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of Faith, and larger and smaller Catechism : but when they came to church-government, they engaged them in long . debates, and kept the matter as long as they could undeter mined : And after that, they kept it so long unexecuted in almost all parts of the land, except London and Lancashire, that their party had time to strengthen themselves in the army and parliament, to hinder the execution, and keep the: governnient determined upon, a secret to most people in the nation, who knew it but by hearsay. This assembly first met July, 1, 1643,* in Henry VII's chapel.

Among other parts of their trust, one was to approve of all that should be admitted into any Church-Livings. They had no power to put any out, but only were to judge of the fitness of such as were taken in. The power of casting out was in a committee of members of parliament at Lon. don, and partly also in the committees of the several counties. Those that were sequestered were generally, by the oaths of several witnesses, proved insufficient or scandalous, or both; especially guilty of drunkenness and swearing. The able and pious preachers, who were cast out for the war alone, or for opinion's sake, were comparatively few. It is pity indeed there were any. And tho' now and then an unworthy person, by sinister means, crept into their places, yet commonly those who were put in, were such as set

Edmund Prideaux, Esq...

Sir Benjamin Radyard, Knt, Sir Henry Vane, Senior, Knt.

John Pym, Esq. John Glyn, Esq. Recorder of Lon- Sir John Clotworthy, Kat. don.

John Maynard, Esq. John White, Esq.

Sir Henry Vane, Junior, Knt. Bylstrode Whitelocke, Esq.

William Pierpoint, Esq. Humphry Sallway, Esq.

William Wheeler, Esq.
Mr. Serjeant Wild.

Sir Thomas Barrington, Knt.
Oliver St. John Esq. his Majesty's Walter Young, Esq.

Sir John Evelin, Knt. The most remarkable hints concerning their debates, that are published to the world, are to be met with in the life of Dr. Lightfoot before his works in folio, and in the preface to his remains in octavo; for which we are indebt. ed to the ingenious Mr. Strype.

After petitioning for a fast, they drew up a letter to the Reformed churches abroad, with an account of their design, and then presented to the parliament

a Confession of Faith, a Larger and Sharter Catechism, (the last of which has · been in such general use amongst Dissenters) a Directory for public Worship, and their Humble Advice concerning Church Government.

There is a work which is commonly, but unjustly, ascribed to the assembly, yiz. The Annotations on the Bible. The truth is, the same parliament that called the assembly, employed the authors of that work, and several of them were members of the assembly.


themselves laboriously to seek the saving of souls. But to return.

As the parliament was afterwards on the rising side, it had undoubtedly been both their wisdom and the nation's interest, to have kept some bounds without running things to extremity. Had they endeavored only the ejection of Lay-chancellors, the reducing the dioceses to a narrower compass, or the setting up a subordinate discipline, and the correcting and reforming the liturgy, so as to leave nothing justly exceptionable, in all probability it had been patiently borne, and the confusions the nation afterwards run into had been prevented. For Bp. Usher, Williams, and Morton, and many other episcopal divines, agreed with them in cer. tain points of reformation; and, if these would have suf. ficed, were likely to have fallen in heartily with the parlia..! ment's interest. But finding an universal change insisted upon, and that nothing short of the utmost extremity would satisfy, they turned against the parliament and their interest, and were as much displeased as any.

The king marching from Nottingham to Shrewsbury, filled up his army out of Shropshire, Worcestershire, Here. fordshire, and Wales. . And the Earl of Essex marched with a gallant army to Worcester, A. D: 1642. Many excellent divines were chaplains to the several regiments. 'Mr. Stephen Marshal and Dr. Burgess, to the general's own regiments. Mr. Obadiah Sedgwick, to Col. Hollis's regiment. Dr. Calibute Downing, to Lord Roberts's regi. ments. Mr. John Sedgwick, to the Earl of Stamford's regiment. Dr. Spurstow, to Mr. Hampden's. Mr. Perkins, to Col. Goodwin's. Mr, Moor, to Lord Wharton's. Mr. Adoniram Byfield, to Sir Henry Cholmley's. Mr. Nalton, to Col. Grantham's. Mr. Simeon Ashe, either to Lord Brook's or the Earl of Manchester's. ' Mr. Morton of Newcastle, with Sir Arthur Hasilrigg's troop; with many more.-On October the 23d, 1642, was the battle at 'EugéHill, between the two arınies; in which the advantage was on the parliament's side. The king's army drew off towards Oxford, and Essex's towards Coventry, for refreshment. There were many other battles, described by the historians of those times, who may be consulted by such as desire fur. ther information.

The great cause of the parliament's strength, and the king's ruin, was, that the debauched rabble thro' the land, emboldened by his gentry, and seconded by the common


soldiers of his army, took all that were callect Puritans for their enemies. And though some of the king's gentry and superior officers behaved with civility, that was no secu. rity to the country, while the multitude did what they listed. So that if any one was noted for a strict and famous preacher, or for a man of piety, he was either plundered or abused, and in danger of his life. And if a man did but pray in his fa. mily, or repeat a sermon, or sing a psalni, they presently cried out Rebels, roundheads, &c. and all their money and portable goods were proved guilty, how innocent soever they were themselves. This filled the armies and garrisons of the parliament with sober, pious men. Thousands had no mind to meddle with the wars, but greatly desired to live peaceably at home, but the rage of soldiers and drunkards would not suffer them. Some stayed till they had been imprisoned ; some till they had been twice or thrice plundered, and had nothing left them.' Some, were quite tired out with the abuse of all that were quartered on them; and some by the insolence of their neighbours. But most were afraid of their lives; and so sought refuge in the parliament's garrisons.

