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Page

Municipal Reform .

317 | The Evangelical Party

385

Strength of the Government 318 Death of Wilberforce .

385

Weakness of the Government. 319 Of Hannah More

385

Civil List.

321 Moderate-Church Party .

387

Pensions

321 Opening of Universities to Dissen-

Royal Income

323 ters

387

Pauperism

323 The Church in Danger

389

Confusion of Poverty with Pauper- Church Reform

389

ism

325 Lord Henley

389

Dr. Arnold

389

1832-1834.

Principles of Church Reform 390

The Dissenters

390

New Poor-law

326 Government Circular

391

Its Principles

326 Perplexities of Ministers

392

Its Machinery

328 Admission of Quakers to Parlia-

Reception of the Measure

329

ment.

393

Its Passage

333 Continued exclusion of Jews 394

Its Operation

333 Deaths of Robert Hall, Rowland

Factory Children

333 Hill, Charles Wesley, Adam

Clarke, Rammohun Roy, and

Dr. Doyle

1833.

394-397

Schism in Scotch Church

397

Renewal of the Bank Charter. 337 Irving

397

India Company's Charter

339 His Death

398

Negro Slavery

342 St. Simonism

398

Abolition Movements

344 Proposed Ecclesiastical Commission 399

Negro Emancipation

348 | Finance

401

First of August, 1834

349 First Budget

402

Statement of 1832

404

Statement of 1833

404

1831-1834.

Assessed-taxes Movement

406

Irish Church

352 The House-tax

407

Prosecution of O'Connell

354 Statement of 1834 .

408

Irish Outrage

356 Westminster Election

408

Royal Notice of Tithes

358 The Malt-tax

409

First Act of 1832

361 Surplus of 1834 .

409

Act of 1833

362 The Corn-laws

410

1834

363 Total Reductions

410

Tardy Truth about Tithes

363 | Poor-law for Ireland

411

Proposed Act of 1834

364 Registry of Deeds

411

Bill lost

365 The Ballot

412

Irish Ecclesiastical Commission 366 | Military Flogging

414

Irish Census.

366 Impressment of Šeamen

414

Reductions

366 Popular Discontents

415

Appropriation Doctrine

367 Trades' Unions

415

Delays.

367 Dorsetshire Laborers

416

Appropriation refused

368 | Day of the Trades.

417

Irish Church Temporalities Bill Changes in the Cabinet

418

passes

368 Late Intrigues

419

Official Changes

369 | Irish Tithes

420

Mr. Ward's Critical Motion 370 The Lord Chancellor.

420

King's Declaration

370 | Lord Durham

421

Commission of Inquiry

372 The Grey Banquet.

421

Coercion Bill

374 Prospect of New Parties

422

423

Mr. Littleton's Explanation 375 Retirement of Lord Brougham 424

Resignation of Lord Althorp 376 | Lord Lyndhurst succeeds

424

Of Lord Grey

376 Lord Brougham's Law-reforms 424

Lord Grey's Farewell

376 | Local-courts Bill

424

Brougham

377 Chancery-reform

425

Lord Grey's Political Character 378 Retirement of Lord Spencer 427

Religious Crisis

380

The Tractarians

381

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Negotiations with Mr. O'Connell 375 Dissolution of the Ministry

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1830-1834.

Page
Page Actors

469

Affairs of France

42* i Musicians

470

The Duke of Orleans

428 Architects

470

The Charter.

429 Antiquarians

470

Louis Philippe accepts the Crown 430 | Artists

472

Disquiet

432 Authors

473

Suicide of the Luke de Bourbon 432 Philanthropists

478

Disturbance in Paris

432

Constitution of the Chambers 433

Abolition of the Hereditary Peer-

age

434

Electoral Law

434

BOOK V.

Parties.

435

1834-35.

Press Prosecutions

435

Insurrections

436 The Three Parties.

480

Fortifications of Paris

437 The Duke's Offices

481

Characteristics of the Reign 437 Position of Sir R. Peel

482

Death of Lafayette.

438 New Cabinet

483

Separation of Belgium and Holland 439 Dissolution of Parliament

483

Prince Leopold accepts the Belgian Tamworth Manifesto

484

Crown

440 | The New Parliament

485

Brunswick, Saxony, Hesse Cassel, Temper of the Time

486

Baden, Switzerland, Italy 440 Election of the Speaker

487

Spain: Death of the King 441 | Mr. Abercromby chosen

488

Don Carlos

441 King's Speech

488

Portugal

441 | Angry Debate

489

Death of Don Pedro

441 | Debate of the Malt-tax

491

Marriage of the Queen of Portugal 441 Lord Londonderry's Appointment 492

Her Widowhood

442 Dissenters' Marriages

493

Egypt and Turkey

442 Ecclesiastical Commission

496

Poland

442 Ministers' Defeats

497

Revolt — Suspense — Struggle 413 London University Charter 497

Defeat of the Poles

444 Conflicts in Parliament

499

Character of the Struggle

444 Final Struggle

499

Royalty in England

446 Appropriation Question

500

The Coronation

446 Triumph of Opposition

502

The Princess Victoria

446 Resignation of the Cabinet

502

Assault on the King

447

Popular Ignorance

448

1835.

