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Biographical and Historical: Rudyard Kipling was born Christmas week, 1865, in Bombay. After school life in England, he returned to India at the age of seventeen, to do journalistic work. His tales of Indian life and his ballads describing the life of the British soldier won immediate favor. Perhaps he is best known to the boys and girls as the author of the Jungle Books. From 1892 to 1896 he lived in the United States. This poem, which appeared in 1897, at the time of the Queen's Jubilee, struck a warning note against the arrogance of power.

A DEFINITION OF A GENTLEMAN

CARDINAL NEWMAN

It is almost a definition of a gentleman to say he is one who never inflicts pain. This description is both refined and, as far as it goes, accurate. He is mainly occupied in merely

removing the obstacles which hinder the free and unembar5 rassed action of those about him; and he concurs with their

movements rather than takes the initiative himself. His benefits may be considered as parallel to what are called comforts or conveniences in arrangements of a personal nature: like

an easy-chair or a good fire, which do their part in dispelling 10 cold and fatigue, though nature provides both means of rest and

animal heat without them. The true gentleman in like manner carefully avoids whatever may cause a jar or a jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast; - all clashing of opinion, or

collision of feeling, all restraint, or suspicion, or gloom, or resent15 ment; his great concern being to make every one at their ease

and at home. He has his eyes on all his company; he is tender toward the bashful, gentle toward the distant, and merciful toward the absurd; he can recollect to whom he is speaking; he

guards against unseasonable allusions, or topics which may irri20 tate; he is seldom prominent in conversation, and never weari

He makes light of favors while he does them, and seems to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of him

some.

self except when compelled, never defends himself by a mere

retort; he has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in 25 imputing motives to those who interfere with him, and interprets

everything for the best. He is never mean or little in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities or sharp sayings for arguments, or insinuates evil which he dare

not say out. From a long-sighted prudence, he observes the 30 maxim of the ancient sage, that we should ever conduct ourselves

toward our enemy as if he were one day to be our friend. He has too much good sense to be affronted at insults; he is too well employed to remember injuries, and too indolent to bear malice.

He is patient, forbearing, and resigned, on philosophical prin35 ciples; he submits to pain because it is inevitable, to bereavement

because it is irreparable, and to death because it is his destiny. If he engages in controversy of any kind, his disciplined intellect preserves him from the blundering discourtesy of better, perhaps,

but less educated minds; who, like blunt weapons, tear and hack 40 instead of cutting clean, who mistake the point in argument,

waste their strength on trifles, misconceive their adversary, and leave the question more involved than they find it. He may be right or wrong in his opinion, but he is too clear-headed to be

unjust; he is as simple as he is forcible, and as brief as he is 45 decisive. Nowhere shall we find greater candor, consideration,

indulgence: he throws himself into the minds of his opponents, he accounts for their mistakes. He knows the weakness of human reason as well as its strength, its province, and its limits.

Biographical: John Henry Newman, 1801-1890, a distinguished Prelate was born in London. He graduated from Trinity College, Oxford, and became noted both as a scholar and a writer. “Lead, Kindly Light,'' a poem of rare beauty, was written by him while on a voyage in the Mediterranean Sea. This selection is from his book, “The Idea of a University'. He was made a cardinal in 1879.

GLOSSARY

one

a

a

a

a ban don (a+bằnodùn), give up.

a-dop'tion (à-dop'shủn), acceptance. a-bate'ment (å-bāt'měnt), putting an See note p. 102. end to.

a-drift' (à-drift'), floating at the mercy ab'bey (åb'i), monastery; convent. of the wind and waves. ab'ne-gation (åb'ne-găl shủn), de. advent (åd' věnt), coming, approach. nial.

ad' ver-sa-ry, (åd' vēr-så-ri),

opa-boon' (å-boon'), Scotch for above. posed, a foe. Ab'sa-lom (åb'sá-lom), p. 87. See ad' verse (åd' vērs), contrary. note p. 90.

a-ë' ri-al (ā-ě' ri-ăl), pertaining to the ab'so-lute (ăb’số-lut), without

any

air; lofty: limits or conditions.

Aer'shot (är' sköt), the town Aerschot ab'sti-nence (åb'sti-něns), refraining in Belgium, 23 miles northeast of from certain kinds of pleasures.

