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An iron cap has now been fixed on the top of the tube with Wealden beds in East Sussex, has been noticed before while a vent. allowing an escape of the gas to take place continuously making deep shasts and borings. (see Fig. 2). When lighted this jet flares out about the same Many of the beds in the Purbeck strata (Brightling series) size and colour as one of the "naphtha farers” commonly consist of dark leathery shales which emit a strong odour of
petroleum, and small traces of it are also occasionally met with in the Gypsum quarries at Netherfield (Sussex). Beds of lignite, and a variety resembling “Cannel coal” (about 2 feet thich) have been met with near the surface in the parish of Waldron (Lower bed of Ashdown sand, Fairlight clays), and several bands of lignite were pierced by the Loring at Waldron where the “gas” was found.
The gas is probably derived from these beds of lignite, and perhaps from the petroleum shales of the Purbeck beds ; er possibly, but less probably, from the Kimeridge clay underlying these beds (Sub-Wealden boring), which contains a hard, light-coloured bed rich in petroleum.
In reading through the quarterly reports of Mr. Henry Willett, made during the progress of the Sub. Wealden boring (Netherfield, 1875), I find that strange oscillations had been noticed in the depth of the water in the bore-tube. These were attributed to the accumulation and discharge of carbonic acid, and of inflammable gases derived probably from the petroleumbearing strata beneath. The discharge of these gases was proved by the extinction of light at various depths, and by an explosion at another time."
The discovery of the gas has hitherto been kept a secret among a few. There appears to be at present an ample supply of gas for the lighting of a town if the necessary plant were erected in connection with the tube, and there also seems to be, so far as one can judge, a constant supply. How long it may continue is, of course, a matter of conjecture ; but having already run to waste so long without any decrease in force, I think that the supply might be made use of with reasonable prospects of lengthy continuance.
This notice must be regarded as a preliminary one merely, Fig. 1.- Flame of natural gas from hore-hole at Waldron, before the present as I am making experiments with the gas, and examining the cap was fixed on the tube. The broken line near the top shows the
cores of the boring with a view to ascertain the source of the height of the flame through the six-inch lore-tube.
CHARLES DAWSON. used for lighting at fairs and markets, viz. about 12-inch flame. Uckfield, Sussex. This cap and vent have now already been fixed about fifteen months, and the gas from the vent can be lit at any time, and shows no sign of diminution
| THE ORIENTATION OF GREEK TEMPLES." IN giving an account of my second series of observa
tions on the orientations of Greek temples, and the chronological deductions which may be made from them, it seems desirable to recapitulate as briefly as possible the main points which underlie the inquiry.
The subject was introduced to me about eight years ago by Sir Norman Lockyer, who had discovered that there was a very strong probability that in every case the axis of an Egyptian temple, or in other words its orientation, was aligned to that point of the local horizon where at the time of its foundation some conspicuous star rose | or set, and that in the case of temples oriented within zodiacal limits, it was also so arranged that on the day of the principal feast of any particular temple, which always took place on a day when the sun at its rising would shine upon the altar or statue of the god, the star should be seen from the sanctuary, through the always narrow eastern opening, shortly before sunrise.
There is plenty of evidence from various sources that heliacal stars, as they are called ; that is, stars when just visible at their rising before their light is overpowered by the rays of the rising sun, or setting whilst still distinguishable, were very much observed by the ancients. And the use of an heliacal star so observed in connection with temple worship was to give warning to the priests to enable them to be ready for the sacrifice or other function at the exact moment of sunrise. Roughly speaking, a bright heliacal star would in Greece
give nearly an hour's warning of the sun's approach, Fig. 2.- Bore-tube in well, with cap having a small vent fixed upon the top. though somewhat less in Egypt. The flame of natural gas is shown rising to the left.
