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In 1588, when the nation was alarmed with the apprehensions of the Spanish armada, lord Leicester was made lieutenant-general, under the queen, of the army assembled at Tilbury. This noble personage stood high in the favour of his mistress to the last: for he died this year, Sept. 4, at his house at Cornbury in Oxfordshire, while he was upon the road to Kenilworth. His corpse was removed to Warwick, and buried there in a magnificent manner. He is said to have inherited the parts of his father. His ambition was great, but his abilities seem to have been greater. He was a finished courtier in every respect; and managed his affairs so nicely, that his influence and power became almost incredible. He had a competent knowledge of the Latin tongue, and was thoroughly versed in the French and Italian.
DUDLEY (Sir ROBERT as he was called here, and as he was styled abroad earl of Warwick and duke of Northumberland) was fon (called by his father BASE Son) of Robert, earl of Leicester, by the lady Douglas Sheffield, and born at Sheen in Surrey in 1573. His birth was carefully concealed, as well to prevent the queen's knowledge of the earl's engagements with his mother, as to hide it froin the countess of Eilex, to whom he was then contracted, if not married. He was considered and treated as his lawful son till the earl's marriage with the lady Effex, which was about 1578; and then he was declared to be only his natural issue by lady Douglas. Out of her hands the earl was very desirous to get him, in order to put him under the care of Sir Edward Horsey, governor of the Isle of Wight; which fome have imagined to have been, not with any view to the child's disadvantage, for he always loved him tenderly, but with a thought of bringing him upon the stage at some proper time, as his natural son by another lady. He was not able to get him for some time: but at last effecting it, he sent him to school at Ollingham in Sulfex in 1583, and four years after to Chrift-Church in Oxford. In 1588 his father died, and left him, after the decease of his uncle Ambrose, his castle of Kenilworth, the lordships of Denbigh and Chirk, and the bulk of his estate, which before he was of age he in a great measure enjoyed, notwithstanding the enmity borne him by the countess dowager of Leicefter.
He was now looked upon as one of the finest gentleinen in England; in his person tall, well-thaped, having a freth and fine complexion, but red-haired ; learned beyond his age, more especially in the mathematics; and of parts cqual, if not superior, to any of his family. Add to ail this, that he was very expert in his exercises, and particularly in riding the great horse, in which he was allowed to excel any man of his time.
His genius prompting himn to great exploits, and having a particular turn to navigation and discoveries, he projecied a voyage into ahe South Seas, in hopes of acquiring the fame fame thereby, as his
friend the famous Thomas Cavendish, of Trimley, Efq; whose sister he had married ; but, after much pains taken, and money spent, the govenment thought it not safe for him to proceed. Afterwards, however, he performed a voyage, setting out Nov. 1594, and returning May 1595 : an account of which, written by himself, is publilhed in Hackluyt's collection of voyages. At the end of Elizabeth's reign, having buried his wife, he married Alice, the daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh. He then began to entertain hopes of reviving the honours of his family; and, in 1605, commenced a fuit, with a view of proving the legitimacy of his birth. But no sooner had the countess dowager notice of this, than flie
procured an information to be filed against hin and some others for a conspiracy; which was such a blow to all his hopes, that, obtaining a licence to travel for three years, which was easily granted him, he quitted the kingdom : leaving behind him lady Alice Dudley his wife, and four daughters. He had not been long abroad, before he was commanded back, for assuming in foreign countries the title of earl of Warwick; but refusing to obey that summons, his estate was seized, and vested in the crown, during his natural life, upon the statute of fugitives.
