Page images
PDF
EPUB

Adventurers and Planters for Virginia." 25 clergyman who accompanied the wrecked EngApril, 1609. Dr. Symonds deplores the evils of lish, was Mr. Bucke, of whom Mr. Anderson has the redundant population of England, which is given some new particulars, found in a sermon rather amusing when we contrast the population by Rev. Alexander Whitaker, published in Lonof that kingdom under Queen Victoria, with what don, 1613, and preached in Virginia shortly beit was in the time of James I. Perhaps some fore. Mr. Bucke was a graduate of Oxford, two hundred and fifty years hence, when the po- and received the appointment of Chaplain to the pulation of that kingdom shall be quadrupled, Virginia expedition upon the recommendation of the people of that future age will smile at the Dr. Ravis, Bishop of London. Mr. Bucke was Malthusian complaints made now in 1851, of an the second minister sent out from England to overgrown population. Our preacher gives a Virginia; being successor to Rev. Robert Hunt. picture, evidently drawn to the life, of the con- Mr. Bucke preached twice on Sundays during version of tillage land into pasture, of the op- the sojourn on the island, and read prayers daily pression of the tenant yeomanry by the landlords, morning and evening. The company of the of the sordid avarice of the landed oligarchy re- Sea-Venture were summoned by the churchducing the people almost to starvation, only re- going bell, and the roll was called and absentees lieved by the importation of corn from abroad, were duly punished. The clergyman performed imported in spite of the "bitter curse of the the ceremony of marriage, the parties being Sir cursed cornmongers," of the rich shopkeeper George Somers' cook and a maid-servant of one grinding the face of the honest poor laborer, of Mrs. Horton. The bride was named Elizabeth

Persons. The Communion was once celebrated. The child of one John Rofe, a daughter, was christened by the name of Bermuda, Captain

the poor woman working with her needle till her candle goes out, consoling her lonely and distressed hours by singing hymns of pious resignation, the salt tear dropping from her sorrowful Newport, Mr. Bucke and the said Mrs. Horton eye, and the deep sigh breathing as a furnace being witnesses. Sometime since, from the misinfrom her aching heart, ["Sighing like furnace"- terpretation of a passage in Strachey's work newly Shakspeare, and yet by the end of the week, published, some writer inferred that Pocahontas with all her labors scarcely earning salt for her when she married Rolfe was a widow. The Sunday's water gruel. ground of the mistake has been satisfactorily There is nothing new under the sun; the hu- cleared up by a writer in the Virginia Historical man mind still revolves in the same cycle. Here Register, and indeed the supposition that Pocaare complaints of the oppressions and miseries hontas was a widow, could only be entertained by of the down-trodden masses uttered two centu- one who was rather ignorant of our early history. ries and a half ago-worthy of a Chartist pam- The thing was perfectly ridiculous. From the phlet by Carlyle-here are free trade anti-corn- words which are italicised above however it would law sentiments, which might have been spoken seem not so improbable that John Rolfe was a in the House of Commons by Sir James Graham, widower when he married Pocahontas-so that or Cobden, or Peel. And these liberal and en- it turns out that the name being changed, the lightened views were delivered by a clergyman story may be true of him-the shoe may be on of the Church of England in the days of James the other foot. It appears from Whitaker's serI. Truly there is nothing new under the sun;- mon, that he expected a forthcoming publication there were brave men before Agamemnon. This from Mr. Bucke, descriptive of Virginia, where discourse of Dr. Symonds, as well as that of he had passed several years. When Sir Thomas Crashaw, breathes that profound abhorrence of Gates arrived with the rude cedar vessels, "PaRome which prevailed in England in that period tience" and "Deliverance,” at Jamestown, May when the minds of Englishmen had not yet re- 23rd, 1610, he first repaired to the church where covered from the shock of Guy Fawks' Gun- Mr. Bucke performed divine service. They then powder Plot. proceeded to view the fort, and found its palisaThe Bermudas are a cluster of islands lying in does broken down, the ports open, the gates unthe Atlantic, at the distance of 600 miles from hinged, and the houses of those who had died the American continent, extending in crescent broken up and burnt for fire-wood, and the peoform from east to west; in length twenty miles; ple fearing to venture beyond the blockhouse, in breadth two miles and a half. On one of lest they should be surprised by the Indians. On these islands the Sea-Venture was wrecked in the 7th of June, at 12 o'clock, Sir Thomas Gates 1609, and here Sir George Somers, Sir Thomas reluctantly embarked, to abandon the ill-starred Gates, Captain Newport, and about one hundred plantation: the artillery and armour were buried, and fifty souls, having narrowly escaped from the all went on board, and a volley was fired by way yawning perils of the deep, landed and remained of farewell to Virginia. Providentially next nearly a year, living à la Robinson Crusoe. The morning they met a boat announcing the arrival