If in almost every case a connection, such as I have I have taken samples of the gas, and submitted it to the county indicated, between the orientation of a temple and the analyst for East Sussex (Mr. S. A. Woodhead), and he informs 1 Abstract of a paper read before the Royal Society, March 11, 1897. me, although he has not yet completed his analysis, that the
On the Orientation of certain Greek Temples, and the Dates of their Founda
tion, derived from Astronomical Considerations - being a supplement to a gas is probably derived from petroleum. The presence of paper on the same subject published in the Transactions of the Royal certain beds impregnated with petroleum underlying these i Society in 1893-by F. C. Penrose, F.R.S
sunrise effect in the sanctuary, preceded by an heliacal mate date has been arrived at). From this the sun's star, can be established, it carries an amount of prob- right ascension is computed, giving generally two values ability of the truth of the theory which it is very hard -one vernal, the other autumnal. The next search is made to gainsay.
for a suitable star. It must be remembered that in the To us the practical use of such theory is, that it gives case of a rising star the declination cannot differ much the means of determining very approximately the date from that of the sun, or else it could not be seen through of the foundation of any temple, namely the time when the same narrow opening, and to be serviceable as a the sunrise and the heliacal star were so connected. warning star, it must precede in right ascension by a
As seen from a given point at its rising or setting, the suitable interval ; if too short the star could not be seen, amplitude of a star (that is, its bearing from true east or if too long its warning would be inconveniently early. west) is subject, as time goes on, to a slow alteration Thus the data for the preliminary search are: for declinresulting from the displacement of the star, in conse- ation, that already ascertained for the sun, and for right quence of the celestial movement called the precession ascension, one hour less may be taken. of the equinoxes, and this can be calculated with great It would occupy too much space to enter into the precision so as to show the date at which it would have details of the calculation which involves the change due been visible as the forerunner of the sun from the to the movement of the star from precession ; but if the sanctuary of a temple. There is architectural evidence result shows that a conspicuous star or constellation, in Egypt that attempts had been made to retain the use either in the spring or autumn (and within the limits of of such stars, and in two ways: one by a structural possible archæology), occupied approximately the position alteration in the eastern opening, so as still to allow of required by the hypothesis, the discovery will justify its being seen ; and the other as evidenced by finding that a more exact computation. Should it, however, fail for a a temple, architecturally of later date, but of the same rising star, there still remains the search for a setting cult, had been built alongside of an older temple which star which would fulfil the proper conditions. The had lost the star which had at one time served as its search is conducted on analogous principles, but with morning clock.
difference in detail. Sir Norman Lockyer having been satisfied that the In more than fifty cases which I have tried by the four principles of temple building, as above mentioned, had lines of investigation indicated above, I have succeeded prevailed in Egypt, and being led by a cursory examina- in finding in each one solution, and one only. In two I tion of Greek examples to suspect that the same would have obtained an alternative possible star; the choice be found to prevail in that country also, invited me to between the two requiring to be settled archæologically: take up this inquiry with respect to Greek temples, which In not one case of which I had full particulars have I led to my making a preliminary communication to the failed to find an answer. Society of Antiquaries in 1891, and a more detailed An objection has been made that, as there are so many report to the Royal Society in 1893, of which an abstract stars in the heavens, some solution of the problem is appeared in NATURE, May 11, of that year. The paper inevitable, without there having originally been any itself was published in the Transactions of the Royal intentional correspondence. The answer is not difficult. Society (vol. 184, pp. 805 et 599.) to which the supple- Firstly, there are very few available stars. They must ment, already referred to, was published in vol. 190, pp. be of sufficient brightness ; a third magnitude star is 43 et 599. The first series contains inore than thirty the very minimum, and could only be resorted to (unless examples, the second nearly as many, and both collections in a close constellation like the Pleïades or Aquarius) if entirely confirm the view of the matter already made situated very much by itself, so as not to be mistaken for highly probable from Egyptian sources. Indeed the any other. They must also be near enough to the ecliptic second series, chiefly drawn from colonial Greece, is in to be seen through the narrow eastern opening. A list one respect more satisfactory than the previous one. of fourteen single stars and two star groups exhausts the
The architectural remains of the greater number of whole possible number. Moreover, they must be so placed the temples in Greece proper, comprised in the first list, in the firmament as to satisfy the condition required for do not accord with the early dates derived by calculation warning stars. Again, in the two hundred trials made for from their orientations ; and it is necessary to assume the fifty temples, as mentioned above, would there (in the that in the majority of cases a temple, of which we find case of the assumed multitude of stars) have been one the ruins, was built parallel to the lines of an earlier hundred and fifty misses to the fifty hits which were structure which had conformed to the orientation postu- wanted ; and if there had been no arrangement, and the late, and the date arrived at is that of the first foundation orientations had been fortuitous, would the most ancient on the site. Traces of such earlier foundation can, how- sites have always secured the oldest orientation dates, ever, be actually found or inferred in a sufficiently large and those of which the recent foundation is historically proportion of the whole to justify the assumption ; but in known have taken their proper rank? more than half the cases they have either disappeared or It is true that the sequence might have been acceptnot yet been found. In the colonial examples of the last able, but not so the exactness of the dates. These must series, however, quite two-thirds of the orientation dates depend upon the correctness of certain assumptions with are consistent with the architectural remains now stand. regard to the elements of the problem, especially as to ing, without need of any hypothesis respecting foundations the altitude of the star and the depression of the sun at as yet undiscovered.