Brussels. ab-stract' (åb-străkt'), separate.

af'fa-ble (åf'à-b'l), friendly, gracious. a-byss'. (å-bis'), a bottomless gulf. af' fec-ta' tion (åf'ěk-tā! shủn), an at. A'ca'die? (å'ka'dēl), See

note p.

tempt to assume what is not natural 249.

or real. : ac-ces' sion (ak-sěsh'ın), coming into af'fi-da/ vit (ăf'i-da/ vỉt), Sworn possession of.

statement in writing. ac-cord' (ă-kord'), blend.

aft (äft), near or towards the stern of ac-cost' (à' kost'), approach; speak to.

a vessel. ac-cu'mu-late (-kū’mû-lāt), collect; Ag'as-siz (ăg'å-së), celebrated store up.

Swiss-American naturalist who ac'cu-ra-cy (ak'ů-rå-si), exactness.

came to the United States in 1846. ac'cu-rate-ly (åk'ů-rät-li), precisely. He was professor of geology at ac'qui-es/ cence (ăk'wi-ěs' ěns),

Harvard. yielding or agreeing.

ag-gression (ă-grěsh'ũn), attack. Act of Nav'i-ga/ tion (act of năv'i a-ghast' (å-gåst”), terrified.

gāshủn), an ordinance passed by ag'i-tate (ăj' 1-tāt), stir up; discuss.
the British Parliament for the Amer a-gog' (å-gog.'), eager.
ican colonies by which goods were ag'o-ny (åg,' o-ni), great pain.
to be imported to the colonies free of aid de-camp' (ad de-kămp'; ad dē.
duty for a period of years, provided kän'), an officer who assists a gen.
all goods

sent out
of the eral in

correspondence

and

in colonies in British ships.

directing movements. ad'a-mant (ăd'á-mănt), a stone of Ai' denn a'děn), paradise (from the extreme hardness.

Arabic word for Eden, used by Poe a-dapt' (à-dăpt'), fit; change to suit. for the sake of the rhyme). A-da'yes (-da' yės), an early settle Aix (āks),

a city in Prussia, founded ment in southwestern United States. by the Romans and a favorite resad'dled (ad''ld), rotten; confused.

idence of Charlemagne. Aix-laad' e-quate (åd'e-kwat), fully sufficient. Chapelle (āks'la-sha'pěl'), is the ad-her'ence (åd-hēr'ěns), steady at French

and Aachen the tachment.

German. ad-her' ent (ád-hēr' ěnt), clinging; a a-kim'bo (å-kim'bo), with hand follower.

the hip and elbow turned outward. a-dieu', (à-dū'), good-by, farewell. a-lac'ri-ty (å-låk'ri-ti), cheerful ad-just'. (ň-jŭst'), fit; to put in order. readiness. ad-min'is-ter (ad-min' is-tēr), manage A-laddin (å-lăd' în), in the “Arabian

or conduct (public affairs); tender Nights' Entertainments," the possesan oath.

sor of a wonderful lamp with magic ad' mi-ral (åd' mi-răl), a naval officer charms. of the highest rank.

a-lar'um (å-lăr'ům), an old form for a-do'. (å-doo'), trouble, fuss.

alarm. A-do'nis (å-do'nis), in Greek mythol. Al' bi-on (ăl' bi-un), an ancient name ogy, a youth of marvelous beauty. of England.

were

name

on

sur

excuse.

Al' byn (ål'bin), See note p. 79. Al'ex-an der (ăl'ěg-zăn/ dêr), named “the Great,

was

a famous conqueror who lived in the fourth century B. C.; founder of Alexandria in Egypt. al'ien-ate (āl'yěn-āt), make strange;

take away all-ab-sorb'ing (öl-ắb-sorb'ing), tak

ing, up completely. Al'lah (al'la), in the Mohammedan

faith, the name for God. Al-la'hu. (al-lä'hoo), probably a Per•

sian ejaculation. all-be-set' ting (öl-be-sět'ing), sur

rounding on all sides. al-lege! Că-lěj'), declare; affirm. al-le' giance (ă-lé jāns), loyalty. al'le-go-ry (ål'é-go-ri), description of

one thing under the image of an.

