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Personal, Reflexive, and Possessive Pronouns.
Translate into English :-

(a) Mihi tibique. Nobis et vobis. Nec mihi nec vobis. Aut mecum aut tecum. Et nobiscum et vobiscum. Tibi et uxori tuae. Nec sibi nec domino suo. Ego et rex meus.

(6) In tuo exercitu. De illustri meo fratre. Propter meliorem canem quam meum. Nobis potius quam vobis. Et tecum et cum sorore tua. Fortiori juveni quam tibi. In vestro potius quam in nostro exercitu. Nec vobiscum nec cum servis vestris.

(c) Mihique et genero tuo, Servi. De se suisque rebus. Adversus pejorem hominem quam te, Quinte. Propter te, fili, potius quam ministros tuos. Hei mihi ovibusque meis ! Prae multitudine copiarum nostrarum. Onus gravius quam pro viribus tuis. Cum nullis sororibus praeter tuas.

Translate into Latin :

(d) You and I. Yours and mine. Either with you or with me. For himself and Quintus. On account of himself. To me and to our enemies. You and your wife, O Servius. You and your slaves, O kings.

(e) You rather than your father. Hopes sweet to you rather than to me. Safety welcome to thee, Cotta, and to thy wife. A dog joyful on account of our safety. The love of our sons. A boy more greedy than you. For my hands rather than thine. By the bones of our men.

(f) The virtues of my master and our sons. Without the help of your young men. Towards the mountains and hills of our country. A wife more honourable than your son. Without the help of our soldiers. On account of the violence of my sons. Alas for me and my father! Concerning himself and his friends.

eorum, their (see Note).

Demonstrative and Definitive Pronouns.

ill-e, -ă, -ud, that (see Note). earum, jinéir (see Note).

illius, his, her, its (see Note). ejus, his, her, its (see Note). ips-e, -ă, -um, -self. hic, haec, hoc, this (see Note). is, eă, id, that (see Note). idem, eădem, idem, the same. ist-e, -ă, -ud, that (of yours).

vult-us, -ūs, a countenance. illarum, s

Note.—The various Genders, Cases, and Numbers of hic, is, and ille are often used to translate the Personal Pronouns he, she, it, him, her, they, them. Hence the Genitives hujus, ejus, eorum, etc., besides meaning of this, of that, etc., may stand for the Possessive Pronouns his, her, its, and their.

illorum, ) their (see Note).


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namque, for.


The Verb Sum. Adverbs, etc. autem, but (see Note).

quidem, indeed. enim, for (see Note).

saepe, often.
sed, but.

semper, always. profecto, certainly

tamen, yet, nevertheless. Note 1.-Autem and enim are never first word in a sentence.

Note 2.-The Verb Sum takes the same Case after it as before it. An adjective coupled by the Verb Sum to a Substantive must agree with that Substantive in Gender, Number, and Case.

Note 3.—The Verb agrees with the Nominative of its Subject in Number and Person.


The same (continued). non, not.

nē, not [in Commands]. Note.-Sentences like Quintus sit felix should be translated, Let Quintus be happy,' or, “May Quintus be happy,' rather than “Quintus may be happy.'

EXERCISE XVI. Demonstrative and Definitive Pronouns. Translate into English :

(a) Haec via. Hac via. Ejus rosae. Ejus rosă. Illorum operum. Illorum opera. Isti gladii. Isti gladio.

(6) Illo vultu. Illius vultu. Ipse Servius. Ego ipse. Mei ipsius. Ipso vate. Ipsius vatis. Illi vati.

(c) Ipsi ministro. Ipsius ministri. Ejus ministro. Ejusdem vultūs. Illorum vultūs. Eadem species. Eadem specie. Eidem oculo.

(d) Earundem frontium. Isti poetae, servisque ejus. Romanis, et eorum filiabus. Propter Quintum, sororemque ejus. Horum amicorum auxilio. Contra ingentem hunc exercitum, ducemque ejus. In patriam illorum militum. In patria istius generi.

Translate into Latin :

(e) Of this body. For this poet. For that father-in-law. For his father-in-law. For their fathers-in-law. For those fathers-in-law. Of these fruits. Of those seas.