the heliacal phase, if it may be so called. All the temples I have met with in Magna Grecia or From a good deal of attention which I paid to the Sicily are what may be named solar temples ; namely, visibility of stars in twilight I derived the following rules, those which admit of being lighted through an eastern from which all the calculations have been made, except door by the sun when rising in the line of the axis. in a very few cases where local circumstances required Three of them, indeed, lie on the solstitial limits ; of this some modification. The rules are made for the case I did not find any examples in Greece. The nature of of rising stars. When setting in the morning twilight the inquiry in a solar temple is of this kind, viz. : given they may be seen nearer to actual sunrise ; but it is the angle of orientation, and the apparent height of the probable that the same rule would have been applied, eastern horizon, we calculate the declination which the as the same time would have been required for warning, sun would have required to illuminate the sanctuary at whether a rising or setting star was used. It may be its rising (allowance being made for the variation of the observed that rising stars seem to have been the obliquity of the ecliptic many years ago, an allowance favourites, in proportion of about three to two. which may require a small correction when an approxi- In ordinary fair weather in Greece or in South Italy I
found that a first magnitude star can be seen agree in style with the dates assigned to them by the altitude of 3o when the sun is 10° below the true horizon. theory. Mention is made by Diodorus of the temple of A second magnitude should require an altitude of 3° 30'. Jupiter strongly confirmatory of the orientation date with the sun depressed 11°; whilst a third magnitude 430 B.C. At Segesta the date arrived at is too early by star, of the use of which there are very few examples, about 100 years to agree with the character of the archiwould require a depression of 13°. A general confirmation tecture. It may have been that the Segestans, who seem of these elements may be drawn from Biot's “Recherches always to have been a struggling community, may have sur l'Année Vague des Égyptiens," in which he derives taken a very long time to have brought their temple to from Ptolemy that in Egypt a solar depression of in the state of finish at which at last it arrived, for it appears was considered proper for the observation of heliacal never to have been quite completed. stars. This seems a very reasonable mean for the rules Selinus offers the example of one temple--a temple of solar depression applying to stars of different mag- remarkable for the archaic character both of its masonry nitudes as given above.
and its sculpture-of which the orientation date anticiFollowing these rules, I obtained orientation dates for pates the arrival of the Hellenic colony which occupied the temples I examined last year as below.
