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§ 18.


Adjectives have three degrees of Comparison, the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.

$ 19. Rule for Comparison of Adjectives. The Comparative is formed from the Positive by changing -i or -is of the Genitive into -ior; the Superlative by changing it into -issimus, as, Positive.

Comparative. Superlative. Durus, hard, G. duri, durior, harder, durissimus, hardest,

or very hard. Brevis, short, G. brevis, brevior, shorter, brevissimus, shortest,

or very short. Audax, bold, G. audacis, audacior, bolder, audacissimus, boldest,

or very bold. § 20. Irregular Comparison.



Comparative. Superlative.
Bonus, good,

melior, optimus.
Malus, bad,

pejor, pessimus. Magnus, great,

major, maximus. Parvus, small,


minimus. Multus, much,

plus, plurimus. (6) Adjectives in -er, as pulcher, acer, make -errimus in the

Superlative, as, pulcherrimus, acerrimus. (c) Facilis, easy, difficilis, difficult, similis, like, dissimilis,

unlike, gracilis, slender, humilis, lowly, make -illimus in Superlative, as, facillimus.

§ 21. Comparison of Adverbs. Adverbs derived from Adjectives usually make -ius in the Comparative, and -issime in the Superlative, as :

Digne, worthily, dignius, dignissime.
Graviter, heavily, gravius, gravissime.

§ 22.

PRONOUNS. Pronouns are (1) Personal, (2) Reflexive, (3) Possessive, (4) Demonstrative, (5) Definitive, (6) Relative, (7) Interrogative, and (8) Indefinite.

§ 23. Personal Pronouns. The Personal Pronouns are ego, I, and tu, thou, which are thus declined :SINGULAR.

PLURAL, Nom. Ego, 1.

Nos, we. Acc. Me, me.

Nos, us. Gen. Mei, of me.

Nostrum or Nostri, of us. Dat. Mihi, to or for me.

Nobis, to or for us. Abl. Me, by, with, or from mel. Nobis, by, with, or from us?. N.V. Tu, thou or you. .. Vos, ye or you. Acc. Te, thee or you.

Vos, you. Gen. Tui, of thee or you. Vestrum or Vestri, of you. Dat. Tibi, to or for thee or you. Vobis, to or for you. Abl. Te, by, with, or from thee Vobis, by, with, or from you'.

or you'. Note. Ille, illa, illud, and is, ea, id, are often used as Personal Pronouns, and translated he, she, it.

§ 24. Reflexive Pronoun. The Reflexive Pronoun is se, himself, herself, itself, or themselves.

Nom. (wanting). Acc. Se or sese, himself, herself, itself, or themselves. Gen. Sui, of himself, herself, itself, themselves. Dat. Sibi, to or for himself, herself, itself, themselves. Abi. Se or sese, by, with, or from himself, etc. 1. § 25. Possessive Pronouns. The Possessive Pronouns are meus, my, tuus, thy, suus, his own, her own, its own, or their own, and cujus, whose, which are declined like bonus ; noster, our, and vester, your, which are declined like pulcher.

Note. Meus has mi in the Vocative Singular Masculine. Tuus and suus have no Vocative. 1 A Preposition must be used with the Latin word. (See p. 3, note 1.)

§ 26. Demonstrative Pronouns. The Demonstrative Pronouns are hic, this, is, that, ille, that, iste, that.


M. F. N. M.


Nom. Hic, haec, hoc. Hi, hae,

Acc. Hunc, hanc, hoc. Hos, has, haec.
Gen. Hujus (of all Genders). Horum, harum, horum.
Dat. Huic (of all Genders). LA
Abl. Hoc, hac, hoc. ] His (of all Genders).
Nom. Is, eă, id. Ii, eae, eă.
Acc. Eum, eam, id. Eos, eas, eă.
Gen. Ejus (of all Genders). Eorum, earum, eorum.
Dat. Ei (of all Genders). ?
Abl. Eo, eā, eo. si

Iis or eis (of all Genders).
Nom. Ille, illă, illud. Illi, illae, illă.
Acc. Illum, illam, illud. Illos, illas, illă.
Gen. Illĩus (of all Genders). Illorum, illarum, illorum.
Dat. Illi (of all Genders). } Wis (of all Genders).
Abl. lllo, illā, illo. S

Iste is declined like ille.

Note. Hic means this near me, or this of mine, iste, that near you, or that of yours, and ille, that yonder or that other.


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§ 27. Definitive Pronouns. The Definitive Pronouns are idem, the same, and ipse, self.

M. F. N.


N. N. Idem, eědem, idem. lidem, eaedem, eàdem. A. Eundem, eandem, ydem. Eosdem, easdem, eadem. G. Ejusdem (of all Genders). Eorundem, earundem, eorundem, 1). Eidem (of all Genders). } Yisdem (of all Genders). A. Eodem, eādem, eodem. I"

Ipse is declined like ille, except that it makes ipsum in the Neuter Nom. and Acc.

§ 28. Relative Pronoun. The Relative Pronoun is qui, who or which.

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§ 29. Interrogative Pronoun. The Interrogative Pronoun is Nom. quis, quid, who ? declined in other Cases like qui, except Neut. quid instead of quod.

$ 30. Indefinite Pronoun. The Indefinite Pronoun is quis, (qua), quid, any, declined in other Cases like qui, except Neut. Sing. quid for quod, and Neut. Plur. quă or quae.


$ 31. Voice. Verbs have two Voices, the Active, as, amo, I love ; the Passive, as, amor, I am loved.

§ 32. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Transitive Verbs are those in which the action passes on directly to some person or thing, which is called the Object, as, amo te, I love thee. Intransitive or Neuter Verbs are those in which the action does not pass on directly to an Object, as, sto, I stand. Intransitive Verbs have no Passive Voice, except in what is called the Impersonal Passive Construction, as, statur, it is stood, or a stand is made.

§ 33. Moods. There are four Moods, the Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive. The first three constitute the Verb Finite, the last one the Verb Infinite.

$ 34. Tenses. There are seven Tenses, four Primary, namely, the Present, Future Simple, Perfect, Future Perfect; and three Historic, namely, the Imperfect, Aorist, and Pluperfect.

§ 35. Number and Person. There are in each Tense two Numbers, Singular and Plural, and in each Number • three Persons, First, Second, and Third.

§ 36. Conjugation. Verbs have four different kinds of Flexion, which are called the Four Conjugations. The First takes -āre in the Infin. Mood, as, amāre, to love. The Second takes -őre in the Infin. Mood, as, monēre, to

advise. The Third takes -ěre in the Infin. Mood, as, regěre, to rule. The Fourth takes -īre in the Infin. Mood, as, audire, to hear.

$ 37. Principal Parts of the Verb. The parts of the Verb from which all the other Tenses may be formed are the Present, Perfect, and Supine in -um. These, together with the Infinitive Mood (which shows the Conjugation), are to be named when the principal parts of a Verb are required, e.g.:

Pres. Indic. Infinitive. Perfect Indic. Supine. ist Conj. Amo, amāre, amāvi, amātum. 2nd Conj. Moneo, monĒre, monui, monitum. 3rd Conj. Rego, regEre, rexi, rectum. 4th Conj. Audio, audire, audīvi, auditum.

§ 38. The Verb Sum. Before other Verbs are conjugated it is necessary to learn the Auxiliary Verb sum, esse, fui, to be.

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