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* mourned for him a threescore and ten || 9 And there went up with him both days.
lochariots and horsemen: and it was a 4 And when e the days of his mourn- very great company. ing were past, 'Joseph spake unto the | 10 And they came to the threshinghouse of Pharah, saying, If now I have floor of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, found grace in your eyes, speak, I pray and there they mourned with a great and you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, very sore lamentation: and he made a
5 My father % made me swear, saying, | mourning for his father P seven days. Lo, i die: in my grave which I have | 11 And when the inhabitants of the digged for me in the land of Canaan, || land, 9 the Canaanites, saw the mourning there shalt thou kbury me. Now there- |in the floor of Atad, they said. This is a fore ' let me go up, I pray thee, and bury || grievous mourning to the Egyptians; my father, and I will come again. wherefore the name of it was called + Abel
6 And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury || mizraim, which is' beyond Jordan. thy father, according as he made thee 12 And his sons did unto him ' accordswear.
ing as he commanded them. 7 And Joseph went up to bury his fa- | 13 For his sons carried him into the ther: mand with him went up all the ser- || land of Canaan, and buried him in the vants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, cave of the field of Machpelah; which and all the elders of the land of Egypt. || Abraham bought with the field for a pos
8 And all the house of Joseph and his | session of a burying-place, of Ephron the brethren, and his father's house: - only || Hittite, before Mamre. their little ones, and their flocks, and Il 14 And Joseph returned into Egypt, their herds, they left in the land of Go-|| he and his brethren, and all that went up shen.
with him to bury his father, after he had li 2 Chr. 16:14. 1.. 22:16. Matt. buried his father. (Practical Observations.]
k 3:19. Job 30:23. Ec. 12:7. 10 41:43. 46:29. Ex. 14:7,17,28. the Egyptians. f Est. 4:2.
p 4. 1 Sam. 31:13. Job 2:13. 347:29–31. 49:29-32. Acts 7:
he laid him under the solemn obligation of · CHAP. L. V. 2, 3. The Egyptians were emi. an oath, to bury him in Canaan.-The cave at nent for the art of preserving dead bodies from Machpelah seems to have been large, with putrefaction, by the skilful use of spices and many separate burying places in it; so that Jadrugs. Several of these bodies remain to this cob, in addition to those before prepared, had day, and are called Egyptian Mummies, being previously formed one for the reception of his preserved as great curiosities; and some of them body at bis decease. have probably continued in this state above v. 6. The king would not have Joseph vio. 2000 years. The same persons, who were con- | late an oath for his sake. Such heathen kings sulted as physicians for the living, embalmed will rise up in judgment against those Christhe dead bodies; and at least forty days were l'tian princes, who make a jest of their oaths.' requisite to complete the process. These phy- || Bp. Patrick. sicians were generally retained as servants, in V. 7-9. Perhaps it would be difficult to find the courts of princes, and in the families of any funeral, either in ancient or modern times, great men; and Joseph, in his high station, had | more distinguished by the numerous attend several of them in his household. As therefore lance of great and eminent persons than this of the custom was not sinful, and as in the case of Jacob: yet he was neither monarch, nor con. Jacob's body, which was to be buried at a dis-queror, nor lawgiver; but a plain shepherd to tance, it was very expedient; Joseph complied the end of his days!-As this distinguished honwith it on this occasion: and for similar rea- | or was conferred on Jacob, principally for the soas the survivors afterwards embalmed his sake of his son, it shews in what esteem Jobody (26).
seph was held in Egypt: and serves to prove V. 4. The days of public mourning, or, as well that, whatever modern adversaries may say should say, court-mourning, were past; but the of his conduct, he was considered at the time, mourning of Joseph and his brethren could not as the great benefactor and deliverer of the be supposed to terininate till after the funerall country. (10).- Perhaps it was not allowed to come into V. 10, 11. Moses wrote or revised his history the presence of the king in mourning: (Note, | on the east side of Jordan; and therefore in his Esth. 4:2.) or Joseph wished to make his re- five books, beyond Jordan means west-ward of quest to Pharaoh with all the modesty and de- | Jordan: in other parts of Scripture it generally corum possible; and, in sending his message by means east-ward.—During seven days Jacob's the courtiers, he at once shewed his respect to sons perforrned solema funeral obsequies, as it hion and to them.