of Lord Delaware. Gates and his party returned | turns it was only necessary that there should be to Jamestown on the same day, the 8th, and on two preachers, and as Lord Delaware found Mr. the 10th of June, Lord Delaware arrived there Bucke already at Jamestown, it was only neceswith three ships and landed with his retinue at sary that he should be accompanied by one adthe South Gate of the palisado. The Lieut. ditional clergyman, in order that they might take Governor with his few surviving men were drawn their weekly turns. What leads us to think that

up to receive his lordship, and before he performed any act of authority, he fell upon his knees in the presence of the people and made a long, silent prayer. Truly that was a religious and devout age. What would be said if a Governor of California should fall upon his knees upon landing at San Francisco and engage in a long, silent prayer? The spirit of the Elizabethan age, which yet prevailed in the first years of James I., was chivalrous, and the chivalrous spirit has always been more or less religious-at the least it has always paid homage to religion. Mr. Anderson mentions that Dr. Hawks in his "Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of Virginia" has, by confounding two separate narratives, fallen into the mistake of representing that Mr. Bucke had come from England at this time with Lord Delaware in capacity of chaplain, whereas, as has been seen, he had arrived at Jamestown, (about a fortnight before Lord Delaware's arrival,) in company of Sir Thomas Gates. It appears that Archdeacon Wilberforce in his History of the American Church, has fallen into the same mistake, probably misled by Dr. Hawks. The account in Smith is indeed confused and apt to mislead a reader who is not very careful. Lord Delaware gave orders for the repair of the church, and Strachey, now Secretary of the colony, has left a very minute description of the edifice, and mentions that on Sunday we have sermons twice a day, and every Thursday a ser mon having [as it is printed] true preachers which take their weekly turns." We have italicised the words "true preachers" in order to suggest that perhaps the word "true" is a misprint for "two" -two preachers, to wit, Mr. Bucke and Lord Delaware's chaplain. Mr. Anderson indeed receives the expression "true preachers" as what was intended, and says, "The appointment of left his son, with the spirit of his father, his dep'true preachers' mentioned in the above passage uty.' This son, I am informed by the present whose duty it was to proclaim in turn the word Earl, was drowned on his return to England, of God, and to conduct the weekly and daily and it is supposed that all his father's papers services of the church, implies that more than one were then lost with him." There is a discreclergyman must have accompanied Lord De la paucy between the statement on page 271 and Warr to Virginia. And assuredly, if they were this last quoted from the Account of the Euroin the full and real sense of the term 'true preach- peau Settlements in America, and without coners' it cannot be doubted but that they were tradiction. The former statement, Mr. Anderamong the efficient instruments in establishing son's own, to wit-that Percy succeeded Lord that peace and order and watchful industry which Delaware, appears to be the correct one. As to speedily distinguished the colony under his ad- his lordship's papers, they appear to have fallen ministration." The inference that more than into Argall's hands, and as they contained inone clergyman accompanied Lord Delaware ap-structions to send him home to England to anpears to be a non sequitur, for to take weekly swer charges of cruelty and tyranny brought

Early in 1611, Lord Delaware, on account of ill health, returned to England. In the course of his voyage, having put into the mouth of a large river, then called Chihohocki, it hence derived its name of the Delaware. Stith indeed mentions that he had somewhere seen it stated that the river took its name from the circumstance of Lord Delaware's having died there during his return voyage to Virginia. Mr. Anderson shows conclusively, upon the authority of Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, and Purchas, that this conjecture of Stith was erroneous, the Delaware river having been so called five years before his lordship's death. On page 271, Mr. Anderson says: The departure of Gates from Virginia was soon followed by that of Lord De la Warr himself, who in the beginning of the year 1611, was compelled by sickness to leave his charge under the command of Captain Percy, and return to England." On page 311, however, he has the following: "It is stated by the author of the Account of the European Settlements in America, that when Lord De la Warr was compelled by sickness to return from Virginia, he

