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By the same Author,
AN ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR. Third Edition, Revised
and Corrected. Extra fcp. 8vo. Cloth, 25. 6d., or 60 cents.
A FIRST LATIN EXERCISE BOOK. Fourth Edition. Extra
fcp. 8vo. Cloth, 25. 6d., or 60 cents.
A SECOND LATIN EXERCISE BOOK, with Hints for Higher
Latin Prose Composition. Extra fcp. 8vo. Cloth, 35. 6d., or 85 cents.
PART I. GRAMMAR.
ALPHABET AND PARTS OF SPEECH.
§ 1. Alphabet. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English, without W.
§ 2. Parts of Speech. There are eight Parts of Speech, namely, the Noun-Substantive, Noun-Adjective, Pro-noun, Verb, Ad-verb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection.
The Noun-Substantive is the name of any thing, as,
magister, a master. The Noun-Adjective expresses a quality, as, bonus, good. The Pro-noun is used instead of a Substantive or Ad
jective, as, ille, he ; meus, my. The Verb expresses an action, as, amo, I love ; or a
condition, as, amor, I am loved. The Ad-verb is added to a Verb or Adjective, and shows
how, when, or where,as, valde bonus, very good; scripsit
heri, he wrote yesterday; huc veni, come hither. The Preposition is put before Nouns, to show that they
are to be joined to Verbs, or sometimes to Nouns, as, venit ad urbem, he comes to the city ; lupus inter oves,
a wolf among sheep.
Romŭlus et Remus, Romulus and Remus.
§ 3. The Article. There is no Article, a, an, or the, in Latin. Thus bellum may mean war, a war, or the war.
$ 4. The five Declensions. Of Substantives there are five Declensions, which are known by the endings of their Genitive Case Singular. The ist Declension has Gen. Sing. in -ae; the 2nd in -i; the 3rd in - 18 ; the 4th in -ūs; the 5th in -ei.
§ 5. Number, Gender, Case. Substantives have two Numbers, the Singular and the Plural; three Genders, the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter; and six Cases, the Nominative, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, and Ablative.
Nominative. The Nominative Case ends in -ě.
Gender. Feminine ; except a few names of men, as, Publicola, Publicola, or designations of men, as, poeta, a poet, which are masculine.
PLURAL. Nom. Mensă, a table.
Mens-ae, tables. Voc. Mens-a, O table.
Mens-ae, O tables. Acc. Mens-am, a table.
Mens-as, tables. Gen. Mens-ae, of a table.
Mens-Arum, of tables. Dat. Mens-ae, to or for a table. Mens-is, to or for tables. Abl. Mens-ā, by, with, or from a Mens-is, by, with, or from table.