other; parable. al-li' ance

(a-li'åns), union of interests; league. al-loy' (a-loi'), a baser metal mixed

with a finer. al'oe (ăl'o), a fragrant plant growing

in warm climates; the American aloe

is the century plant. al'ter-a) tion (ol'tēr-ā' shùn), making

different; change. al-ter'nate-ly (ăl-tēr'nāt-li), by turns. al-ter' na-tive (al-tûr' nå-tiv), a choice

between two or more things. a-main' (å-mān'), with full” force. am'a-ranth (ămoi-rănth), imag

inary flower supposed never to fade. Am'ba-ar) en (ăm' bå-är!ěn), p. 174. am-bas'sa-dor (ăm-bås'a-dēr), a min

ister representing his ruler or coun

try at a foreign court. am-bi'tion (ăm-bishăn), desire for

honor or power. am-bro'si-al' (ăm-bro'zhi-ăl), pertaining to the fabled food of the gods,

which immortalized them. a-mend' ment (å-měnd' měnt), a change

for the better; a change in a bill or mộtion by adding, or omitting. a'mi-a-ble (ā'mì-à-Þ'l), lovable, good

natured. a-mid' ships (å-mid' shỉps), in the mid

dle of a ship. a-mor' pha (a-môr' få), a plant be

longing to the pea family and having

blue-violet flowers. amophi-the a-tre (ămofi-thẽ ả-tết), an

oval or circular building with rising tiers of seats about open

space. amople (ăm p’1), abundant; full. A'mun

(ä' mon), an Egyptian deity generally represented as a an”cho-rite (ănoko-rit), one who re

nounces the world and secludes him

self, a hermit. and' i'rons (ănd' i'ŭrnz), metallic

stands to support wood in a fireplace. an'ec-dote (ăn’ěk-dot), a short narra

tive of some particular incident.

an

Angel of Death. See Exodus, chapter

12. Angel of the backward look; memory; Anoge-lus (ăn je-lms), the bell tolled

in the morning, at noon, and in the evening to tell the faithful the time

for prayer. An'gus (ắn' gūs). See note p. 95. an'nals (ăn'ălz), historical records. a-non (á-non'), in a little while. an-tic'i-pate (ăn-tis'i-pāt), count up

on in advance; foresee. an-tique (ăn-tek), old. an-tiq'ui-ty (ăn-tik' wi-ti), great age. ap'a-thet! ic (ăp'a-thět! ik), without

feeling. ap'a-thy (ăp'å-thi), lack of feeling. a'pex (ā'pěks), summit; point. a-pol'o-gy (à-pol' o-ji), an acknowl

edgment for some injurious act; an Ap-o-lo'ni-us (šp-po-lo'ni-ús), a phil. osopher and wonder-worker who lived

at about the same time as Christ. a-posotro-phe (a-pösotro-fế), a speech or address to some person or thing absent or present. Apostrophe to

the Ocean, p. 71. ap-pall'ing (à-pôl'ing), terrifying. ap-par' el (ă-păr'ěl), clothing. ap-par' ent (å-pâr'ěnt), clear, plainly

to be seen. ap-peal' ing (ă-pēl'ing), calling for aid

or sympathy ap'pre-hension (ăp're-hěn/ shủn), a

taking hold of; anxiety. ap-prise' (ặ-priz'), inform. appro-bation (ắprô-bã: shin),

liking; consent. ap-prox'i-mate

(ă-prok'si-mät), approach; nearly exact. ar'a-besquel (år'a-běsk) ), a kind of

ornament, brought to high perfec-
tion by Arabian artists and
sisting of lines, figures, fruits, flow-

men variously grouped. A-rach'thus (å-råk'thủs), the ancient

name of a river in Greece; modern

Arta. ar' bi-ter (är'bi-tēr), one appointed to

determine a controversy ; umpire. ar'chi-tect (är' ki-těkt), one who is

skilled in planning, designing, and

constructing buildings. Ar-dennes' (är-děn'). See note, p. 79. ar'dent (är'děnt), burning; passionate.

s'dor (är' dēr), heat; zeal. ar'du-ous (är'dů-ŭs),' hard, difficult. a-re'na (å-rē'nå), the sanded area in

the central part of a Roman amphi.

theater. ar'go-sy (är'go-si), a large merchant

vessel. ar' gu-ment (är' gû-měnt), proof

reasons in a controversy. Ar-ma'da (är-mā'då). See note, p. 74. ar'ma-ment (är'ma-měnt), arms, ships

and other equipment for war. a-rooma (a-roma), fragrance; a spicy

perfume.

con

ers, and

ar

an

ram.