the place in 628 B.C., but in the other examples in that
Orienta tion date
A small temple near Jupiter Olympius
September 23 Spica setting
a Arietis rising
JB Lupi setting
B Geminorum setting 580 March 6
7 Pegasi rising 1 000 March 28 a Arietis rising 610 December 21 B Geminorum rising 430 November 23 B Tauri setting 690 April 1
a Arietis rising 470 March 20 Spica setting 450 430 April 14
a Arietis rising 400
September 13 Spica setting 550 April 5 a Arietis rising 795 September 30 a Arietis setting 610 : October 4 550 March 5
y Pegasi rising 815 September 20 Spica rising 610 October 3 a Arietis setting 450 September 26 Spica rising 535 March 22 Spica setting 640
November 12 Antares rising 750 June 19 B Geminorum rising
Prestum South Italy.. Pompeii
For the sake of comparing the above with dates that city the orientation dates are quite consistent both with are archäologically probable, and confining the inquiry the architecture and with Hellenic citizenship. Syracuse to the Greek colonies, we may observe :
was colonised in 734 B.C. The orientation date of the The Doric capital at Taranto is of an extremely “Duomo” temple is eighty years too early for agreement ponderous type, and may well be assigned to the seventh with that epoch. The architecture is indeed very rude, century. A Lacedemonian colony under Phalanthus is but perhaps some small variation in the elements of the reported to have taken possession of Tarentum about calculation should be made, which would bring it within 700 B.C.
the Hellenic period. The dates of the other two temples At Metapontum, at the temple near San Sansoni, at Syracuse are extremely probable. The date, 535 B.C., nothing but foundations remain ; the architectural assigned to the Temple of Neptune at Pæstum, appears character of the other is quite in accordance with the to be thoroughly suitable to its massive but advanced orientation date. The city was one of the most ancient style, and is confirmed by a passage in Herodotus, in in South Italy. One column only remains of the temple which, although he does not make any allusion to the on Cape Colonna near Cotrone, and its character is that temple, yet speaks of a Posidonian architect of great of the fifth century. In the case of this celebrated temple celebrity at that very date. The temple of Isis at Pompeji we clearly have the case of a rebuilding on the old lines. is remarkable from there being evidence of a large window
The foundations of the older temple of the Locrians having been formed in the temenos wall centrally placed near Gerace were discovered under the substructions of with regard to the eastern axis of the temple, doubtless the later temple. Its orientation date, 610, is quite con- for the admission of the rising sun and its warning star. sistent both with the early lonic architecture which was
The window had been filled up with brickwork at some found, and that of the Hellenic colonisation, 683 B.C. subsequent date. The last point touched upon in the paper That of the later temple is also in accordance with the has reference to a group of ten temples of late foundaarchitecture of the fifth century. Girgenti was occupied tion, of most of which the dates are accurately known. by a Greek colony B.C. 582, but a city with so command- At first these temples seemed to be exceptions to the rules ing a site had, no doubt, an earlier foundation ; and we which connect the orientation with heliacal stars, but by may feel confident that the temple of Juno Lacinia, allowing a few more degrees of solar depression than though the present structure is Hellenic, was founded by what is absolutely necessary for distinct vision, they are the earlier inhabitants. The remains of the other temples found to conform in all other respects. The explanation of this change seems to be that the temple service native haunts, and more especially birds on their nests ; had become more complicated, and more time was and in the truthful representations of objects of the required by the priests for their preparations. Every latter class the present volume can fear few rivals. Noadditional degree of sun depression would add about thing can be more exquisite than the illustration of a five minutes for that purpose. The maximum extra nightingale on her nest, which the publishers have perallowance in this group of temples is thirty-five minutes. mitted us to reproduce (Fig. 1); but this is only one
F. C. PENROSE. among many of the same excellence and interest, those of
the whitethroat and the chiffchaff being, if possible, even
more beautiful. The only thing we miss in illustrations NATURE AND A CAMERA.1
of this nature is colour, which would be of especial
value in photographs, like the upper one on page 253, THE HE remarkably favourable reception accorded by dealing with the protective resemblances of animals to
the public and the press to the earlier effort of the Messrs. Kearton has naturally tempted them to another supplied in the near future.