The place which Sir Robert Dudley chose for his retreat abroad, was Florence; where he was very kindly received by Cosmo II. great duke of Tuscany: and, in process of time, made great chamberlain to his serene highness's confort, the archduchess Magdalen of Austria, fister to the emperor Ferdinand II. with whom he was a great favourite. He discovered in that court those great abilities, for which he had been so much admired in England: he contrived several methods of improving shipping, introduced new manufactures, excited the merchants to extend their foreign commerce; and, by other services of still greater importance, obtained so high a reputation, that, at the desire of the arch-duchess, the emperor, by letters-patent, dated at Vienna, March the gth, 1620, created him a duke of the holy Roman empire. Upon this, he allumed his grandfather's title of Northumberland ; and, ten years after, got himself enrolled by pope Urban VIII. among the Roman nobility. Under the reign of the grand duke Ferdinand II. he became still more famous, on account of that great project which he formed, of draining a vast tract of morass between Pisa and the fea : for by this he raised Livorno, or Leghorn, froin a mean and pitiful place into a large and beautiful town: and having engaged his serene highness to declare it a free port, he, by his influence, drew many English merchants to settle, and-set
houses there. In confideration of his services, and for the support of his dignity, the grand duke beitowed upon him a handsome pension; wlich however went but a little way in his expences: for he affected magnificence in all things, built a noble palace for himself and his family at Florence, and much adorned the callle of CarDUDLEY-(Sir Robert).
bello, three miles from that capital, which the grand duke gave
him for a country-retreat, and where he died Sept. 1639.
Sir Robert Dudley was not only admired by princes, but also by the learned ; among whom he held a very high rank, as well on account of his skill in philosophy, chemistry, and physic, as his perfect acquaintance with all the branches of the mathematics, and the means of applying them for the service and benefit of mankind. He wrote several things. We have mentioned the account of his voyage. His principal work is, “ Del arcano del mare,” &c. Firenze, 1630, 1646. This work has been always so scarce, as seldom to have found a place even in the catalogues that have been published of rare books. Wood tells us, that he wrote also a medical treatise, entitled Catholicon, which was well esteemed by the faculty. There is still another piece, the title of which, as it stands in Rushworth's Collections, runs thus: “ A proposition for his majesty's service, to bridle the impertinency of parliaments. Afterwards questioned in the Star-Chamber.” After he had lived fome time in exile, he still cherished hopes of returning to England: to facilitate which, and to ingratiate himself with king James, he drew up “ a propofition, as he calls it, in two parts: the one, to secure the state, and to bridle the impertinency of parliaments; the other, to increase his majesty's revenue much more than it is.” This scheme, falling into the hands of some persons of great distinction, and being some years after by them made public, was considered as a thing of lo pernicious a nature, as to occasion their imprisonment: but they were released upon the difcovery of the true author. It was written about 1613, and sent to king James, to teach him how most effectually to enslave his subjects : for in that light it is certainly as singular and as dangerous a paper, as ever fell from the pen of inan. It was turned to the prejudice of James I. and Charles I. for though neither they, nor their ministers, made use of it, or intended to make use of it, yet occasion was taken from thence to excite the people to a hatred of statesinen, who were capable of contriving such destructive projects. Lastly, he was the author of a famous powder, calleil, Pulvis comitis Warwicenfis, or, The earl of Warwick's powder, which is thus made: “ Take of fcammony, prepared with the fumes of fulphur, two ounces; of diaphoretic antimony, an ounce; of the crystals of tartar, half an ounce: mix them all together into a powder.”
When he went abroad, he prevailed upon a young lady, at that time e teemned one of the finest women in England, to bear him company in the liabit of a page. This lady was Mrs. Elizabeth Southwell, the daughter of Sir Robert Southwell, of Woodrising in Norfolk ; whom he afterwards married, by virtue of a dispenfation from the pope. How blameable fuever she was in following him, yet her conduct was afterwards without exception : and,
as fhe lived in honour and esteem, and had all the respect paid her that her title of a duchess could demand, so it is reported, that Sir Robert loved her moft tenderly to the last, and caused a noble monument to be erected to her memory in the church of St. Pan. cratius at Florence, where her body lies buried, and his by her. He had by this lady a fon Charles, who assumed the title of earl of Warwick, and four daughters, all honourably married in that country.