Riots

448

Anatomy Bill

Bili :

449 Difficulties

504

Medical Education

450 | The Melbourne Administration 505

Criminal Trials ,

451 Lord Melbourne

505

Steam in the East

453 Mr. Charles Grant.

508

Conveyance of Mails .

153 | Lord John Russell .

508

Diving to Wrecks

454 Irish Administration

509

The Drummond Light

455 Two Great Questions

510

Polar Discoveries

455 | The Irish Church

510

Islington Cattle-market

455 Appropriation Question

510

Peterborough Cathedral .

456 Church-rates.

514

New London Bridge.

456 Surrender of the Appropriation

Education

456

Principle

517

British Association

457 Reception of the Surrender

517

Statistics of Suicide

457 Second Great Question

519

Duelling

457 Municipal Reform

519

Loss of the "Rothesay Castle" 458 Corporation Commission

520

Fire at the Dublin Custom-house 458 Rise and History of Municipal

Burning of the Houses of Parlia-

Institutions

520

ment

459 Report of Commissioners

523

Necrology

461-479 Existing State of Things

524

Political Deaths

461-464 Principle of the Case .

525

Men of Science

464-467 Defects of the Reform

527

Seamen and Travellers

468 | Substance of the Bill .

528

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.

HISTORY OF THE PEACE.

BOOK III.

CHAPTER I.

1826. November.

TH
HE period on which we are now entering - the last years

of the reign of George IV._ is one of remarkable interest and importance in the retrospect, though the complaint of the time was of stagnation of public business. It is true that, for three sessions, scarcely any thing was done of what is commonly called public business. In regard to variety of subject, the records of Parliament perhaps were never before so meagre for three consecutive sessions. At the same time, the registers of the period are full of ministerial correspondence, ministerial explanations, and ministerial difficulties : for this there was ample reason; and in this lay the deep importance and interest of the period.

It is common for society to complain of loss of the public time, and postponement of public business, when a change of ministry, or other event, induces explanation of their personal conduct on the part of public men. It is common to complain of such explanations, as if statesmen were obtruding their personal concerns upon a public which does not care for them, but wants to be about its own business. But this is, wherever held, a vulgar error, and a most pernicious one. Every true statesman knows that his personal honor is a national interest; and every enlightened citizen knows that the highest distinction of a nation is the rectitude of its rulers; and that no devotion of time, thought, patience, and energy, can be too great for the object of upholding the standard of political honor among statesmen. In the most ordinary times, therefore, the enlightened citizen will eagerly receive, and earnestly weigh, the statements of public men with regard to their official conduct, aware that the postponement of legislative acts is a less evil than that of failing to discharge

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every conscience, to decide upon every reputation, as it comes into question, and thus to ascertain that the moral ground is firm and secure before proceeding to political action. If it be thus in ordinary times, much stronger was the obligation to prove the conduct and reputation of statesmen at the period we are now entering upon. If, during the next three years, ministerial difficulties and explanations seem to be endless, there must be some cause; the embarrassment must be, in fact, a characteristic of the time.

We have witnessed the admission into the Cabinet of two men who were called “political adventurers;

»1 and we have recognized in this event the sign that a new time had arrived, requiring for its administration a new order of men. Though the new men had acted and succeeded in their function, the struggles and perplexities of the transition from one state of society and government to another had yet to be gone through ; and the beginning of these struggles and perplexities is what we have now to contemplate. We shall see ministry after ministry formed and dissolved. We shall see that the difficulty lay, not in finding competent men, — for able men abounded at that time, - but in determining what great principle, of those afloat, should so preponderate as to determine the government of the country. In the trial of this all-important point, the next three years cannot now be said to have been wasted, though at the time the vexation was severe, of seeing great questions standing still, ordinary legislative business thrust aside, and a temper and language of political bitterness rising up, such as could never have been anticipated among men of rational capacities and gentlemanly education. The King opened the new Parliament in person on the 21st of

November, declaring in his speech that he called the

Houses together for the special purpose of declaring and accounting for the measures taken by government in opening the ports to some kinds of grain and pulse, in consequence of the scarcity produced by the drought of the summer. In answer to various complaints in both Houses about the scanty revelations of the speech, Lord Liverpool and Mr. Canning pleaded the special nature of the business which occasioned the present sitting, and promised the regular supply of information and suggestion at the regular time,-after the Christmas recess. Ministers obtained the indemnity they sought for opening the ports during the recess; and, with one exception, little else was done before Christmas. But that exception was a brilliant and most significant one. Mr. Canning accounted to Parliament, and obtained its enthusiastic sanction, for sending troops to Portugal.

Opening of
Parliament.

2

1 Annual Register, 1865, p. 175.

2 Ante, p. 150.

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