The Invention of the Eyewitness: Witnessing and Testimony in Early Modern France
In an examination of eyewitness travel writing in thirteenth- through sixteenth-century France, Andrea Frisch studies the figure of the witness at a historical juncture and in a cultural context in which that figure is generally thought to have begun to assume a recognizably modern form and function.
Whereas most accounts of early modern travel literature tend to read modern presuppositions about witnessing and testimony back into the material, Frisch approaches the early modern witness in terms of the cultural legacy of the Middle Ages. Through primary readings in law and theology, Frisch documents the tension between the ethical witness (the characteristic witness of premodernity) and the epistemic witness (the modern witness) and explores the impact of that tension on the figure of the witness in pre- and early modern French-language travel literature.
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The realist model takes the “ est ” of the words of the Eucharistic institution , “ hoc
est corpus meum , ” as designating an ... there has been a fair amount of
controversy over what the meaning of “ is ” is in Calvin ' s discussions of the
It was precisely Calvin ' s unyielding insistence on the disparity between the
Eucharistic sign and that which it signified ... is never abolished in Calvin ' s
sacrament of the Eucharist ; his analogy of bread to body does not work to
convert one ...
What those who doubt the real presence in the Calvinist Eucharist fail to
understand , then , is the mode in which the Calvinist God communicates – and
thus communes - with Man . In Book 1 , chapter 6 of the Institutes , Calvin claims
that “ God ...