seems, before they came to the cave of MachV. 5. Joseph did not choose to appear weary il pelah; perhaps because the place which they of application to business, om negligent of the chose was more convenient for the encampment interests of Egypt and of Pharaoh, in thus re of so large a company. The inhabitants of Caquesting leave of absence: he was therefore inaan naturally called them all Egyptians, as careful to represent the matter, not so much coming out of Egypt; though some of them must as his own inclination, as the dying request know to whom the sepulchre belonged. of his father, who was so earnest in it, that il V. 14. Various motives concurred to induce
15 | And when Joseph's brethren saw || 21 Now therefore fear ye not: b I will that " their father was dead, they said, nourish you, and your little ones. And he * Joseph will peradventure hate us, and comforted them, and spake + kindly unto will certainly requite us all the evil which them. we did unto him.
| 22 | And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, 16 And they *sent a messenger unto and his father's house: and Joseph Jived Joseph, saying, Thy father did command an hundred and ten years. before he died, saying,
23 And Joseph saw Ephraim's chil17 So shall ye say unto Joseph, y For- ||dren, of the third generation: the chilgive, I pray thee now, the trespass of thy dren also of Machir, the son of Manasbrethren, and their sin; for 2 they did un- seh, were brought up upon * Joseph's to thee evil: and now we pray thee for- || knees. give the trespass of the a servants of the 24 And Joseph said unto his brethren, God of thy father. And Joseph wept | 1 die: and God will surely visit you, and when they spake unto him.
bring you out of this land, unto the land 18 And his brethren also went and fell || which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and down before his face: and they said, Be- || to Jacob. hold, we be thy servants.
25 And Joseph took an oath of the 19 And Joseph said unto them, Fear|children of Israel, saying, God will surely not: e for am I in the place of God? || visit you, and ye shall carry up my
20 But as for you, 'ye thought evil bones from hence. against me; but & God meant it unto good, | 26 So Joseph died, P being an hundred to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save and ten years old: and they embalmed much people alive.
him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.
1 b 42:21-24. 45:4,5,8. X 42:17. Lev. 26:36. c 37:7--11.
| h 45:10.11. 47:12. Matt. 5:44. | 1 21:1. Ex. 4:31. * Heb. charged. Id Matt. 14:27. Luke 24:37,38.
m 15:14–16. 26:3. 35:12. 46:4. y Matt. 6:12,14,15. 18:35. Luke ie 30:2. Deut. 32:35. Job 34:29. !
coll Heb. to their hearts. 34:3. Is. Ex. 3:16,17.
n 47:29-31. 17:3,4. Eph. 4:32. Col. 3:13. Rom. 12:19. Heb. 10:30.
i Num. 32:33. Josh. 17:1. Job o Ex. 13:19. Josh. 24:32. Acts z 20. Job 33:27,28. Prov. 28:13. f37:4,18-20.
42:16. Ps. 128:6.
7:16. Heb. 11:22. Jam. 6:16. g 45:5-8. Ps. 76:10, 105:16,17.
1 Heb. born. a 31:42. 49:25. Matt. 25:40. Is. 10:7. Acts 2:23. 3:13-15,
p 22. 47:9,28. Josh. 24:29.
k 30:3. Philem, 8–20. 26. Rom. 8:28.
1 9 3.