their surroundings. Possibly even this want inay be venture ; and the volume before us shows no falling off in the matter of interest and the exquisite execution of alone that calls for commendation in the work ; many of
But it is by no means the beauty of the illustrations the illustrations from its predecessor. Only too fre
the observations in the text claim recognition from all quently authors, having scored one success, are apt to
interested in the habits of British animals, while some think their hold on the public will permit of a very in
have a bearing on considerations of a higher nature. ferior second effort obtaining the same share of patronage as the first, and any odd scraps of new information they Kearton says he is puzzled by the circumstance that
For instance, in regard to protective resemblance, Mr. while young terns instinctively recognise its value, some of their parents apparently do not and others do.' This is exemplified as follows: “As a rule, Sandwich terns eggs harmonise closely with their surroundings, and even the experienced field naturalist has to exercise a great deal of care to avoid treading upon a clutch when visiting a breeding station. A friend of mine told me a sew years back that he had once visited a colony of these birds on an island where the natural breeding accommodation was so limited that many of them had conveyed patches of pebbles on to the grass, and laid their eggs thereon. We both recognised this as a wonderful instance of the knowledge of the value of protective coloration ; but I must consess that last summer at the Farne Islands my faith in the wisdom of these birds received a rude shock when I met with five or six clutches of eggs lying most conspicuously on small circular patches of broken mussel-shells, the dark blue of which contrasted violently with the golden grey of the sand." From this it would almost seem that the birds are unable to distinguish between a mussel-shell and a pebble, and that any cluster of small smooth objects looks to them equally suitable as a nesting site.
Although the greater portion of the work is devoted to birds in their haunts, the subjects treated of are diverse. To the general reader and tourist the chapters on the people and birds of St. Kilda will, perhaps, be the most interesting ; while the sportsman will find much to attract him in those on gamekeepers and duckdecoying. To the amateur photographer the volume will appeal not only as a standard of excellence at which to aim as regards his own efforts, but more especially from the account given in the final chapter of Mr. Kearton's method of photographing. From this latter it
will be apparent that the task of portraying many kinds F16. 1.- Nightingale on Nest. (From “With Nature and a Camera.") of birds-especially when they inhabit lakes or beetling
sea-cliffs--in their native haunts, is no easy one, but may possess are, with the aid of abundant "padding," rather one beset with numerous dangers to life and limb. worked up to form a volume of the required dimensions. In the preface the author deprecates the charge of The present work displays in an equally marked degree foolhardiness, and the results obtained go far to justify the freshness and brightness so conspicuous in “ British the risks necessarily incurred. Birds' Nests"; and as covering a wider area is calculated In the chapter on sea-birds and their haunts will be to attract an even larger circle of readers. One of the found some of the matter most interesting to the ornithbest tests of a work of this nature is its capability of ologist, and it is here that some of the most successful arousing the interest of young persons, and this, from of the photographs occur. As an example, we select, practical experience, we find to be the case with the partly on account of its small size, the figure of a solitary volume before us.
razorbill mounting guard over its egg reposing lower down Photography in the hands of artists of the capacity on the side of a pinnacle of rock (Fig. 2). But for beauty and perseverance of Mr. Cherry Kearton is undoubtedly of detail and execution we may refer to the gull's nest the only real method of portraying animals in their with egg and young, and the group of puffins on p. 269,
.." With Nature and a Camera, being the Adventures and Observations of and also to the nest of the black-headed gull on the a Field. Naturalist and an Animal Photographer." By R. Kearton, with following page. To obtain the photograph of gannets Photographs by C. Kearton. Svo. Pp. xvi'+ 363, illustrated. (London: Cassell and Co., Ltd., 1897.)
