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(a) Males, Mountains, Months, the Winds, the Stream,

And People Masculine we deem :
Isles are Feminine ; to these
Add Females, Cities, Countries, Trees :
Indeclinables we call
Neuter Gender, one and all.

1. Common are to either sex
2. Artifex, and opifex,
3. Conviva, vates, advěna,
4. Testis, civis, incola,
5. Parens, sacerdos, custos, vindex,
6. Adolescens, infans, index,
7. Judex, heres, comes, dux,
8. Princeps, municeps, conjux,
9. Obses, ales, interpres,
10. Auctor, exul ; and with these
11. Bos, dama, talpa, tigris, grus,

12. Canis and anguis, serpens, sus. (c) The rules of Gender for Declensions 1, 2, 4, and 5, have

been given above in $$ 6, 7, 9, 10. (d) The Gender of Nouns of the Third Declension may

usually be known by the terminations of the Nom

inative Case, viz. :(1) Masculine terminations

Masculines -er, -or, and -o,

-os, and -es increasing, show. (2) Feminine terminations

Feminines -do, -io, -go,
-is, -as, -aus, and -x, will show,
-es, if no increase is needed,

-8 by Consonant preceded. (3) Neuter terminations

Neuters end in -a, -C, -e,
-ar, -ur, -us, -1, -n, and -t.

PREPOSITIONS. § 12. The following Prepositions govern an Accusative Case :

ante, apud, ad, adversus,
circum, circa, citra, cis,
contra, erga, extra, infra,
inter, intra, juxta, ob,
penes, pone, post, and praeter,
prope, propter, per, secundum,
supra, versus, ultra, trans.
And unto these, if motion be intended,

Let in, sub, super, subter, be appended'. § 13. The following Prepositions govern an Ablative Case:

a (ab), absque, coram, de,
palam, clam, cum, ex or e,
sine, tenus, pro, and prae.
And unto these, if rest at be intended,
Let in, sub, super, subter be appended ?.

1 The meanings are:-ante, before ; apud, at, near, and—when used of an author-in, as, apud Homerum, in Homer, apud Platonem, in Plato, etc.; ad, to or at; adversus (or adversum), against; circum, circa, round, about ; citra, cis, on this side of; contra, against ; erga, towards ; extra, outside of; infra, beneath ; inter, between, among; intra, within ; juxta, near, next to; ob, on account of, and—when used of place - before ; penes, in the power of; pone, behind; post, behind, after, since ; praeter, beside, except, beyond, contrary to; prope, near; propter, beside, on account of; per, through, by means of, during ; secundum, next after, according to; supra, above ; versus, towards (placed after its case); ultra, beyond ; trans, across; in, to, into, upon, against (always with a notion of motion to), for (of time), in or after (of manner, as, in hunc modum, 'after this manner '), towards ; sub, under, up to, and—when used of time-just after, just before, about; super, over, above, and—when used of number-besides ; subter, under.

? The meanings are:-a, ab, from, by, on the side of; absque, without [this preposition is seldom used]; coram, in the presence of; de, down from, from, of, concerning; palam, in view of; clam, without the knowledge of ; cum, with ; ex, e, out of, from ; sine, without ; tenus, as far as (placed after its case); pro, before (of place), in behalf of, for, according to; prae, before, owing to, compared with ; in, in, amidst, among ; sub, under; super, over; subter, under (only used with Ablative in poetry].

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§ 14.

ADJECTIVES. Adjectives are divided into two classes, the First Class having endings like those of the First and Second Declensions, and the Second Class like those of the Third Declension, of Nouns Substantive.

§ 15. Adjectives of the First Class. Adjectives of the First Class have three terminations to each Case, denoting the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Gender, as, bonus, bona, · bonum, good ; niger, nigra, nigrum, black. The Masculine and Neuter endings are like those of the Second Declension of Substantives, the Feminine like those of the First. SINGULAR.

M. F. N. M.
Nom. Bonus, -ă, -um. } Boni.
Voc. Bon-e, -a, -um. I

Bon-i, -ae, -ě.
Acc. Bon-um, -am, -um. Bon-os, -as, -ă
Gen. Bon-i, -ae, -i. Bon-Orum, -Arum, -Orum.
Dat. Bon-o, -ae, -0. Bon-is (of all Genders).
Abl. Bon-o, -ā, -0. S

PLURAL. M. F. N. M. N.V. Niger, nigr-ă, nigr-um. Nigr-i, -ae, Acc. Nigr-um, -am, -um. Nigr-os, -as, -. Gen. Nigr-i, -ae, -i. Nigr-Orum, -Arum, -Orum. Dat. Nigr-o, -ae, -0. In

• Nigr-is (of all Genders). Abl. Nigr-o, -ā,

Note. Some Adjectives in -er preserve the e throughout, like puer, as tener, tenera, tenerum, tender. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. M. F. N. M. F. N. N.V. Tener, -a, -um. Tener-i, . -ae, -ă. Acc. Tener-um, -am, -um. Tener-os, -as, -ă. Gen. Tener-i, -ae, -i. Tener-Orum, -Arum, -Orum. Dat. Tener-o, -ae, -0. Tener-is (of all Genders). Abl. Tener-o, -ā, -0.

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Like 'tener' are declined—lacer, liber, asper, miser; compounds of gero and fero, as corniger, frugifer; and sometimes dexter

$ 16. Adjectives of the Second Class. Adjectives of the Second Class are called Adjectives of Two Terminations, and have endings like those of the 3rd Decl. of Substantives; as, tristis, gloomy; melior, better ; felix, happy ; ingens, vast.

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N.V. Ingens.

ingent-iă. Acc. Ingent-em,


ingens. ) Gen. Ingent-is.

Ingent-Ium. Dat. Ingent-i.

Ingent-ibus. Abl. Ingent-e (or -i).

Some Adjectives in -er belong to this class, but have a Feminine form in the Nominative Singular, as, acer, keen.

Torn, free, rough, miserable ; horn-bearing, fruit-bearing ; on the right hand.

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§ 17. Unus, and Quasi-Numeral Adjectives. These are alius, another, and,

Unus, solus, totus, ullus,

Uter, alter, neuter, nullus.
They make -ius in Gen. Sing., and -i in Dative.

M. F. N. M. F.
Nom. Unŭs -ă, -um. Un-i, -ae,
Acc. Un-um, -am, -um. Un-os, -as, -ă.
Gen. Un-žus (of all Genders). Un-Orum, -Arum, -Orum.
Dat. Un-i (of all Genders). } Un-is (of all Genders).
Abl. Un-o, -, -0. "

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Alter keeps the e throughout, as, Sing. N. Alter, altěra, altěrum. Alius makes N. Alius, alia, aliud, G. Alius, D. Alii, etc.

Brisk, celebrated, equestrian, pedestrian, winged, healthful, swift. 2 One, alone or the only, the whole, any at all ; which of two, the other or one of two, neither, none.

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