DUGARD (WILLIAM), an eminent school-master and learned man, was the fon of Henry Dugard, a clergyman, and born at Bromsgrove in Worcestershire in 1606. He was instructed in classical learning at a school in Worcester; and from thence sent in 1622, to Sidney-College, Cambridge. In 1626, he took the degree of B. A. and that of M. A. in 1630. Soon after he was appointed master of Stamford-School in Lincolnshire; from whence, in 1637, he was elected master of the free-school in Colchester. He religned the care of this school Jan. 1642-3; and, May 1644, was chosen head-master of Merchant-Taylors school in London. This school flourished exceedingly under his influence and management; but for thewing, as was thought, too great an affection to the royal cause, and elpecially for being concerned in printing Salmafius's defence of Charles I. he was deprived of it Feb. 1649-50, and imprisoned in Newgate; his wife and fix children turned out of doors; and a printing-office, which he valued at a thousand pounds, seized. That he was very well affected to Charles I. and to the royal interest, appears from a curious register he kept of his school, which is still extant in Sion-College library, wherein are entered two Greek verses, on the beheading of that monarch, to this effect : “ Charles, the belt of kings, is fallen by the hands of cruel and wicked men, a martyr for the laws of God and of his country.” There are also two more Greek verses on the burial of Oliver Cromwell's mother in Westminster-Abbey, to this effect : 56 Here lieth the mother of a cursed son, who has been the ruin of two kings, and of three kingdoms.” However, it was not for these verles that he was dismilled the school, but for being concerned in printing Salmasius's book.
Being loon released from this confinement, he opened, April 1650, a private school on Peter's-Hill, London ; but, in September, was restored to his former station, by means of the same council of state who had caused him to be removed. There he continued with great success and credit, till about 1661; when he was dismissed for breaking some orders of the Merchant-Taylors, though he had been publicly warned and admonished of it before. He presented a remonftrance to them upon that occasion, but to no purpose: whereupon he opened a private school in Coleman-Street, July 1661, and, by March following, had gathered an hundred and DUGDALE-(Sir William). .
ninety-three scholars : fo great was his reputation, and the fame of his abilities. He lived a very little while after, dying in 1662. He
gave by will several books to Sion-College library. He published some few pieces for the use of his schools ; as, i. “ Lexicon Græci Testamenti Alphabeticum; unà cum Explicatione Grammaticâ Vocum fingularum, in usum Tironum, Necnon Concordantià fingulis dictionibus appofitâ, in usum Theologiæ Candidato. rum, 1660.” 2. “ Rhetorices compendium.” 8vo. 3. "Luciani Samosatensis dialogorum selectorum libri duo. A. G. Dugardo recogniti, et, variis.collatis exemplaribus, multo castigatius quam ante editi. Cum interpretatione Latina, multis in locis emendata, et ad calcem adjecta,” 8vo. 4. “ A Greek Grammar.”
DUGDALE (Sir WILLIAM), an eminent English antiquary and historian, was the only son of John Digdale, of Shustoke, near Colelhill in Warwickshire, gent. and born there Sept. 12, 1605. He was placed at the free-school in Coventry, where he continued till he was fifteen ; and then returning home to his father, who had been educated in St. John's College, Oxford, and had applied himself particularly to civil law and history, was instructed by him in those branches of literature. At the desire of his father, he married, March 1622-3, a daughter of Mr. Huntbach, of Seawall in Stafford thire; and boarded with his wife's father till the death of his own, which happened July 1624: but soon after went and kept house at Fillongley in Warwickshire, where he had an estate formerly purchased by his father. In 1625, he bought the manor of Blythe in Shuftoke above-mentioned; and, the year following, selling his estate at Fillongley, he came and resided at Blythe-Hall
. His natural inclination leading him to the study of antiquities, he foon became acquainted with all the noted antiquaries; with Burton particularly, whose “ Description of Leicestershire" he had read, and who lived, but eight iniles from him, at Lindley in that county:
In 1638, he went to London, and was introduced to Sir Chrif. topher Hatton, and to Sir Henry Spelman: by whose interest he was created a pursuivant at arms extraordinary, by the name of Blanch Lyon, having obtained the king's warrant for that purpose. Afterwards he was made Rouge-Croix pursuivant in ordinary, by virtue of the king's letters patent, dated March 18, 1639-40: by which ineans having a lodging in the Heralds-Ofice, and convenient opportunities, he spent that, and part of the year following, in augmenting his collections out of the records in the Tower and other places. In 1641, through Sir Christopher Hatton's encouragement, he employed hiinself in taking exact draughts of all the monuments in Westminster-Abbey, St. Paul's cathedral, and in many other cathedral and parochial churches of England, particularly those at Peterborough, Ely, Norwich, Lincoln, Newark upon Vol. V.