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under Vespasian, a period of about 24 or 25 years, there were four Legions in Britain; from the first year of Vespasian to Hadrian's reign there were but three Legions here, and one of them, the ninth, very much weakened. From Hadrian's time, in whose reign a new Legion caine over, the sixth, to the lowest Empire, there still seems to have been but three, the ninth being either wholly broken, or the remains of it joined to that which Hadrian brought


This Chapter afterwards gives an account of thirty-one Cohorts, or the auxiliary forces of the Roman Legions, with the names of each. Of the Alæ, or auxiliary Horse, and their names.-Of the Cohortes Equitum.-Of the Verillarii of the Roman Legions.

The seventh Chapter gives an account of the Roman Prætenturæ in the North of England, and particularly of the Stations of the Roman Valli.

In this Chapter the Author states, that "it is evident there have been three different Prætenturæ erected here at different times, and by different persons; the first was a series of stations or Forts, placed quite across the Country, which he apprehends was done chiefly by Julius Agricola, and is the most ancient of the three. Next to this was erected Hadrian's Vallum and its Appurtenances. The last and strongest fence of all was built by Severus, which is the stone wall that lies north from the other."

Mr. Horsley then proceeds to compare the yet visible stations, upon the Wall, with the series given in the Notitia, of which the following are the Roman and Modern Names; Segedunum, near Cousins's House; Pons Ælii, Newcastle; Condercum, Benwell Hill; Vindobala, Rutchester; Hunnum, Halton Chesters; Cilurnum, Walwick Chesters; Procolitia, Carrawbrugh ; Borcovicus, Housesteeds; Vindolana, Little Chesters; Æsica, Great Chesters; Magna, Carryoran; Amboglanna, Burdoswald; Petriana, Cam

beckfort or Castle Steeds; Aballaba, Watchcross; Congavata, Stanwicks; Axelodunum, Brough on the Sands; Gabrosentum, Drumbrugh; and Tunnocelum, Boulness..

The eighth Chapter is an account of the ancient state of Hadrian's Vallum and the Wall of Severus. General view of the Inscriptions discovered upon the Wall or near it.

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The ninth Chapter treats of the present state of Hadrian's Vallum, and the Wall of Severus.

- The tenth Chapter, which concludes the first Book, conlains an account of the ancient and present state of the Roman Wall in Scotland, and the Forts upon it.


In the second Book, which is divided into three Chapters, is given an account of all the Roman Inscriptions and Sculptures found in Britain, which are engraved on 78 Plates. The whole number of Originals cut upon the Plates amounts to 340, above 140 of which were never be fore published. The greatest care was taken to have the draughts exactly done, and therefore the author diligently revised and compared every Copy with its origi nal, and often repeated the comparison when any doubt or difficulty seemed to remain.

The first Chapter of this Book gives an account, 1. of the places where, and persons by whom, Inscriptions were erected in Britain. The principal places are Monmouthshire, the Northern Counties of England, and near the Wall in Scotland. 2. Of the places in which most of them are now to be met with. 3. Upon what occasions and to whom they were usually erected. 4. Of the times in which they were erected, with the number belonging to each Emperor's reign. 5. How to know the date of Inscripe

tions, or the time when they were erected; with a Table of the different shape of the Letters and Stops, and another of the Ligatures. 6. A draught of the Sacrificing Instruments and Vessels usually cut upon Roman Altars, with an account of their use.

In the second Chapter is contained a collection of all the original Inscriptions and Sculptures hitherto discovered and yet remaining in Britain.

The third Chapter contains Observations on the Roman Inscriptions and Sculptures in the preceding collection ; together with Copies of such other Inscriptions found in Britain, as are not now extant.