nesting on the Bass Rock, Mr. Cherry Kearton ran risks
which evoked the fear of even the adventurous natives was intimately connected with the onward growth and of the district. When once their haunts are gained, development of the science in many important direcgannets with young are however, according to our author, tions. His enterprise and ability were everywhere acvery easy birds to photograph, as they will permit the knowledged, and a long career of work and usefulness observer to walk among them with no more protest than seemed before him. But while he was still a an occasional peck at his legs. Much has of late years paratively young man, the state of his health prevented been written on the destruction by human agency of our him from adding to the reputation he had established, sea-birds ; and it is, therefore, of interest to note that and to-day his name is perhaps little more than a memory other causes likewise aid to no inconsiderable extent in to many, who, interested in newer problems and more the diminution of their numbers. “The mortality among sensational inquiries, may possibly undervalue the work sea-birds of all kinds," writes our author, “reckoning of an older school, which occupied itself mainly in the the loss of eggs and young ones, from purely natural astronomy of position. But wherever a just and comcauses alone, must be very great in the course of a prehensive view of astronomy as a whole is taken,
We saw a great number of young terns lying Winnecke's work will be remembered with gratitude and dead everywhere upon these islands, and Watcher admiration. Darling told us that two years ago very few Arctic or Dr. Winnecke enjoyed the advantage of adınirable com:non terns got away. He picked up several dead mathematical training under competent teachers. The
school of Bessel was then in the ascendant, and the reputations of Encke and of Argelander were at their zenith ; while in the district of Hanover, where Winnecke passed his early years, the memory of Herschel was still treasured, and helped to give direction to his astronomical tastes. He received his training in practical astronomy mainly at Bonn, under Argelander, where he became a proficient in the use of the heliometer, and with this instrument effected a complete triangulation of the stars in the Præsepe cluster, together with a thorough examination of the necessary constants of reduction. This latter part of the work he prepared himself for publication, but never printed, and it forms a painful commentary on his enseebled energies to remember that this work never saw the light till many years after, when Dr. Schur proved himself an able and sympathetic coadjutor, and arranged the numerical portion of the research for general use. In 1858, Winnecke left Bonn for Pulkova, where he still interested himself in extra-meridional work. The fine series of observations of the great comet of 1861, which he followed until May 1862, long after it had ceased to be observed in other telescopes, and on which the final orbit rests, is a proof of both his energy and his observational skill. Cometary astronomy always had for bim great attractions, and besides the periodic comet which bears his name, he found several others, receiving the prize of the Vienna Academy of Sciences for his cometary discoveries. At Pulkova, too, he took some part in the geodetic work arranged between Dr. Otto Struve, Argelander, and the late Astronomer Royal, for
determining the differences of longitude between places FIG. 2.-Razorbill and Egg. (From " With Nature and a Camera.") on the great European arc of parallel, and, in conjunc
tion with Colonel Forsch and Captain Zylinski, carried ones with sand-eels in their bills, and concluded that through that portion of the scheme which connects Haverthere was no small fry for them, and that the eels, al- ford West with Nieuport and Bonn. though the natural diet of Sandwich terns, were too
Winnecke also bestowed some attention on the problem large for the young of the smaller species to swallow."
of the sun's distance, which forty years ago was a burning Most of us suppose that the eider is pre-eminent for question. Hansen and Le Verrier were contending for the quantity of down she employs for lining her nest; the rejection of Encke's value of the parallax as the outbut in this, according to our author, she is beaten by the come of mathematical investigations based on the lunar common wild duck. Did space allow, many other ob- and planetary theories, and were supported by the result servations of equal interest might be quoted, but for of Foucault's mechanical operations arranged to deterthese we must refer the reader to the work itself, which mine the velocity of light. Winnecke was among the will form a welcome Christmas gift to' all, whether young
first to perceive the importance of obtaining evidence or old, interested in wild nature.
R. L. from independent sources, and fully appreciated the
value of utilising the observations of Mars as a new
element in the discussion. The result of his investigation DR. FRIEDRICH A. T. WINNECKE.
of the observations made at the 1862 opposition was to
assign to the Solar Parallax a value of 8":964, confirmed IT is always a painful duty to review the life work of by Stone's result of 8"932.
those who have recently passed away, to estimate After leaving Pulkova, Winnecke settled for some years the position their names will occupy in the history of a in Karlsruhe, where he was an industrious observer of science, and to survey the grounds on which their repu- comets and variable stars. On the conclusion of the tation will finally rest. But in the case of Dr. Winnecke, Franco-German war, he was invited to take charge of whose death was recorded last week, the task becomes the new observatory at Strassburg. The equipment of both painful and difficult. Thirty years ago he occupied this observatory and the details of its arrangement are a prominent position among continental astronomers, and due to his superintendence, and it certainly ranks among.