the descendants of Jacob to continue in Egypt, i was greatly affected, at witnessing this most exnotwithstanding Abraham's prophetical vision act accomplishment of his dreams. of their bondage there. Some might forget it, V. 19. It belongs to God to execute venor disregard it if remembered; others might sub- geance, and Joseph did not intend to usurp bis mit, and not deem themselves allowed to move prerogative. Thus he instructed his brethren, without command from God; while fear, interest, is not to fear him, but to fear God; to humble love of ease and plenty, and similar inducements, themselves before God, and to seek his forgivewould concur in detaining them, and effecting i ness. the purpose of God. At this time, however, Jo V. 20. Joseph's brethren, in selling him to scph had engaged to return; he could not have the Ishmaelites, had acted with extreme malice done otherwise without the greatest impropriety and wickedness; and they intended that he and ingratitude; and both he and his brethren should live and die a destitute slave. But God, had left their families and possessions in Egypt, 'in permitting it, “meant it unto good" to Joseph, to which they must return. (Ex. 10:9-11,24.) to Jacob, to his brethren, to their families, to
V. 15—13. Joseph's brethren perbaps sup-| Egypt, to Canaan, and to the neighboring naposed, that tenderness to Jacob had hitherto tions; nor can we number up all the important restrained him from inflicting punishment on purposes answered by it, to the church and to them, which they were conscious they had mer- the world; or calculate how many important ited: and judging of him from the general tem-li events depended on it, through all succeeding per of huinan nature, they apprehended, that he generations. The same is observable in many would now avenge himself on them; and, not other instances in Scripture; and we cannot being able to resist or flee away, they attempted possibly account for the dispensations of Prorto soften hiin by entreaties. A deep convictionidence, without admitting, that God leaves evil of their criminality, in their conduct to him, inen and evil spirits to themselves to commit rendered them unreasonably suspicious; but wickedness, as far as he intends to over-rule it their fears and submissions were calculated still for good, but no further. They are influenced more to humble and soften them, as well as to only by a desire of gratifying their own wicked accomplish the purposes of God.—They first sent and hateful passions, and are therefore justly messengers to Joseph; but afterwards they were condemned; but He, in omniscience and infinite encouraged to go in person. They did not say, i wisdom, purposing most extensive and durable "our father," but more pathetically, “thy father." good, is on that very account worthy of all adoThey urged the dying words of Jacob, who il ration and praise. doubtless had given them some injunction to V. 22. An hundred and ten years.] Joseph this purpose, that he might render them more survived Jacob about fifty-four years, and probdeeply sensible of their guilt; and they pleaded | ably continned in authority to the last. with Joseph for pardon, in the character of the V. 23. Upon Joseph's' knees.] Thus he exservants of Jacob's God. This shews with pressed his affection, and the pleasure which he what care and prudence they had concerted the took in them. business; and we need not 'wonder that Joseph. V. 24---26. “By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children || body, with decent respect, unto the ground, 'in of Israel; and gave commandment concerning || 'sure and certain hope of the resurrectiun to bis bones." He fully expected that the promise || 'eternal life' of all true believers; and whatever of God would be verified, and desired to have our hopes or fears may be, God is the only infalhis lot beyond the grave with the Israelites, and lible Judge who are, and who are not, true benot with the Egyptians. It is probable, that he lievers.- We ought scrupulously to observe the required, not only his brethren, but the chief last will and dying requests of our deceased persons in their several families, to take this friends; and much more should we most relioath: yet he did not order his body to be carried giously reverence the oath of God. But, in the directly to Canaan for burial, but to remain in most exact attention to necessary affairs, we Egypt until God should visit them. It was there should consult in what manner to do them; that fore embalmed, and kept in a coffin in Egypt, we may give as little umbrage as possible, and most likely by the Israelites; and this circum- || interfere with other duties no more than cannot stance would keep alive the expectation of a be avoided. speedy departure from Egypt, and preserve Ca
V. 15–26. naan continually in their mind. It would also “There are many devices in the heart of man, tend to attach Joseph's posterity to their breth-|| but the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand:" ren, and to prevent them from incorporating and while men are often influenced by the worst with the Egyptians. It is not expressly said, how of motives, God, by means of them, effects his long each of the other sons of Jacob lived, or own most righteous purposes.--How guilt diswhere they were buried; but it is generally mays the heart in times of danger! It would thought that their bones likewise were carried however, be well, if it excited us to as diligent to Canaan by the Israelites. (Note, Acts 7:15, and humble endeavors to obtain forgiveness from 16.)