(f) By her help. To that friend of yours. By those teeth of yours. With hope itself. From the harvest itself and its fruit. The same rose. Of the same rosé. Of the same daughters.

(g) To the multitude itself and its virtues. The appearance of the same stars. The horns of the same animals. By their wisdom. Concerning their illustrious poet. Against the sheep themselves and their shepherd. Without the king and his wife. Through fear of the same defeat.

(h) By the same kind of food. Without those feet and legs. Before Hector himself and his brothers. By the help of that black slave. Owing to the same Romans and their armies. Against his mouth and breast. The appearance of this earth and those stars. By the slaughter of his sheep and dogs.

Indicative Mood of Sum. Adverbs, etc.
Translate into English:-

(a) Felix sum. Fortis est. Felices erimus. Fortes fuerunt. Roma illustris est. Haec via longa est. Sed illae viae longiores sunt. Namque feliciores fuimus.

(6) Illustriores eritis, milites?. Multitudo saepe indocta est. Filiae eorum crudeles sunt. Tota autem arbor nigerrima fuerat. Pulcherrimae semper fuistis, filiae. Species hujus campi tristissima erit. Ea profecto res inhonesta est. Nulla tamen bella in agris nostris erant.

(c) Poetarum quidem cantus longiores erunt. Miserrimus enim eras, optime vates. Uxores nostrae aut tristes aut laetae fuerint. Namque poeta ipse avidissimus erat. Servi tui stulti sunt potius quam mali. Patria enim nostra nobis carissima est. Sed aliud genus hominum in urbibus fuerit. Juvenes enim acriores sunt quam senes.

Translaie into Latin :

(d) Thou art a poet. Ye will be sad. They will not be dearer. We are happy. They are unlearned. You are fair, O daughter. You are fair, O daughters. You are good, O son.

(e) He was in a famous city. The soldiers indeed are very brave. Yet we are braver. His teeth certainly were black. But his forehead was beautiful. For the burdens of the slaves will have been very heavy. Nevertheless the hope will be sweet. Yet his hands were strong.

(f) For sheep are often very foolish. Sheep indeed are more foolish than other animals. These dogs are certainly wiser than those sheep. His daughters certainly were not learned. Their spears indeed were very long. My mother is a woman of much wisdom. But my father is very famous amongst the Romans. Nevertheless we shall have been more unfortunate than Quintus and his brothers.

1 The Vocative Case is always separated by commas from the rest of the sentence.


All parts of Sum. Translate into English :

(a) Sit terra ferax. Laeti sint. Laeti essent. Laeti fuissent. Reges sint boni. Bella essent gravia. Hostes quidem non honesti fuissent. Cives nē sint miseri.

(6) Este boni, Quinte et Servi. Romani Gallique dementes fuissent. Os puellae pulcherrimum esset. Hoc jucundum est. Hoc jucundius esset. Hoc jucundissimum fuisset. Sed species horum camporum tristissima esset. Vos profecto, Romani, inhonesti non eritis.

(c) Nos autem crudeles non fuissemus. Senes saepe avidissimi sunt. Nec docti fuerunt nec insontes. Nec indocti nec crudeles simus. Valida sit multitudo potius quam avida. Nulli quidem reges indocti fuissent. Vultus autem ejus nē sit tristis. Vultus eorum tristes sunt.

Translate into Latin :

(d) Let' us be joyful. Let them be more joyful. Be honourable, O son. Be joyful, o daughters. Let not our hopes be dishonourable. You would be foolish, O sister. You would be dear, O friends. No queens would have been more willing.

(e) Yet the whole city had been wretched. For no forces were in the city. And the queen was not sad. That burden would certainly have been heavier. His songs were always sweeter than ours. The other ship was swifter and stronger. But another defeat would have been more disgraceful. The infantry forces have often been very useful.

(f) This would be easier and pleasanter. We should not always have been very happy. Let us not be always very miserable. We should certainly have been wiser. Certainly these are crimes of the worst kind. Nevertheless let not any sailor be very greedy. The only sister of Quintus is very learned. But unlearned men are often very cruel.

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