66

the word "true" is a misprint. is, that the epithet true, as applied to preachers, appears to be quite unusual. We do not remember ever meeting with that expression before, and it is one which therefore Strachey, a classical scholar and practised writer, would probably not have been apt to make use of. The printer might readily by mistake "set up" the letters "ru" instead of the letter "w," and misled by this first mistake, it would be natural enough to make an "e" of the "o," because an "e" in that place (“true”) would make a complete word, which "o" would not.

[ocr errors]

against him, it is not likely that he would have let them go out of his hands.

pastoral cures nor charge of children; and as it were every way fitted for that work. And beSir Thomas Dale, who came over in 1611, cause God would more grace this business and was accompanied by Rev. Alexander Whitaker, honor His own work, He provided us such men before spoken of. Rev. Mr. Glover came over as wanted neither living nor liberty of preaching with Sir Thomas Gates upon his second voyage at home." It was Alexander Whitaker who to Virginia, 1611. Mr. Glover was an approved had the care of instructing Pocahontas in the preacher in Bedford and Huntingdonshire-a knowledge of Christianity, and he no doubt unigraduate of Cambridge, in easy circumstances ted her in marriage with Rolfe. While she was and somewhat advanced in years. He did not in England, according to Purchas, "she did not long survive his arrival in Virginia, being unable only accustom herself to civility, but still carried to endure "the sea-sickness of the country." herself as the daughter of a king, and was acThe second town established in Virginia, was cordingly respected not only by the Company, Henrico, on a peninsula, at what is now the plan- which allowed provision for herself and her son, tation of Varina, and named in honor of Prince but of divers particular persons of honor, in their Henry the heir-apparent. He appears to have hopeful zeal by her to advance Christianity." been a warm friend of the infant plantation, for Among these persons of honor, Dr. King, Bishop Sir Thomas Dale speaks of him as his " glori- of London, is particularly mentioned. ous master," "who would have enamelled with his favors the labors which were undertaken for God's cause," and that "the whole frame of this business" seemed "fallen into his grave." England suffered a mighty loss in her Edward VI., this her Prince Henry, and in modern times the Princess Charlotte.

The Rev. Alexander Whitaker when he first came over to Virginia, had been graduated at Cambridge some five or six years, and had been "seated" in "the North country," where he was held in great esteem. He had means of his own and excellent prospects of promotion. He came over by "a very speedy and safe passage (scarce of eight weeks long.") The Pacific or Asia now makes the voyage in ten days.

Mr. Anderson found in the State Paper Office a copy of a letter issued by James I., and addressed to the Archbishops, authorizing them to invite the members of the Church throughout the kingdom to assist in the establishment of a College in Henrico, and in other such works of piety. The date of this letter has not been ascertained, but it was written about the year 1620. It has never been published before, and is the first document of the kind ever issued in England for the benefit of its colonies. It is as follows:-" Most reverend father in God, right trusty and well-beloved counsellor, we greet you well. You have heard ere this time of the attempt of divers worthy men, our subjects, to plant in Virginia, (under the warrant of our letThe town of New Bermudas, or Bermuda ters patents) people of this kingdom, as well as Hundred, was the third established in Virginia. for the enlarging of our dominions, as for propaIt was five miles distant from Henrico. Mr. gation of the Gospel amongst infidels; wherein Whitaker had his parsonage on the South side there is good progress made and hope of further of the river, and it was called Rock Hall. Stith increase; so as the undertakers of that plantastyles him "Minister of Bermuda Hundred." tion are now in hand with the erecting of some In 1614 he returned to Jamestown. About this churches and schools for the education of the time he sent home to England the sermon before children of those barbarians, which cannot but alluded to, which as has been seen was published. be to them a very great charge and above the Rev. Mr. Crashaw prefixed to it an epistle dedi-expense which for the civil plantation doth come catory, to which Mr. Anderson is indebted for a to them. In which we doubt not but that you good many interesting particulars. The title of and all others who wish well to the encrease of the sermon is, "Good news from Virginia sent Christian religion, will be willing to give all asto the Council and Company of Virginia, resi-sistance and furtherance you may, and therein to dent in England, from Alexander Whitaker, make experience of the zeal and devotion of Minister of Henrico in Virginia, &c. London, our well-minded subjects, especially those of the 1613." The text is from Ecclesiastes, xi, 1: clergy. Wherefore we do require you and hereby "Cast thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt authorize you to write your letters to the severall find it after many days." Crashaw thus speaks bishops of the dioceses, in your province, that of the early clergymen that came over to Vir- they do give order to the ministers and other ginia "So that now we see to our comfort the zealous men of their dioceses, both by their own God of heaven found us out and made us ready example in contribution, and by exhortation to to our hands able and fit men for the ministeriall others, to move our people within their several function in this plantation; all of them gradu- charges to contribute to so good a work, in as ates, allowed preachers, single men, having no liberal a manner as they may, for the better