God, as it often does to appease the displeasure
of man, and to avert temporal calamities.—True PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. religion will teach us, not only to forgive those V. 1-14.
who are conscious of having injured us, and Though our pious friends hare lived to a good || whom we have in our power; but effectually, by old age, and we are confident that they are gone kind actions as well as words, to obviate their to glory, we may well regret our owă loss, and fears, assure them of our forgiveness, and exhurt should pay respect to their memory by lamenting them to seek pardon from him to whom ven. for them: forgrace does not destroy natural affec- geance belongs. But the kindest friends, and tion; but purifies, moderates, and regulates, all the most durable of our earthly comforts must our passions.-Others, besides relatives, have | die: let us then look off even from Joseph, that cause to mourn the death of eminent believers: we may look onto Jesus, who ever liveth to bless for as their prayers, example, and influence those who trust in him. Notwithstanding forwere a public benefit, so is their death a public mer crimes, and present unbelieving injurious loss. But alas! such mournings in general are suspicions, he acknowledges for his brother every a mere compliment; and men are scarcely in humble sinner, who supplicates bis mercy; and earnest about any thing, but the pursuits of am as such he will comfort bis heart, provide for his bition, wealth, or pleasure. The attention paid wants, and receive him to glory. Let us then, to the dead, though commonly the effect of cus- seek his favor, rely on bis mercy, and submit to tom or superstition, should result from faith in his will; and when we come to die, give bim the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and charge of both soul and body: so shall we find the resurrection of the body. Our deceased him faithful and “able to keep that which we friends still live, and we shall meet again; though have committed to him," until the great decisive separated from the body, a re-union shall cer- | day, so that “when Christ, who is our Life, shall tainly take place. Therefore we commit the appear, we shall also appear with him in glory ”
THE SECOND BOOK OF MOSES,
In the Hebrew Bible this book is called SAEMOTH, or, Names, from the clause (nipi mbwi) with
which it begins: but the Translators of the Old Testament, into that Greek Version called the Septuagint, entitled it Exodus, or The Departure: because the departure of Israel out of Egypt is the grand subject recorded in it. A general view is indeed given of the circumstances of the Israelites in Egypt, from the death of Joseph to that event, which took place about a hun. dred and forty-four years after; but the sacred historian dwells very fully on all the particu. lars, which made way for this grand catastrophe, and which attended or immediately followed it. The subject is introduced by Moses with an account of his own parentage, birth, perilous exposure, marvellous preservation, education in Pharaoh's court, espousing the cause of his enslaved brethren, fleeing into Midian, living there as a shepherd, and at length being ex. pressly commissioned and instructed by JEHOVAH, to lead Israel out of Egypt. He then reVOL. I.
cords the miraculous plagues, by which proud Pharaoh was compelled to liberate the enslaved Israelites, and the manner in which the Red Sea was divided, and they were led throngh it as on dry land; while Pharaoh and bis army were overwhelmed by its waters, and perished. We are next informed, bow JEHOVAH miraculously conducted his people in tbe wilderness, notwithstanding their murmurings and rebellions; and bow he spake the moral law to them from the fiery summit of Sinai, and delivered many parts of the judicial and ceremonial law to Moses; entered into covenant with the nation, appointed the Aaronic priesthood, commanded the erection of a Tabernacle, and instituted his worship among them; notwithstanding the interruption of these gracious plans, by the idolatry of the golden calf.-It is worthy of peculiar notice, that the events recorded in this book, are constantly referred to both in ihe Old and New Testament, as matters of undoubted certainty and notoriety, and with many express quotations from it, both by the sacred historians, in the Psalms, by the prophets, and by our Lord and his apostles: and this, in such language, as implies most evidently, not only that they regarded this narrative as the genuine work of Moses, the servant of the LORD," but as divinely inspired; so that the miracles recorded are constantly referred to, as actually wrought by a divine power, to prove the laws promulgated and the doctrines established, to be the oracles of God himself. The Reader, by consulting the marginal references, may easily satisfy himself that this remark is well grounded. This book likewise contains some prophecies, which were fulfilled before or soon after the death of Moses, and also others which were verified in after ages: especially that which is given in these words, “Neithe: shall any man desire thy land, when thou shalt go up to appear before the LORD thy God, thrice every year;" which the whole history shews to have been exactly accomplished. (Note, 34:24.) Indeed the Types, with which it abounds more than any book in Scripture, were real prophecies; the ex. act accomplishment of which after 1490 years, in the great Antity pe, is a divine attestation that this book was written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.-Learned men have also sufficiently shewn, that many of those fables, with which ancient profane history uniformly begins, were nothing more than distorted traditions of those events which Moses plainly relates, blended with various imaginations suited to the corrupt taste of mankind; and that pagan writers had heard some reports of the transactions, of which we have here an authentic history.-Having therefore so firm ground for our confidence, that the narrative before us is the infallible word of God; let us read it with reverence and attention, and we shall find it replete with most important instruction, as to the real nature and effect of true religion.
