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§ 47. Notes on some cases of the Third Declension. (a) Nouns having -im in Accusative, and -i in Ablative.

1. Vis, ravis, pelvis, sitis, tussis,
2. Sināpis, căcămis, āmussis,
3. Praesēpis, cannăbis, secūris,
4. Charybdis, tigris, atque būris,
5. Et Propria Nomina in -18,

6. Ut Syrtis, Tibris, Taměsis'.
(6) Nouns having -em or -im in Acc., and -e or -i in Abl.

1. Restis, puppis, turris, navis, 3. Messis, febris, et aqualis,

2. Strigilis, sementis, clavis, 4. -em vel -im dant, utrum malis?. (c) Nouns having Acc. in -em but Abl. in -e or -i.

1. Amnis, anguis, avis, bilis, 3. Neptis, orbis, patruelis,

2. Civis, ignis, imber, finis, 4. Postis, unguis, - i si velis 3. (d) Neuters in -e, -al, -ar, make -i in Abl. Sing., -ia in N. V. A. Pl. (c) Rules for the Genitive Plural. (a) Nouns not increasing make -ium, except apis, a bee, and

1. Vates, and proles, juvenis, senex, canis,

2. Accìpiter, pater, mater, frater, panis. (B) Nouns increasing make -um, except, 1. Monosyllabic Nouns of which the stem ends in two Consonants,

as, dens, tooth, 'dent-, Gen. Pl. dent-ium.
2. (1) Glis, mas, mus, lis,

(2) Compes, palus * and penātes,
(3) Nix, strix, faux, vis,

(4) Servitus *, and optimates.
3. Neuters in -al and -ar, as, animal, animal, calcar, spur.
4. Nouns in -as, Gen. -atis, as civitas, state, and many Nouns and

Participles in -ns, as parens, a parent, sapiens, wise, have both

-ium and -um in Gen. Pl.
5. (1) Sans Plural Genitives we class

(2) Cor, cos, and rus, sal, sol, and vas. 1 Line 1. force, hoarseness, basin, thirst, cough; 2. mustard, cucumber, carpenter's rule ; 3. enclosure, hemp, axe; 4. Charybdis, tiger, plough-tail; 5. and Proper Names in -is ; 6. as Syrtis, Tiber, Thames.

2 Line 1. rope, stern, tower, ship; 2. flesh-scraper, seed-sowing, key; 3. harvest, fever, washing-basin; 4. give -em or-im, whichever you prefer.

3 Line 1. river, snake, bird, bile; 2. citizen, fire, shower, end; 3. granddaughter, circle, cousin; 4. door-post, nail, -i if you like. .

4 Line 1. prophet, offspring, young man, old man, dog; 2. hawk, father, mother, brother, bread.

5 Line 1. dormouse, male, mouse, lawsuit; 2. fetter, marsh, household gods ; 3. snow, screech-owl, throat, force; 4. slavery, aristocrats. Those marked * have both -ium and -um.

& Line 2. heart, whetstone, country, salt, sun, surety. Sans means without.

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Second Declension. ager, a field.

murus, a wall. bellum, war.

puer, a boy. campus, a plain.

oculus, an eye. et, and

-que, and. filius, a son.

Quintus, Quintus. fluvius, a river.

scutum, a shield. gener, a son-in-law.

Servius, Servius. gladius, a sword.

socer, a father-in-law. minister, an attendant.

telum, a weapon. venēnum, poison.

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First Declension. Translate into Englishi:

(a) Viae? Insaniae. Filiă. Filiā. Rosis. Rosarum. Sapientiă poetae. Poetarum sapientiā.

(6) Filiae. Hastarum. Rosam. Viš. Turbis. Filiabus. Turbae Sapientiā. Insaniă poetae.

(c) Hastae turbarum. Poetarum filiabus. Hastis. Filiarum. Romă. Romā. Insularum. Insulis.

(d) Insularum viae. Insaniā puellae. Hastā Cottae. Cottă. Puellis. Nautarum. Terrae.

(e) Viarum terrae. Filiă nautae. Nautarum filiabus. Nautae filiā. Cottae filiarum. Insaniam Cottae. Turbae puellarum.

Translate into Latin :

(f) Of a spear. To or for a sailor. O daughters. By, with, or from madness. Of paths. To or for a girl. To or for the daughters. O sailor.