VOL. XVII-63

not to have been aware of.

advancing whereof our pleasure is, that those col- the Council. This fact Mr. Anderson appears lections be made in all the particular parishes four several times within these two years next Early in 1622 very favorable intelligence from coming; and that the several accounts of each Virginia reached England, and upon this occaparish together with the moneys collected be re-sion, on the 17th of April, Mr. Copeland by apturned from time to time to the bishops of the pointment preached before the Virginia Compadioceses, and by them be transmitted half-yearly ny at Bow Church. He was shortly after apto you and so to be delivered to the treasurer pointed a member of the Council and Rector of of that plantation to be employed for the Godly the College for the conversion of the Indians. purposes intended and no other." But all these benevolent purposes and hopeful anticipations were suddenly darkened and defew hours blasted the labors of so many years. feated by the news of the massacre which in a The massacre occurred March 22nd, 1622. On the 28th of May,* 1621, the Rev. Jonas Stockham, in a letter to Rev. Alexander Whitaker, to be forwarded by him to the Council in England, had given it as his opinion that "till their [the Indian] priests and ancients have their throats

The

Upon the election of Sir Edwin Sandys to the place of Treasurer of the Virginia Company, fifteen hundred pounds had been collected for the college at Henrico. A large tract of land adjacent to the site of the college was appropriated for its support, and a hundred men were sent from England to cultivate the same. yearly income from these lands was estimated at five hundred pounds. The college was intended for the instruction not only of the Indian chil- cut, there is no hope to bring them to converdren, but also of the sons of the colonists. In sion." Mr. Anderson denounces the clergyman 1620 Mr. George Thorpe, a relation of Sir Thom- for advising such sanguinary measures. Capas Dale, was sent out as superintendent of the tain Smith, however, approved of them, as did all the surviving colonists, after the massacre. college and three hundred acres of land were set apart for his maintenance. Large private donations were also made about this time for the

ucation of the Indian children.

The 10th chapter of this 1st volume of "The ed-History of the Colonial Church," gives in conclusion, an interesting sketch of Nicholas Ferrar, that distinguished and excellent associate of his brother, and Sir Edwin Sandys, and the Earl of Southampton, &c., in the management of the Virginia Company. Of the twelve chapters of this volume four relate to the Colony of Virginia. It may excite some surprise that a work so valuable and interesting, and one that throws so much additional light on our Virginia history in particular, should be so little known in this country. The work, however, addresses itself mainly to that class of readers who are somewhat accustomed to historical researches, and have acquired some familiarity with antique English. A considerable portion of the volume which has been noticed, consists of copious extracts from co temporary MSS. and books and

At this time there were only five ministers in documents, and they are all copied verbatim et Virginia-Alexander Whitaker, Jonas Stock-literatim, with all the peculiarities of obsolete ham, Mr. Mease, Thomas Bargrave and Wil- spelling and quaint expression. It is, therefore, liam Wickham. About the year 1616, Mr. only those who are somewhat initiated who will Mease was stationed at Kecoughtan, now Hamp-embark upon the formidable task of reading such tou. His name appears to have been pronounc- a work. Were it modernized, while it would ed Mays. He lived ten years in Virginia and be shorn of some of its charms for some readers, was the author of a reply to the calumnious (as its circle of readers would be greatly enlarged. it was considered) account of the colony given The History of the Colonial Church is to comby Captain Nathaniel Butler in a pamphlet enti- prise three volumes. The second, we believe, has tled 66 The unmasked face of our Colony in Vir- been published some time since; but we have not ginia as it was in the winter of 1622." Mr. yet had the satisfaction of seeing it. Wickham was the minister at Henrico as early as 1616, when some Indian children had already been sent there to be educated. In 1619 he was appointed by Sir George Yeardley a member of