These observations are arranged in the following Geographical Order ; 1. The Inscriptions found on the Roman Wall in Scotland, which expressly mention the Emperor by whose order and under whose reign the Wall was built, and the quantity built at such a part by each Legion. 2. Those found in Northumberland. 3. In Cumberland. 4. In Durham. 5. In Westmoreland. 6. In Yorkshire. 7. In Cheshire. 8. la Derbyshire. 9. In Lincolnshire. 10. In Monmouthshire, 11. In Gloucestershire. 19. In Somersetshire. 13. Description of a Cup found at Rudge, near Marlborough, in Wiltshire, in the possession of Lord Hertford. 14. Sepulchral Stone found in Essex. 15. Sculpture and Inscription found at Ludgate in London. 16. Inscription found in Hampshire. 17. At Chichester in Sussex. An account of a Roman Inscription found at Chichester, by Roger Gale, Esq. 18. Account of two more Inscriptions found in Scotland.

The second Book concludes with a Letter from Professor Ward, of Gresham College to the Author, containing observations on the Statue of Janus found between Lambeth and Southwark, and then in Dr. Woodward's Collection ; and on some of the Inscriptions found in Northumberland, Cumberland, Durham, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Oxfordshire, and Scotland.


The third Book is divided into five Chapters, preceded by an Introduction, and contains an account of the Roman Geography of Britain.

The first Chapter is an Essay on Ptolemy's Geography, so far as it relates to Britain. It contains, 1. Some account of the Author, and his Work, which though very incorrect is yet of great service. The order in which Ptolemy disposes his Towns, Rivers, and other places, especially those on the Coast, almost equals for usefulness the distances in the Itinerary, and the order in the Notitia. 2. The Greek Text with an English Translation adjoined to it, the Greek being taken from the Edition of Peter Bertius. 3. Remarks on some of Ptolemy's Mistakes. This Geographer made all England decline from the true position as to the length of it, the Northern part inclining more to the East, and the places there having a few degrees of Longitude more than they ought. As for Scotland he has quite altered the position of it, by making its length to lie almost directly East and West, when in reality it lies almost directly North and South. 4. A method to find out the places designed by the names of Ptolemy; 5. and an Alphabetical List of all the places in Britain mentioned by hiin. Under this head the Author has added in a few words the opinions of others about them, and wbat occurred to himself.

The second Chapter is an Essay on Antonine's Itinerary, so far as it relates to Britain, and contains, 1. Some account of the Author and his Work.-Mr. Horsley inclined to believe that the Author was Caracalla, son of the Emperor Severus ; but Dr. Gale suspected that it had not been composed by one hand, and not by any one of the Antonines. The work is allowed to be ancient and genuine, and we owe more discoveries of the Names of Roman Places in Britain to it than to all other Authors put together. 2. The Latin Text of the Itinerary, copied from the Edition published by Dr. Gale, 3. The length and proportion of the Roman miles in the Itinerary. 4. Remarks on the number of miles as there expressed. 5. An account of the grand Roman Military Ways in Britain, viz. Watling Street, Hermin Street, the Fosse, and Icknild Street. 6. Of the Stations and the evidences of them. 7. Of the general order of the Itinerary. 8. Of the several Itinera. Under this head each Iter is given separately, which is followed by an investigation of the locality of each Station.

The third Chapter is an Essay on the Notitia, so far as it relates to Britain, and contains, 1. Some general account of the Work. The Title of the Notitia, as it is published by Pancirollas, runs thus : “ Notitia utraque dignitatum cum orientis tum occidentis ultra Arcadii Honoriique tempora.” Agreeably to this Title, the Book itself is a sort of List of the Military and Civil Officers and Magistrates, both in the Eastern and Western Empires. - It is uncertain by whom it was composed, and at what time, though from circumstances it appears to have been written after the year 425 and before that of 453. 2. A Transcript of such Sections or Chapters as relate to Britain, from the original Latin, with an English Version. The Latin is taken from Labbe's edition, whose Text, as well as Sections or Chapters, Mr. Horsley has constantly followed, except in a few instances, which he has noted in the Mar. gin. 3. A short Account of the several Roman Provinces into which Britain was divided according to the Notitia, from which it appears that there were two consular pro



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