(3) From Rome. To the lands. Of the girls. O roses of Cotta. Of the paths of the island. O daughter of Cotta. To or for the daughters of the sailors. By, with, or from a spear.

(h) Cotta's daughter. The poet's rose. The poet's roses. By the madness of the girls. For the roses of the daughter. For the sailor's daughter. For the sailor's daughters. O sailor's daughter.

(i) Of the poet's wisdom. By the roads of the islands. O daughters of the poet. O poet's daughter. The crowd's wisdom. By the crowd's madness. Of sailors. For an island.

(k) By, with, or from the paths of the earth. O earth. O lands. Of the spear of Cotta. Of Cotta's spears. To or for Rome. By the roses of Cotta. For the wisdom of the girls.

1 Do not assign a Plural to Nouns which from their meaning have no Plural, such as names of qualities, as insania, madness.

2 In translating be careful to give all the possible meanings of the Latin word. Thus, viae may be (1) Genitive Singular, (2) Dative Singular, (3) Nominative Plural, (4) Vocative Plural, and its meanings vary accordingly: insaniae could only be Genitive Singular or Dative Singular, as the word has no Plural.


Second Declension.

Translate into English :

(a) Agri. Venena. Filii. Fili?. Servii. Quinti. Servi. Socero.

(6) Genero Servii. Tela soceri. Scuta generorum. Agro Quinti. Gladio ministri. Ministrorum gladiis.

(c) Muris et fluviis. Murorum fluviorumque. Oculo pueri. Bellorum et gladiorum et scutorum. Generis socerisque et ministris. Telorum pueri. Quinti Serviique oculis. Quinti gladius et scutum.

(d) Scuta gladiique ministrorum. Scuto gladioque soceri. Fluvii et campi. Tela et venena Quinti. Quinti Serviique generi. Generi socerique oculis. Scuta Servii. Oculorum pueri.

Translate into Latin :(e) Of an eye. Of poisons. Of rivers and plains. O Quintus and Servius. To or for the sons of Quintus and Servius. The weapons of the father-in-law. For the sons of the attendant. By, with, or from rivers and plains.

(f) Oson. O Servius. By, with, or from wars. Of wars and weapons. O son-in-law of Servius. O father-inlaw of the attendant. To or for plains and wars and poisons. By the poisons of the boys.

(g) O sons and sons-in-law of Quintus. The boy's sword and shield. The boys' eyes. Of the boy's weapon. To or for the boys' weapons. The attendant's son. Of the attendants' sons. O son of the attendant.

(h) By, with, or from the walls and fields and rivers and plains. By the father-in-law's weapons. For the son-inlaw's field. O swords of Quintus. O wall and plain. Of weapons and poisons. For Quintus' son. For the sons' attendants.

i See note on the Vocative of the 2nd Declension, p. 4.

EXERCISE III. Third Declension. Nouns in -um Note.-Translate et ... et, -que ... et, by both ... and. Thus, et pastores et milites, or pastoresque et milites, is translated both shepherds and soldiers.'

Translate into English :(a) Arbori. Capitis. Corpora. Cruribus. Ducum. Hectori. Hirundines. Hominum.

(6) Honore. Leones. Militibus. Militi. Mulier. Muliéres. Oněra. Oris.

(c) Capite Hectoris. Sacerdotis pedum. Oněra militis. Caput pectusque hominis. Leonis crura. Oněri pastöris. Et sacerdotes et duces.

(d) Pastoris os pectusque. Oneribusque et honoribus militum. Hirundinum pectoribus. Arborumque et corporum. Corpora et ora pastorum. Mulieribus et sacerdotibus. Muliěrum sacerdotumque pedes. Hominis honori.

Translate into Latin :

(e) To or for a mouth. Of soldiers. By Hector. From women. To or for a burden. Of shepherds. O mouths. By feet.

(f) Leaders of men. Bodies and legs. For heads and bodies. Hector's trees. Of Hector's trees. O breast of the priest. The feet of the shepherd. The burdens of the women.

(g) From the priest's burden. The honours both of Hector and the general. O feet and legs of the lions. From the breasts of men and women. The mouths both of soldiers and priests. For the burdens of the women and soldiers. Both for swallows and, trees. For the man and woman.

(h) For men's bodies. By leaders of men. To a leader both of men and women. For the priest's honour. For the priests' heads and legs. O honours and burdens of men. O bodies of Hector and the soldier. The mouths and feet of the lions.

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