6 And e Joseph died, and all his brethThe names of Jacob's sons, 1--5. The death of that genera ren, and all that generation. tion, and the vast increase of their posterity, 6, 7. The politic, but vain attempts of the king of Egypt to check their in 17 And the children of Israel were crease, 8-14. His cruel order to the midwives, and their pious disobedience accepted by the Lord, 16–21. Pharaoh
a fruitful, and increased abundantly, and commands his subjects to destroy the male infants, 22. multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; NTOW a these are the names of the and the land was filled with them. children of Israel, which came into
(Practical Observations.]. Egypt, every man and his household 8 1 Now there arose up e a new king came with Jacob.
over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 19 And he said unto his people, Behold, 3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 'the people of the children of Israel are 4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. more and mightier than we.
5 And all the souls that came out of 10 & Come on, let us deal wisely the * loins of Jacob, were seventy souls: with them: lest they multiply, and it come for Joseph was in Egypt already.
to pass, that when there falleth out any a 6:14–16. Gen. 29:32–35. 30: * Heb. thigh. Gen. 46:26. Judg.
c Gen. 50:26. Acts 7:14–16. If Ps. 105:24,25. Prov. 14:28. 1-21.35:18.23-26. 46:8–26, 8:30. Marg.
d Gen. 1:20,28. 9:1. 12:2. 13: 1 Ps. 10:2. 83:3.4. Prov. 1:11. 49.3—27. i Chr. 2:1,2. Rev. b Gen. 46:26,27. Deut. 10:22. 16. 15:5, 17:16, 22:17. 26:4. 28: h Job 5:13. Prov. 16-25. 21:30. 7:4-e.
14. 35:11. 46:3, Deut. 26:5. Acts 7:19. I Cor. S:19-20 e Ec. 2:18,19. 9:15. Acts 7:18. | Jam. 3:15-18.
Thus their multitude and power became so Chap. I. v. 5. Notes, Gen. 46:27. Acts 7.14. great, that they became very formidable to
V. 7. The energetic expressions of this verse, the Egyptians. being varied and accumulated, and some of V. 8. This must have been some years after them taken from the immensely rapid increase Joseph's death, perhaps not less than sixty. of insects, and of fishes, or other aquatic ani Whether this king sprang from another famimals, are admirably suited to excite the read. ly, or was a descendant of Joseph's patron, is er's attention, to the unparalleled multiplica not certain; but having no personal knowledge tion of the Israelites in Egypt, according to the of Joseph, he had no regard to his memory, esrepeated promises of God to their ancestors; teem for his excellency, or sense of the beneand also to shew that they were as remarkably fits wbich Egypt had received from him: and strong and healthy. It is computed, that the therefore he preferred his own supposed ponumber of the Israelites was doubled every | litical interests to the claims of honor and fourteen years, from the going down of Jacob | gratitude, after the too general maxims of and his family into Egypt, until the Exodus. Il kings and rulers.
war, they join also unto our enemies and field; all their service wherein they made fight against us, and so get them up out of them serve, Pwas with rigor.. . the land.
| 15 | And the king of Egypt spake to 11 Therefore they did set over them the Hebrew midwives, (of which the task-masters, i to afflict them with their name of one was Shiphrah, and the name k burdens. And they built for Phara- of the other Puah:) .. oh treasure-cities, Pithom and · Raam- il 16 And he said, When ye do the office ses.
of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and 12 * But the more they afflicted them, see them upon the stools; if it be a son, the more they multiplied and grew. And then ye shall kill him, but if it be a they were m grieved because of the chil-daughter, then she shall live. dren of Israel.
17 But the midwives 'feared God, and 13 And the Egyptians made the chil- | did not as the king of Egypt commanded dren of Israel to serve with rigor. them, but saved the men-children alive.