or

or

name

ar-ray.' (ă-rå'), clothe; an orderly col

lection. ar' ro-gance (ăr'ö-găns), pride with

contempt of others. ar'ti-fice

(är'ti-fis), workmanship; artful trick. ar'ti-san (är' tï-zăn), one skilled in

some art or trade. as'cer-tain (ăs' ēr-tan), learn for

certain. A'shur (ä'shoor). See note, p. 75. a-skance (å-skåns'), sideways. as' pect (ås pěkt), look. as-perse' (ås-púrs'), sprinkle ; de

fame. as' pho-del (ås' fö-děl), a lily, in Greek

mythology the special flower of the dead. The English daffodil is de

rived from this Greek word. as'pi-ra/ tion (ăs' pi-rā/ shữn), strong

wish, high desire. as-sail' (ă-sāl'), attack violently. as-sail'ant (ă-sál'ant), one who at

tacks. as-sault' (å-sôlt'), a violent attack. as-sem' blage (ă-sëm'blaj), a company

of people gathered together. as'si-du! i-ty (ăs'1-dü' i-ti), constant

attention ; industry: as-sid' u-ous (ă-sid'ů-us), busy; per

severing. as-sign'. (å-sin'), give over. As-syr'i-a (ă-sir'1-å), an ancient state

in Asia, east of the Tigris river. a-stern (å-stûrn'), in the rear part

of the ship. as-tound'ing (ăs-tound'ing), astonish

ing. a-sun'der (å-sůn'dêr),, apart. Atch'a-fa-la/ ya (ăch'à-fa-lil å),

outlet of the Red and Mississippi

rivers in southern Louisiana. a-tilt' (å-tilt'), balanced lightly. At-lan'tic Monthly, a magazine first

published in 1857, with Lowell as

editor. at-tain (ă-tän'), reach; accomplish. at-taint (å-tänt'), corrupt; disgrace. at-ten/ u-at'ed (å-těn/u-ầt' ěd), thinned,

slender. at'ti-tude (ăt'i-tud), position ; feeling. at-tribute (ă-trib'út), give; refer. at' tri-bute (ăt'ri-būt), characteristic;

quality. au-dacoi-ty Cô-dis{-ti), boldness. au' di-ble (ò'di-b'l), capable of being

heard. au' di-tor (o' di-těr), a hearer. au-gust' (o-gŭst'), majestic; solemn. au-ro'ral (ó-ro'rål), pertaining to the

dawn, rosy. aus-tere' (os-tēr'), severe. aus-ter' i-ty (os-těr'i-ti), severity;

severe simplicity. au-then’tic (ô-thẳnotik), true; genu

ine. au'to-crat (o'tó-kråt),

an

absolute ruler. a-vail' (å-vāl'), help; be of use.

A've Ma-rila (ä'vå mäòrēl ä), Hail

Mary, first words of a Roman Cath-
olic prayer to the Virgin Mary. The
words are those of the Angel Gabriel,
hence

the
prayer

is called the Angelus. a-venge' (à-věnj'), punish in order to

execute justice. a-ver' sion (à-vûr'shún), dislike. a-vert' (å-vûrt'), turn aside. a-wry'

(å-ri'), turned twisted; crooked. aye and a-non' (à and å-non'), con.

tinually. A-zores(å-zórz'), a group of islands

in the Atlantic belonging to Portu

gal, and 800 miles west of it. az' ure (azh'ûr), the clear blue color

of the sky. Ba'al (bā'ål), the supreme god of

the Assyrians, p. 75. Bab'y-lo, nish jargon (båb'i-lo nish),

unintelligible language. See story of

the “tower of Babel. Gen. XI. bac'cha-nal (băk'á-năl), a carouser; a

follower of Bacchus, the god of

wine. Bac-chant'es (bå-kån' těz), priestesses

of Bacchus, the god of wine. bairn (bârn), Scottish

for child. Ba'la-kla) va (bå'lå-klä, vå), a city in

the Crimea on the Black Sea. bal' dric (bol' drik), a broad belt worn

the shoulder and under the opposite arm. bal'lad (băl'åd), a short poem telling

a story. balm (bäm), anything that soothes

pain. balm in Gilead (bäm in gil'e-ăd), a

biblical expression meaning comfort

or healing balm'y (bäm'i),

soothing; fragrant. ban dit (bằn’dit), an outlaw. bane'ful (bān' fool), injurious. Banonock-burn (bằnouk-burn), a bat

tlefield in Scotland upon which

Robert Bruce defeated the English. Bap'tiste! Le-blanc' (bå'tēsti lē

blän'). See p. 224. bar (bär), the legal profession. bard (bärd), a poet. barge (bäri), a boat. ba-rom'e-ter (bå-rom'è-tér), an instru.

ment for determining the weight or

pressure of the atmosphere. ba-rouche' (bå-roosh'), four-wheeled

carriage, with a falling top, and two

double seats on the inside. bar' rack (băr'ak), building for

soldiers, especially when in garrison. bar' ri-er '(băr'i-ēr), an obstruction or

limit. bask (båsk), warm; lie comfortably. baste (bāst), drip fat meat in

roasting.

over

an

mild;

a

on

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