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$ 11. FURTHER RULES OF GENDER.
(a) Males, Mountains, Months, the Winds, the Stream,
And People Masculine we deem :
1. Common are to either sex
12. Canis and anguis, serpens, sus. (c) The rules of Gender for Declensions 1, 2, 4, and 5, have
been given above in $$ 6, 7, 9, 10. (d) The Gender of Nouns of the Third Declension may
usually be known by the terminations of the Nom
inative Case, viz. :(1) Masculine terminations
Masculines -er, -or, and -o,
-os, and -es increasing, show. (2) Feminine terminations
Feminines -do, -io, -go,
-8 by Consonant preceded. (3) Neuter terminations
Neuters end in -a, -C, -e,
PREPOSITIONS. § 12. The following Prepositions govern an Accusative Case :
ante, apud, ad, adversus,
Let in, sub, super, subter, be appended'. § 13. The following Prepositions govern an Ablative Case:
a (ab), absque, coram, de,
1 The meanings are:-ante, before ; apud, at, near, and—when used of an author-in, as, apud Homerum, in Homer, apud Platonem, in Plato, etc.; ad, to or at; adversus (or adversum), against; circum, circa, round, about ; citra, cis, on this side of; contra, against ; erga, towards ; extra, outside of; infra, beneath ; inter, between, among; intra, within ; juxta, near, next to; ob, on account of, and—when used of place - before ; penes, in the power of; pone, behind; post, behind, after, since ; praeter, beside, except, beyond, contrary to; prope, near; propter, beside, on account of; per, through, by means of, during ; secundum, next after, according to; supra, above ; versus, towards (placed after its case); ultra, beyond ; trans, across; in, to, into, upon, against (always with a notion of motion to), for (of time), in or after (of manner, as, in hunc modum, 'after this manner '), towards ; sub, under, up to, and—when used of time-just after, just before, about; super, over, above, and—when used of number-besides ; subter, under.
? The meanings are:-a, ab, from, by, on the side of; absque, without [this preposition is seldom used]; coram, in the presence of; de, down from, from, of, concerning; palam, in view of; clam, without the knowledge of ; cum, with ; ex, e, out of, from ; sine, without ; tenus, as far as (placed after its case); pro, before (of place), in behalf of, for, according to; prae, before, owing to, compared with ; in, in, amidst, among ; sub, under; super, over; subter, under (only used with Ablative in poetry].
ADJECTIVES. Adjectives are divided into two classes, the First Class having endings like those of the First and Second Declensions, and the Second Class like those of the Third Declension, of Nouns Substantive.
§ 15. Adjectives of the First Class. Adjectives of the First Class have three terminations to each Case, denoting the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Gender, as, bonus, bona, · bonum, good ; niger, nigra, nigrum, black. The Masculine and Neuter endings are like those of the Second Declension of Substantives, the Feminine like those of the First. SINGULAR.
Bon-i, -ae, -ě.
PLURAL. M. F. N. M. N.V. Niger, nigr-ă, nigr-um. Nigr-i, -ae, Acc. Nigr-um, -am, -um. Nigr-os, -as, -. Gen. Nigr-i, -ae, -i. Nigr-Orum, -Arum, -Orum. Dat. Nigr-o, -ae, -0. In
• Nigr-is (of all Genders). Abl. Nigr-o, -ā,
Note. Some Adjectives in -er preserve the e throughout, like puer, as tener, tenera, tenerum, tender. SINGULAR.
PLURAL. M. F. N. M. F. N. N.V. Tener, -a, -um. Tener-i, . -ae, -ă. Acc. Tener-um, -am, -um. Tener-os, -as, -ă. Gen. Tener-i, -ae, -i. Tener-Orum, -Arum, -Orum. Dat. Tener-o, -ae, -0. Tener-is (of all Genders). Abl. Tener-o, -ā, -0.
Like 'tener' are declined—lacer, liber, asper, miser; compounds of gero and fero, as corniger, frugifer; and sometimes dexter
$ 16. Adjectives of the Second Class. Adjectives of the Second Class are called Adjectives of Two Terminations, and have endings like those of the 3rd Decl. of Substantives; as, tristis, gloomy; melior, better ; felix, happy ; ingens, vast.
ingent-iă. Acc. Ingent-em,
ingens. ) Gen. Ingent-is.
Ingent-Ium. Dat. Ingent-i.
Ingent-ibus. Abl. Ingent-e (or -i).
Some Adjectives in -er belong to this class, but have a Feminine form in the Nominative Singular, as, acer, keen.
Torn, free, rough, miserable ; horn-bearing, fruit-bearing ; on the right hand.
§ 17. Unus, and Quasi-Numeral Adjectives. These are alius, another, and,
Unus, solus, totus, ullus,
Uter, alter, neuter, nullus.
Alter keeps the e throughout, as, Sing. N. Alter, altěra, altěrum. Alius makes N. Alius, alia, aliud, G. Alius, D. Alii, etc.
Brisk, celebrated, equestrian, pedestrian, winged, healthful, swift. 2 One, alone or the only, the whole, any at all ; which of two, the other or one of two, neither, none.