14 And they made their lives bitter 18 And the king of Egypt called for with hard bondage, o in mortar, and in the midwives, and said unto them, : Why brick, and in all manner of service in the have ye done this thing, and have saved 13:7. Gen. 15:13. Deut. 26:6. Im Job 5:2. Prov. 27:4. John 12. I the men-children alive? k 2:11. 5:4,5. Ps. 81:6. I Gen. 47:11. # Heb. And as they afflicted them, so they multiplica.
V. 9, 10. Pharaoh took occasion, from the warfare betwixt the Seed of the woman, and great increase of the Israelites, compared with the seed of the serpent. that of the Egyptians, to excite suspicions ofil V. 14. In the field.] That is, in cultivating them in his subjects, and thus to cover bis in the ground, digging trenches to convey the tentions of enslaving them. As if he had said, waters of the Nile, carrying out the dung to Do order to keep them under, let us begin with manure the land, and other mean and laborious 'out delay, or they will become too powerful.' services. The Egyptians treated the Israelites For when he afterwards expressed bis appre. with rigor, both in the excess of their labors, bension, lest they should "get them up out of the and the severity of their punishments.--Many land,” he discovered, that he feared nothing || have supposed, that, besides the useful work's but missing his opportunity of subjugating | bere mentioned, the Israelites were employed them, and of enriching himself by their labors. | in building those enormous piles called the pyr-He bad probably heard, that the Israelites amids, which remain to this day, and probably sometimes spoke of an approaching season, I will continue till the end of the world; monuwhen they should leave Egypt, to take posses- | ments, not so much of the greatness and wission of their promised inheritance; and this | dom, as of the folly, caprice, exorbitant power, would the more excite bis fear of losing and cruel tyranny, of the monarchs who prosuch a number of useful subjects.—There are ljected them. It cannot indeed be denied, that several intimations in Scripture, that the Is- | the skill, by which they were planned, equals raelites generally conformed to the idolatry | the vastness of the labor with wbich they were of the Egyptians, for which they were thus completed: but then, it is evident that they chastised by them. (Josh. 24:14. Ez. 20:7,8. never could be useful, in any degree adequate 23:8.)
to the toil and expense with which they were V.'11. Various labors seem to have been ex-erected. The supposition, however, is entirely acted of the Israelites, as a kind of tax, but in groundless: for the Israelites were employed in a degree which reduced them to slavery; and making bricks, while it is well known that the the lask-masters were Egyptians, appointed over ! pyramids were built of hewn stone. But whatthem by public authority, to enforce these in- ! ever were the works, in which the Israelites iquitous exactions.--By this policy the Egyp- || were compelled to serve; the Egyptians could tians seem to have intended not only to enrich give as good reasons for thus cruelly oppressing themselves, but to break the spirits of the Is them, as any at this day can urge in favor of the raelites, that they might not affect liberty, or detestable slave-trade: for all the arguments adaspire after dominion; and also to prevent their duced on the subject, when fairly weighed, mean loo rapid increase, by imbittering domestic life. || nothing more, than that without this oppression, -Thé cities wbich they builded, were either | men could not amass so large estates, nor gratintended (after the pattern which Joseph had ify their sensual appetites with such refined exset them) for granaries to lay up corn incess. store against a year of scarcity; or they were! V. 15–17. These midwives, who feared God, fortified places. They were however useful seem to have been Hebrew women, and not works, and as Israel's toil saved both the labor Egyptians, appointed to this office, as some have and the purses of the Egyptians, we may be conjectured.-Pharaoh might think that he sure these would favor the oppression.
could awe or bribe them into compliance, even V. 12. It exceedingly chagrined the Egyp to so inhuman and treacherous a conduct towards tians to find their schemes prove abortive; and their own nation: for princes are not often reexcited alarms in their minds, lest in process fused in such cases. We may consider these of time the Israelites should resent and revenge two as the chief of the midwives, whose conduct the inhuman treatment which they had re-would influence that of the others; for there ceived. Thus Egypt's persecution could not must have been many more.-Pharaoh and his prevent Israel's increase, but Israel's increase servants did not fear female slaves, however could disturb Egypt's comfort; for such is the il numerous, but accounted them their riches.