic incantation by which to reless, as this doctrine, (however it has been over- cognize the initiated:*-the severance of relilooked and neglected,) is almost the corner-stone, gious prescription from any controlling influence as it certainly is the strength of the true Baco-over our ordinary avocations:f-the impotence nian Philosophy, as contradistinguished from the of such Christianity as is current in the world to mutilated travesty of it which passes current by check the unholy lust of gold, or to direct to that venerated name. True it is, that this is a ends sincerely, not ostentatiously, charitable the corner-stone which the builders of modern sci-employment of our means;-its utter isolation ence have too habitually rejected in the construc- from all practical authority over our relations to tion of their edifice, but at length they are be- our neighbours in life;—and its almost meaningginning to pay the penalty of such systematic less restriction to ascetic, splenetic, individual, and infatuated rejection. dreams and fancies. We greedily grasp at the rewards which religion offers in the promise of heaven, and we enter into the service of God with the same spirit with which we seek the mines of California. We avail ourselves eagerly of the threatened condemnations of the wicked, in order to assign them to our adversaries, and

Estimated by their immediate and material results, the arts and sciences were probably never in a more flourishing or brilliant condition than they are at present. They subserve all the purposes of Aladdin's lamp; and have proved the magic instruments of the wonderful development of our material resources. The augmentation thus pour, in no scriptural sense, coals of fire on the heads of our enemies. We liken the Courts of heaven to a Bankrupt Court on earth, and recur to both with scarcely dissimilar hopes, when our own efforts or follies have threatened

of wealth by their aid, and its rapid diffusion through all the viaducts of national production, have been such as might have amazed even the wildest credulity. We may well speak in terms of high laudation of the present intellectual condi- us with temporal ruin. These things, and things tion of the world, and deem that a boundless like these, comprise nearly the whole extent of heritage of good is before us, if we are content the power of Christianity over the mass of our to judge of intellectual achievements by the beg-modern societies, and, with the blind recognition garly and false canon of a monetary scale, and of some inherited or accidentally acquired ritual, to estimate science with the spirit of Mammon. constitute the body and soul of our religion. If man was designed to be a mere money-ma- Whither have fled those strong bonds of sympaking machine, then great is Diana of the Ephe-thy, charity, and mutual attraction, by which it sians, and greatest of all her worshippers is De- was to unite all the sheep of one shepherd into metrius, the silversmith. But if human destiny one fold? What weight do we attach to its depoints to other aims the Nineteenth Century nunciations against avarice? or what significance must be judged by other standards. All may be gilding and glitter without, but when we look more closely, and with less sordid vision at the condition of the world, what is the fruit of the aggregate operation of all our arts and sciences,

*The above quotations are from Wisd. Anc. xxv. Atalanta or Gain. Præf. Nov. Org. vol. ix, p. 161. De Aug. Sci. lib. v, c ii, vol. viii, p. 276. Ed. B. Montagu: to which add Nov. Org. lib. i, Aph. lxx, xcix, cxxiv, cxxix.

*"Formularia," says Leibnitz, "sunt quædam umbræ veratatis, ac plus minusve ad puram mentis lucem accedunt. ** Sed pluries contingit ut devotio ritibus suffocetur, lumenque divinum humanis obscuretur opinionibus." Præf. Theod. Leibnitzii Opera. Ed. Duteris. Tom. i, p. 36.

We may look back with regret to a time, when as Livy said of the earlier ages of Rome, "nondum hæc. quæ nunc tenet sæculum, negligentia Deûm venerat; nec interpretando sibi quisque jusjurandum et leges aptas faciebat, sed potius suos mores ad ea adcommodabat."

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