C. C.

In 1621 Rev. Mr. Copeland, chaplain on board the Royal James, East Indiaman, upon the return of that vessel to England, prevailed upon the officers and crew to contribute seventy pounds towards the establishment of a church and school in Virginia. This amount was increased by two other benefactions to the sum of one hundred and twenty-five pounds. Charles City was selected as the site of the school, and it was to be called the East India School, in reference to the circumstances of its origin. A tract of land was appropriated for the benefit of this school, and Mr. Copeland was presented with three hundred acres. Workmen were sent out early in 1622, to begin the building.

Petersburg, June, 1851.

* Mr. Anderson makes it the 20th. According to Smith (Virginia edition) it was the 28th.

[blocks in formation]

David Copperfield and Arthur Pendennis.

The following parallel run between Dickens and Thackeray, in the works whose names form the caption, we take from the London Times. It does not go much below the surface, but plays very brilliantly about it, and is altogether a more satisfactory though less labored performance than the article which recently appeared in the North British Review.-[Ed. So. Lit. Mess.

ness or dilapidated by overwear, they are still the chief source of pleasure. That. therefore, must be welcome which awakes them. The novel has, for the unimaginative, incidents,—for the student of human nature, character,-for the critical ear, vigour or beauty of language,-for the theorist, an ample store of cobwebs. It offers love and children to the spinster, red coats and glory to the legal or the literary drudge; and, if it does harm by exhausting the sympathies of some, it does good by exalting and keeping them fresh in sluggish and mechanical natures. The romance, we say, occupies the place of the epic; it is more various, because the forms of society are more manifold, and men's knowledge and their requirements alike more diverse.

It is not long since two of our best known epopæists, or, to use the more common term, of our novel-writers, have concluded each a work published by instalments, and sent them forth in their perfect form from the presses of Bradbury and Evans. Little matter to us whether it was the lust of scribbling, the desire of fame, or the appetite for what university statutes still term "solids" which prompted them to utterance. We need not, with Mr. Wickfield, decipher the motives which induced Mr. Dickens and Mr. Thackeray to compile respectively the lives of David Copperfield and Arthur Pendennis; enough for us that each of them has produced something neither devoid of interest nor unworthy of his fame.

There is one virtue in the autobiographical form in which Mr. Dickens has cast his tale,

namely, that it imparts in this case an additional reality; there cannot but be some idea when au author is speaking under an author's mask, and in the first person, that he is retailing, if not circumstances of his own career, at least fancies and feelings which have been present to him in that capacity. We should not, however, expect this reality to extend itself over all the abundance of personages who throng the stage in Mr. Dickens's narrative; if at all so, rather to those who stand in most immediate connection with the central figure and form, as it were, a part of him. In other words, we might expect that there should be a division manifest in the story, and that one portion should be assimilated to former works of the writer, another portion bear a different impress; nor will such expectation be belied.

What the epic was to the old world-a continuous narration of stirring events, with linked sweetness long drawn out-that is the romance to the modern world. With the change of matter there has been a change of form; it is no longer the story of "physical force" that absorbs and delights mankind, it is the battle of life, not the encounter of flesh and blood, but the clash of principles and the conflict of passions. The decease of the three-volume fiction has often been foretold, but has never come to pass, because it exists as the supply of a want, and a very complex want. All men want amusement; but, more than this, mankind, however civilized, require change," would lead us to believe. David's some stimulus of the simpler emotions; overlaid mamma is a widow, widowed before the boy is as these may be by habit, perverted by selfish- born. She is also, in the opinion of strong

It is not unreasonably with a view to the final result that the life of David Copperfield is made somewhat eventful at the outset, more eventful, indeed, than the summary heading of the earlier chapters, "I am born; I observe; I have a

« PreviousContinue »