After the war had been carried on for some time, with great uncertainty in what it would issue ; there was at length a great change made on the parliament's side, which had considerable consequences. The Earl of Essex, being weakened by a great loss in Cornwall, was laid by, and ano. ther general chosen. One reason given for this change was, the dissoluteness of many of his soldiers, who were grown too much like the king's in profaneness and lewdness: and besides, it was urged, that the revolt of Sir F. Fortescue, Sir R. Greenville, Colonel Urry, and others, was a suffi. cient evidence that they who had not a sense of religion, were not much to be trusted, but might easily be hired by money to betray them. It was discovered, that the earl's judgment was against ending the war by the sword, and that he and the wisest men about him, were for aiming only to force a pacificatory treaty, But the main spring of the alteration was, the prevalence of the Sectarian interest in the house, joined with Cromwell's in the army, which now began to carry all before it. Many honest and intelligent people indeed were for new modelling the army, putting out the looser men, and taking in those who were more strict and sober ; but Vane and Cromwell joining together, carried on their own particular interest successfully. The method they took for compassing this design without disturbance,


Commanders in the lig vote in the hos forces they dis

parne of the place the Filiam Wal

by stirring up against themselves the forces they disbanded, was by a self-denying vote in the house: “ That because commanders in the army had much pay, and members of parliament should keep to the service of the house, therefore none of the latter should be members of the army." This put out at once the Earls of Essex and Manchester, the two generals, and Şir William Waller, a valiant major-general, with many colonels; and to avoid suspicion, Cromwell himself was put out at the first. They then chose Sir Thomas Fairfax General, as being neither too great to be command. ed by the parliament, nor too subtil for Cromwell to make a tool of. He being chosen, Cromwell's men could not be without him: and therefore the self-denying vote must be thus far dispensed with, that Cromwell may be in the army, though no other menuber of the house were allowed it ; and so he was made lieutenant-general. '

The army being thus new modelled, was really in the hands of Cromwell, though seemingly under Fairfax's comjiand. Not long after the change, was the battle at Naseby, A.D. 1645, where the king's army was totally routed and put to flight, and about 5000 taken prisoners, with all the king's ordnance and carriage, and abundance of his letters to the queen and others in his cabinet. These letters the par. liament .printed, thinking they contained such things as greatly clouded the reputation of his word and cause. Cromwell in the army did all, and chose almost all the officers. He first made Ireton commissary-general; and by degrees headed the greatest part of the army with Separatists of several denominations, and united altogether hy, the point of liberty of conscience. Sir Henry Vane procured the house to disband almost all the honest country forces and garrisons, which might have opposed them in their designs, and so the army went on with little fear of opposition. The next design of Vane and Cromwell was, to use the army to model the parliament. With this aim they stirred up the house to pass some votes, which they knew would be most displeasing to the army, and then stirred up the army to the deepest resentment. The parliament voted, That part of the army should go to Ireland. At Triploe-Heath they entered into an engagement to hold together, and were draw. ing up a declaration of their grievances. Colonel Harley acquainted the house with it. Cromwell denied it, although deep in the secret, as he afterwards acknowledged. The parliament ordered all that were faithful to forsake them ;

design ofy went on with opposed them

After Scots were pupon the Score left, he escape

which several officers, and many common soldiers, did; but these not being able to make a body to resist those that re. mained, it proved a great addition to their strength : For now, all that were against them being gone, they filled up their places with men of their own mind, and so were ever after the more unanimous.--Upon this Cromwell and his adherents advanced in their design, came nearer the city, and drew up an impeachment against eleven of the most active members of the house ; and forced the house to exclude them, as under accusation, but let fall their suit, and never proved them guilty. The city now took courage, and were for defending the parliament; but the army speedily advancing, their hearts failed them, and they let the army enter the city in triumph.' Whereupon, several of the accused members fled into France, A. D. 1647:

As for the king, when Oxford was besieged by the parlia. ment's forces, having no army left, he escaped to the north, and cast himself upon the Scots, who lay there with an army. The Scots were puzzled how to act in this critical juncture : After long consultations, the terror of the conquering army made them deliver him to the parliament's commissioners, upon condition that his person should be preserved in safety and honour, and that their army should have half the pay due to thein advanced immediately. The parliament here. upon appointed Col. Greaves, and Major-General Brown, to attend the king at Holmby-House, in Northamptonshire. Col. Joice by concert with the leading part of the army, fetched him thence, and kept him amongst them, till they came to Hampton-Court, where he was guarded by Col. Whalley. The army fawned upon the king at first; blamed the austerity of the parliament, who had denied him the at. tendance of his chaplains, and of his friends; gave them liberty to come to him, and pretended that they would protect him from the incivility of the parliament and the presbyterians. But all on a sudden they began to cry for justice upon him. A council of agitators was chosen, who drew up a paper called, The agreement of the people, as the model of a new cominonwealth. Cromwell seemed to be against them; and while they were contending, a letter came to Col. Whalley, from an unknown hand, intimating a design of these agitators to surprise and murder the king; which most people thought was contrived by Cromwell, to frighten him out of the land. On the sight of this letter, the king secretly escaped to the Isle of Wight, committing him


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